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- Ultrastructural Changes of Tumor Implants in Mice
- The purpose of this investigation was to observe the sequential ultrastructural changes in tumor implants of a well established tumor line in isologous mice.
- A Study of the Bacterial Flora of Food Utensils in Hardin College Cafeteria and Twenty-Five Eating Establishments in Wichita Falls, Texas
- The problem of this thesis consists primarily of a bacteriological survey of the eating utensils of Hardin College Cafeteria and twenty-five other eating establishments in the city of Wichita Falls, Texas. This investigation was made primarily with reference to a determination of the possible presence of typhoid and related organisms, and secondarily to an investigation of the actual presence of those bacterial organisms associated with the more common outbreaks of food poisoning.
- Solvent Effects and Bioconcentration Patterns of Antimicrobial Compounds in Wetland Plants
- This study looked at effects of organic solvents dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide and acetone at 0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1% concentration on germination and seedling development wetland plants. Even at 0.01% level, all solvents affected some aspect of seed germination or seedling growth. Acetone at 0.01% was least toxic. Root morphological characteristics were most sensitive compared to shoot morphological characteristics. This study also looked at bioconcentration patterns of antimicrobial compounds triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in wetland plants exposed to Denton Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant effluent. Bioconcentration patterns of antimicrobial compounds varied among species within groups as well as within organs of species. The highest triclocarban, triclosan and methyltriclosan concentration were in shoot of N. guadalupensis, root of N. lutea and in shoots of P. nodous respectively.
- Some Effects of X-Irradiaion on the Adrenal Response to Hypothalamic Stimulation in Rats
- Exactly where in the hypothalamus is the adrenal-pituitary response to X-irradiation "triggered" or initiated? Moreover, does ionizing radiation act directly on specific centers in the brain or does it act indirectly via the production of some humoral agents? Finally, what role does the hypothalamus play in the radiation-syndrome? The purpose of the present study was to attempt to answer these questions by determining the effects of two stressor agents, X-irradiation and electrical stimulation applied either singly or together, on the activity of the adrenal-pituitary axis. The parameters measured were changes in plasma corticosterone, in circulating eosinopihils, and in adrenal gland weight.
- Effects of X-irradiation on Ion Flux in Desheathed Toad Sciatic Nerves
- The purpose of this thesis is to determine the effects of x-irradiation on the efflux of potassium, sodium and calcium ions from stimulated and unstimulated desheathed sciatic nerves.
- Food Habits and Dietary Overlap of Four Species of Rodents from the Mesquite Plains of Texas
- The coexistence of Dipodomys ordii and Perognathus hispidus with Peromyscus maniculatus and Reithrodontomys montanus was studied in a grassland association of central Texas. The food habits of these species were compared with information from habitat vegetation analysis in an effort to determine food selectivity and the amount and importance of niche overlap and competition among these rodents.
- Pressure-Flow Relationships in the Isolated Cerebral Circulation of the Dog
- The purpose of this investigation is to determine the pressure-flow relationships in the isolated canine cerebral vascular bed. These relationships in vessels which supply an organ surrounded by bone are theoretically influenced by limiting factors which are not present in those vessels surrounded by soft tissue. An evaluation of the extent of these limitations is essential to thorough understanding of the dynamics of the cerebral vascular bed.
- Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Aldolase from Human Heart
- Aldolase from human heart has been purified 128-fold to a final specific activity of 11.52 units per mg. The purification procedure employed column chromatography on phosphocellulose.
- Microbiotic Cycles in Lake Hefner
- The purposes of this paper are 1) to determine the microbiotic cycles which occur in Lake Hefner in order to form a basis for ascertaining the effects of future additions of evaporation control chemicals on the biological life of this reservoir, and 2) to make a generalization as to the microbiotic cycles which might occur in Southwestern reservoirs.
- Retinoic acid Treatment Affects Kidney Development and Osmoregulatory System in the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus)
- Development is a dynamic process characterized by critical periods in which organ systems are sensitive to changes in the surrounding environment. In the current study, critical windows of embryonic growth and kidney development were assessed in the embryonic chicken. All‐trans retinoic acid (tRA) influences not only organogenesis and cell proliferation, but also targets metanephric kidney nephrogenesis. Embryonic chickens were given a single injection of tRA on embryonic day 8. tRA decreased embryo, kidney, and heart mass from day 16 to day 18. However, mass specific kidney and heart masses showed no differences. Whole blood, plasma, and allantoic fluid osmolality were altered in tRA treated embryos from day 16 to day 18. In addition, hematocrit, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were altered in tRA treated embryos. The results suggest that although nephrogenesis was not affected by tRA, the developing osmoregulatory system was altered in tRA treated embryos.
- A Comparative Study of Four Genealogies to Determine Predisposition to Cancer
- This study was made in an effort first, to determine the mode of transmission of the inheritance of a predisposition to cancer as revealed through the analyses of four separate human genealogies, and second, to make a comparative study of the genealogies to determine whether the mode of transmission is the same.
- Evaluation of virulence in wild type and pyrimidine auxotrophs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the eukaryotic model system Caenorhabditis elegans.
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The human opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, has been shown to kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans has been a valuable model for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, and has reinforced the notion that common virulence and host defense mechanisms exist. Recently, the pyrimidine pathway was shown to regulate virulence levels. Therefore, mutations in the pyrimidine pathway of PAO1 showed decrease virulence in the nematode. When starving the nematode, bacterial resistance was also shown to increase. It was hypothesized that starvation induced the DAF pathway, which regulates the transcription of genes involved with the antibacterial defense mechanism. Further research will be conducted to test this theory by performing RNAi experiments for the genes functioning in the antibacterial defense mechanism.
- Inquiry-based science for high school students: a forensic unit
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This project constitutes an instructional unit for honors biology that involves the use of science in the field of criminal investigation and forensics. Before beginning the unit, the learners should have mastered basic laboratory skills, including use of the microscope. They should also have an understanding of the basic structure and function of DNA and its role in heredity and protein synthesis. The standard time frame is 24 days with 70-minute periods, but can be easily adjusted to meet classroom needs. Several instructional strategies enhance student learning and make science fun. The unit is inquiry-driven and activity-based. Students are surprised by the crime, gather and analyze evidence, and work towards proposing an explanation. This real world problem involves the use of cooperative learning and a variety of assessment techniques.
- Effector response of the aspartate transcarbamoylase from wild type Pseudomonas putida and a mutant with 11 amino acids deleted at the N-terminus of PyrB.
- Like its enteric counterpart, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Pseudomonas putida is a dodecamer of two different polypeptides. Unlike the enterics, the Pseudomonas ATCase lacks regulatory polypeptides but employs instead inactive dihydroorotases for an active dodecamer. Previous work showed that PyrB contains not only the active site but also the effector binding sites for ATP, UTP and CTP at its N-terminus. In this work, 11 amino acids were deleted from the N-terminus of PyrB and the ATCase with the truncated protein was expressed in E. coli pyrB- and purified. The wild type enzyme was similarly treated. Velocity-substrate plots without effectors gave Michaelis-Menten kinetics in all cases. Deleting 11 amino acids did not affect dodecameric assembly but altered effector responses. When carbamoylphosphate was varied, the mutant enzyme was inhibited by UTP while the wild type enzyme was activated 2-fold. When the aspartate was varied, CTP had no effect on the mutant enzyme but strongly inhibited the wild type enzyme.
- Pyrimidine Enzyme Specific Activity at Four Different Phases of Growth in Minimal and Rich Media, and Concomitant Virulence Factors Evaluation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative rod, aerobic, non-fermenting, oxidase positive, pigment producing, and nutritionally versatile bacterium. Infections by P. aeruginosa are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, given virulence factor production that suppresses antibiotic therapy and promotes persistent infection. This research is the first comprehensive report of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway for all phases of growth in minimal and rich media coupled with the evaluation of virulence factor production of P. aeruginosa in comparison to four other bacterial species (Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Burkholderia cepacia, and Escherichia coli wild-type strains). Cellular growth and passing genetic information to the next generation depend on the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, the precursors of DNA and RNA. The pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway is essential and found in most organisms, with the exception of a few parasites that depend upon the pyrimidine salvage pathway for growth. Both the pyrimidine biosynthetic and salvage enzymes are targets for chemotherapeutic agents. In our laboratory, research on pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants showed the role of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and its intermediates on P. aeruginosa metabolism and impaired virulence factors production. The present research shows that pyrimidine enzymes are active in all phases of growth, including the production of two forms of ATCase in the late log phase in P. aeruginosa. This finding may be explained by the displacement of the inactive PyrC' by the active PyrC or PyrC2 to form a new and larger pyrBC encoded ATCase. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild-type appears to produce by far the most virulence factors, haemolysin, iron chelation, rhamnolipid, adherence, and three types of motility (swimming, swarming, and twitching) investigated in this study, when compared to the other four wild-type strains. Growth analysis was carried out as typically done in minimal medium but also in rich medium to simulate conditions in the blood and lung tissues of humans as P. aeruginosa infections develop.
- The developmental physiology of the zebrafish: Influence of environment and cardiovascular attributes
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Temperature effects on the development of the zebrafish embryos and larvae and adults were examined. It was found that the earlier in development a temperature change was performed on an embryo, the more significant the change in survival and/or subsequent development. Thus, viable temperature ranges for zebrafish widened significantly as development proceeded. Adults reared and bred at 25oC produced embryos that were significantly more successful at the lower range of rearing temperatures compared to embryos produced from adults reared at 28oC. The majority of this study focused on the physiological effects of swim training during development in the zebrafish. The earlier in development the zebrafish larvae were trained, the greater the mortality. Trained free swimming larvae had a significantly higher routine oxygen consumption after 11 days of training, and a higher mass specific routine metabolic rate after 8 and 11 days of training. Trained free swimming larvae consumed significantly less oxygen during swimming and were more efficient at locomotion, compared to control larvae. Training enhanced survival during exposure to extreme hypoxia in all age groups. Performance aspects of training were investigated in attempt to quantify training effects and in most cases, trained fish performed significantly better than controls. As blood vessels formed during development, they decreased in cross sectional area from days two to six. It was also shown that the variability in visual stroke volume measurements could be reduced significantly by using a third dimension in the analysis with a more accurate volume equation. Finally, the ontogeny of cardiac control was evaluated. The adrenergic receptors were the first to respond to pharmacological stimulation but were closely followed by cholinergic pharmacological stimulation a few days later. There was a significant cholinergic tone present in day 15 zebrafish larvae which persisted. Although an adrenergic tone was not documented in this study, this does not prove its lack of existence.
- In vitro Cultures of Morus alba for Enhancing Production of Phytoestrogens
- Plant estrogens have long been associated with health benefits. The potential of tissue culture techniques for the production of several secondary metabolites has been known for many years. Tissue cultures stimulate the production or induce the biosynthesis of novel compounds not found in the mature plant. Tissue culture of Morus alba, family Moraceae, is known to contain phytoestrogens, was established on plant-hormone supplemented Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Petiole and the stem tissue from mature trees were the best explants for initiation and proliferation of calli. The best callus proliferation was obtained on MS medium containing 1-napthalene acetic acid (1mg/ml) and benzylaminopurine (0.5mg/ml) for M. alba. Comparison of phytoestrogens of Moraceae species from in vivo and in vitro tissue isolation were carried out. The estrogenic activities of callus extracts were assayed in an estrogen-responsive yeast system expressing the human estrogen receptor alpha. Male callus extracts had higher estrogenic activity than male and female extracts from in vivo and in vitro tissues. Isolation and characterization of phytoestrogens from above tissues were carried out using solid phase extraction, high perfomance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. Biochanin A, an isoflavonoid, was isolated as one of the compounds in male callus extracts. Biochanin A has been known to have an antiestrogenic acitivity in mammals. Isoflavonoid compounds have been characterized as strong protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors in variety of animal cells. Isoflavones are structurally similar to estradiol, and display agonistic and antagonistic interactions with the estrogen receptor. Isoflavones possess therapeutic and preventive properties such as being used for postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, and inhibition of tumors.
- The Isolation, Cultivation and Testing of Organisms Anatagonistic to a Streptomycin Resistant Strain of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
- The problem of finding an efficient antibiotic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa which can be used in the clinical treatment of genito-urinary tract infections resistant to treatment by streptomycin has not yet been solved. Therefore, this problem has consisted of first, the acquisition of possible inhibitors of the streptomycin resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; second, the selection and identification of those which show a marked antagonism toward this organism; third, the determination of the antibiotic spectra of the inhibitors; fourth, the determination of whether the streptomycin resistant strain could also acquire a resistance to the antibiotic produced by its inhibitors; and last, an attempt to evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of the antibiotics demonstrated.
- A Comparative Study of Egg Media in the Primary Isolation of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
- The primary purpose of this investigation is not only to improve the present technique of culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but also to make a comparative study of the media use, namely, Veterans Administration modification of Trudeau's medium, Lowenstein's egg medium, and that developed by the author, in order to find which, if any, of these will most easily and effectively meet the needs of the hospital laboratory.
- Bacterial Survey of Representative Wells of Canyon, Texas, with Special Emphasis on Sanitation
- The problem of this thesis consists of a bacterial analysis of twenty-five representative wells within a radius of thirty miles of Canyon, Texas. An attempt has been made to determine the possible presence of the typhoid organism in these wells.
- Degradation of Homologous Polymerized Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Azotobacter Vinelandii ATCC 12837
- The purpose of this study was twofold. The first was to isolate, purify, and characterize the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Azotobacter vinelandii ATCO 12837. The second was to determine if there was irreversible binding of homologous 32P labeled DNA to recipient A. vinelandii cells.
- Some Physiological Effects of Chlorine upon Two Chlorine Resistant Algae
- This research is concerned specifically with the growth of two selected algae found surviving in chlorinated water in outdoor swimming pools. Unialgal cultures were used to determine the free chlorine residuals that these algae were able to tolerate.
- A morphological study of the avian (Gallus domesticus) ductus arteriosi during hatching.
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The ductus arteriosi (DA) are two blood vessels connecting the pulmonary arteries to the descending aorta in the avian embryo. Following hatching, the DA closes, separation of the systemic and pulmonary circulation. I present the morphological changes that occur in the chicken DA during prepipping, internal pipping, external pipping, and hatching. The avian DA consists of two distinct tissue types, a proximal and a distal portion. Histological examination shows developmental differences between the proximal and distal portions of the DA with regard to lumen occlusion, endothelial cells, smooth muscle and elastin. Endothelial cell proliferation begins to occur as early as external pipping, with the lumen almost completely occluded by the 3rd day of post-hatching life. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases in avian endothelial cells during hatching. I provide a morphological timeline of changes in the DA as the chicken develops from embryo to hatchling.
- Evidentiary Value of Condoms: Comparison of Durable Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Condoms
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Condom trace evidence must not be overlooked in sexual assault cases; understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of condoms is imperative if condoms are to be useful evidence. Previous research shows that condom identification is possible, but it is equally important to evaluate durability of condom residues versus time. Using FT-IR, this study examined vaginal swabs from subjects who self-sampled at intervals for up to 72 hours after having intercourse with a condom. This study investigated whether age and the stage of the menstrual cycle affected the durability of residues in the vagina over time. This study revealed that condoms containing nonoxynol-9, silicone-based lubricants, and particulates provide valuable information for identification, and that nonoxynol-9 specifically withstands the vaginal environment for up to 72 hours. Additionally, age and menstrual cycle both appeared to have an effect on the durability of residues although larger sample size is desirable.
- The Adaptability and Present Status of Andropogon Ischaemum L. in Denton County, Texas
- This investigation has been made with reference to the adaptability of Andropogon ischaemum, King Ranch bluestem, to various soils, various slopes, and various erosion conditions in Denton County.
- A Preliminary Report on the Effect of Roentgen Rays on the Formed Elements of Avian Blood
- This problem consists primarily in determining the numerical value of the leukocytes after different amounts of roentgen rays had been applied to the subjects. The Atomic Energy Commission set up a problem concerning the effects of roentgen rays on the fertility in chickens, and grants were given to two institutions to study this. The blood work in this paper was an off-shoot from one of these five fertility grants.
- Establishing genetic and physiological baselines for the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).
- The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) has experienced dramatic declines over much of its historical range due to habitat loss, plague, poisonings, and shootings. Many populations now occur as isolated genetic relicts. A multiple locus genetic profile was obtained using microsatellite analyses of six polymorphic nucleotide repeats from 319 black-tailed prairie dogs collected from 16 colonies throughout the state of Texas. This assessment revealed that existing populations have sufficient variation at all six loci to verify the usefulness of this approach as a primary genetic tool in conservation and preservation. The data reveals regional-dependent frequency patterns as well as support for founder/bottleneck effects for several of the 16 sites. Although the prairie dog population in Texas as a whole may appear genetically diverse, considerable genetic divergence has already occurred among the subpopulations (FST = 0.164). Isolation by distance is supported by genic differentiation analysis (P < 0.001) and pairwise correlation analysis between genetic distance and geographic distance (P < 0.001). Prairie dogs from six (COC, LUBA, LUBC, LUBD, LUBE, and TAR) of the original 16 sites have been relocated or exterminated, or were in the process of being relocated. Results indicated the following colonies (COT, DAL, HOW, and HUD) are of sufficient size and possess ample genetic diversity to be characterized as candidate foundation populations for future preservation efforts. The proximity of small colonies (< 20 hectares) such as HEMB, LUBB, and PEC, to other colonies should be examined to determine if they are isolated or part of a metapopulation. Colonies (HAR, HEMA, and SCH) with low genetic diversity would be ideal candidates for supplementation. Alternatively, these colonies could be relocated or blended with other similar but genetically distinct colonies. Baselines for healthy, pet prairie dog hematology and blood chemistries were also established. Results signify that data gathered from pet prairie dog blood analyses should be referenced against hematology and blood chemistry baselines established using pet prairie dog subjects.
- The Response of Amphibia and Rodents to Fish Gonadotropins
- The purpose of this research is, first, to determine by laboratory methods, that species specificity does not exist in closely allied taxonomic animals; second, to determine a unit of activity for the gonadotropic hormone. For this purpose a quantitative method for determining potency is necessary to ascertain the seasonal production of the gonadotropic factor in fish. A further aim in this investigation is to demonstrate that the diversity of the gonadotropic factor, in relation to phylogenetic variations, is not as ineffectual as previously reported.
- Developmental patterns of metabolism and hematology in the late stage chicken embryo (Gallus domesticus) at two incubation temperatures.
- How temperature affects physiological development in the chicken embryo is unknown. Embryos incubated at 38°C or 35°C showed no difference in growth or survival. The time to hatching was longer in 35°C than 38°C embryos (23.7 vs. 20.6 days), but unaffected was the relative timing of appearance of developmental landmarks (internal, external pipping). At stage 43-44, 38°C embryos maintained oxygen consumption around 1 mL/g/h despite acute temperature reduction (suggesting thermoregulatory maturation), unlike 35°C embryos. In 35°C embryos the lower oxygen-carrying capacity and temperature insensitive blood O2 affinity (P50 about 30 mmHg) may restrict O2 delivery to tissues, limiting metabolism during decreased ambient temperature. Reduced incubation temperature retards normal hematological and thermoregulatory development.
- Cardio-respiratory ontogeny and the transition to bimodal respiration in an air breathing fish, the blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus): Morphological and physiological development in normoxia and hypoxia.
- As selection pressures exist for not only adults, but for every life history stage, it is important to understand how environmental factors shape developing animals. Despite the significance placed on aquatic hypoxia as a driving force in the evolution of air breathing, this is the first known study to examine the effects of hypoxia on cardio-respiratory ontogeny of an air breathing fish. Blue gouramis are obligatory air breathing fish that possess a labyrinth-like structure that serves as the air breathing organ. Gouramis were reared for up to 90 d in normoxia or hypoxia, and morphological and physiological development was observed. Hypoxic larvae had increased lamellar and labyrinth organ surface areas. Bradycardia and increased gill ventilation rates were observed when larvae from either rearing group were briefly exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxic larvae also showed a reduced heart rate and gill ventilation rate in the absence of a hypoxic stimulus, possibly indicative of a more comprehensive, long-term respiratory plasticity. The similarity of routine oxygen consumption between rearing groups suggests that metabolic demand did not change for hypoxic larvae, but that they were more efficient at oxygen acquisition. This is further supported by increased resistance time of hypoxic gouramis to extreme hypoxia. The onset of air breathing was between 20 and 25 d post-fertilization, and was not affected by either rearing or exposure environment. It may be that this behavior is associated with the inability of smaller larvae to successfully overcome water surface tension, rather than with the necessity of aerial respiration at this stage. Hypoxia is commonly experienced by most air breathing fishes, and studies of hypoxia-induced developmental effects may provide critical insights into the evolution of air breathing. The studies presented here provide novel data on the plasticity of cardio-respiratory development of an air breathing fish reared in hypoxia, and can serve as a solid foundation for future studies.
- The Effects of Heparin on the Development of Resistance to Antibiotics by Staphylococcus Aureus
- Since heparin combines with some antibiotics to decrease the toxicity of the antibiotic to the patien, the purpose of this investigation is to determine whether it has any effect upon the development of resistance to antibiotics by Staphylococcus aureus.
- College Freshman Biology Two Semester Course: Integrating Deep Processing Teaching Techniques
- Development of a college level freshman biology course was undertaken in response to government reports that American students have fallen behind students of other countries in the area of the sciences. Teaching strategies were investigated to accomplish two objectives, to define essential academic material to include in the course and to investigate teaching techniques that would increase deep processing of the information. An active process that consisted of applying the cognitive information to solving problems or developing answers to questions was defined as critical thinking. Critical thinking was incorporated into the course by the use of case studies.
- Parasites of the Cricket Frog, Acris Crepitans, of Denton County, Texas
- The purpose of this study was threefold. The literature concerning parasites of A. crepitans was to be brought up to date. Contributions to the general body of knowledge pertaining to the parasitic fauna of host specimens of A. crepitans and specifically those found in Denton County, Texas, were to be made. Finally, specimens found parasitizing host specimens of A. crepitans were to be preserved and classified.
- A contravention of established principles of interspecific allometric metabolic scaling in developing silkworms, Bombyx mori.
- Established interspecific metabolic allometric relationships do not adequately describe the complexity and variable physiological states of developing animals. Consequently, intraspecific allometric relationships of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production as a function of body mass; the respiratory quotient; the function of the silk cocoon; and body composition were investigated for each distinct developmental stage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Whole animal O2 consumption in Bombyx ranged from 0.00064 + 0.000047 ml O2 .hr-1 at larval instar I to 0.77 + 0.06 ml O2 .hr-1 in pre-pupal, falling to 0.21+ 0.01 ml O2 .hr-1 in the pupae. Those instars having a significant relationship between O2 consumption as a function of body mass, the slope of the line relating O2 consumption to body mass varied between 0.99 and 1.02, while across all instars the slope was 0.82. Developmental allometry should be presented for individual developmental stages because the individual allometric exponents of the stages can be significantly different from the overall allometric exponent throughout development and in some cases, the overall allometric exponent can be a statistical artifact. The first larval instar of Bombyx mori has the lowest cross sectional area of high metabolic tissue of the midgut (27%) and had one of the highest percentages of some metabolically inert tissues (i.e. lipid, 7.5%). Body composition of the first instar does not support the idea that smaller mass animals having the highest O2 consumption are composed of a greater percentage of metabolically active organs when compared to larger animals. However, this developmental stage has the highest percentage of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase, which correlates well with the high O2 consumption rate of the smaller mass. Therefore, established interspecific principles should not be assumed to function as valid models for intraspecific developmental relationships of metabolism as a function of body mass. Developmental allometry should include an analysis of individual stages of development as well as an analysis of development as a whole to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of allometry of the developing animal such as the silkworm.
- Molecular systematics of Baird's pocket gopher (Geomys breviceps)
- Baird's pocket gopher (Geomys breviceps) is found in eastern Texas, eastern Oklahoma, central and western Arkansas, and western Louisiana. The cytochrome-b gene was sequenced and analyzed for 16 pocket gophers from throughout the range of the species. Similar phylogenetic trees were obtained using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and Bayesian analyses. Two major clades were formed with northern individuals belonging to clade I and southern individuals belonging to clade II. G. b. sagittalis was paraphyletic in relation to G. b. breviceps in all analyses. Based on inconsistencies between the taxonomic classification and systematic relationships within Baird's pocket gopher, a taxonomic restructuring appears warranted.
- Incubation humidity as an environmental stressor on the osmoregulatory developmental program of the chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus.
- Fetal programming results from stressors during fetal development and may influence the occurrence of disease later in life. Maternal nutritional status and/or environment can affect renal development by inducing limited nephron endowment at birth, which results in diseases such as hypertension and coronary heart disease in mammals. Birds are likely to be effective models for this process because, like mammals, they have high pressure cardiovascular systems, mammalian-type nephrons and are homeothermic. This project uses the chicken embryo to explore physiological responses of disrupted hydration state thereby providing insights into renal fetal programming. Under normal conditions the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and developing avian kidney work in unison to ensure a proper balance of ions and water within the egg. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at 37.5oC±0.5oC and either <35%, 55-60% (normal) or >85% relative humidity. Amniotic fluid serves as the drinking source for the embryo late in development; its composition is important to salt and water homeostasis. High amniotic fluid osmolality increased the blood osmolality for embryos exposed to low humidity incubation thereby indirectly influencing the renal developmental program of the embryos from this group. Indeed estimated filtering capacity was doubled in the low humidity group (6.77 ± 0.43 mm3) compared to normal (4.80 ± 0.33 mm3) and high (3.97 ± 0.30 mm3) humidity groups. The increased filtering capacity seen for those embryos from low humidity may indicate the ability for more efficient recovery of water if similarly stressed as an adult bird. All embryo populations maintained similar oxygen consumption (0.075 ml/min - 0.37 ml/min), hematocrit (15 % - 32 %) and hemoglobin values (4 g/dl - 9 g/dl), thus displaying control over these aspects of the internal environment despite the obvious environmental insult of extreme incubation humidity. These results signify the embryo's immature kidney, along with lower gastrointestinal tract, functions much like the adult form maintaining homeostasis, although the mechanisms may differ. The overall benefits of this research included better understanding of the role the kidney during embryonic development and determining whether environmental factors, such as humidity, leave an imprint on morphological and physiological aspects of the urinary system of the embryo and water compartments of the egg.
- Leaf elemental analysis and growth characteristics of mycorrhizal treated post oak seedlings via particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy.
- Growth and element assimilation was investigated in post oak seedlings exposed to four different treatment combinations of fertilization and ectomycorrhizal inoculation. Element concentration in excised leaves was analyzed via particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry with a 1.8 MeV proton macrobeam. Mean growth was significantly different across the treatment groups as well as mean concentration of Mg, Al, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn. The data suggest that fertilization rather than mycorrhizal inoculation had a stronger influence on plant growth and nutrient uptake. A follow up study was conducted with a 3 MeV microbeam. A 850 μm2 scanned area of a post oak leaf produced topographical maps of 11 elements.
- Use of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Technologies to Describe Mosquito Population Dynamics in the Ray Roberts Greenbelt, Denton County, Texas
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A population survey was conducted from April through September 2002 on mosquito species occurring on the Ray Roberts Greenbelt, a riparian corridor used for public recreation on the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, in Denton County, Texas. ArcGIS software was used to set up a stratified random sampling design based on habitat parameters. Multivariate analyses of sampling data and climatic variables were used to describe spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito species. A total of 33 species were collected during this study belonging to the following genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Psorophora, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia. Seasonal distributions of the dominant species revealed population fluctuations. Aedes vexans was the primary species collected in April and May, occurring in low numbers throughout the rest of the sampling period. Psorophora columbiae reached its highest population density in June, with a smaller peak occurring in late July. Present from May through the end of September, Culex erraticus was the most abundant species collected with major peaks in mid-June and the end of July. Abundance of Culex salinarius followed the same general trend as that for Cx. erraticus, but with smaller numbers. The specimens were tested for a variety of arboviruses by the Texas Department of Health. One pool of Cx. erraticus and Cx. salinarius, collected in August 2002, tested positive for West Nile virus. Variables that were important factors for determining dominant species abundance were temperature, wind speed, rain accumulation occurring one-week and two-weeks prior to sampling, number of day since last rain event, dew point, and average canopy coverage.
- Enallagma civile (Odonata: Coengrionidae) life history and production in a west Texas playa
- A life history and productivity study of Enallagma civile was conducted in a playa that was located in the southern High Plains of Texas. Other odonates were also studies to identify their contributions to the habitat.
- A Bio-Chemical Comparative Study of the Plankton in Lake Dallas and Pecan Creek
- The purpose of this investigation is to compare the dissolved and suspended organic material in Lake Dallas to that coming into the lake through Pecan Creek.
- Coelomic fluid protein profile in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) following bacterial challenge.
- Proteomic techniques were used to evaluate the protein profile of the earthworm, (Lumbricus terrestris), following a bacterial challenge. One control group received no injection; a second control group received injections of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The experimental group received injections of PBS containing (Aeromonas hydrophila). After incubation for 12 hours at 20°C, coelomic fluid was collected from each group for analysis by 2-D electrophoresis. There were significant differences in spot appearance and density between control and experimental groups. Sixteen spots showed a two-fold increase in density and 63 showed at least a two-fold decrease in density between samples from control and bacteria-challenged earthworms, respectively, suggesting up- and down-modulation of proteins potentially involved in the earthworm's response to bacterial challenge.
- An Investigation of Methods for the Concentration of Chemical Compounds Produced by Actinomycetes and Their Relation to Tastes and Odors in Municipal Water Supplies
- It is the purpose of this investigation to improve upon techniques to enhance the taste of municipal water and attempt to devise one that could desorb the compounds from carbon in an unaltered state. It was decided that the odor character would be the criterion used to decide if the eluted compounds were the same as those in the raw water.
- Heart rate and oxygen consumption during the critical prenatal period in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus): Influence of light cues and the onset of pulmonary ventilation.
- To examine if a rhythm can be entrained in either heart rate or oxygen consumption in late stage embryos (days 17-19.5) with light as a zeitgeber, chicken embryos were incubated in complete darkness (D:D) and 12:12 light:dark cycle (L:D). Light had no impact on oxygen consumption (390 µL O2∙min-1∙egg-1) but increased heart rate for non-internally pipped embryos (260 to 270 beats∙min-1 during light cycle). Oxygen consumption increased independent of pipping while heart rate increased (255 to 265 beats∙min-1) in D:D embryos due to pipping. A light-induced rhythm or effect occurred in heart rate but not oxygen consumption, suggesting heart rate and oxygen consumption may be uncoupled.
- Utilization of Corridor Habitat by White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Denton County, Texas
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White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (N=15) movements were determined with use of radio telemetry techniques to determine the utilization of corridor habitat on the Lake Ray Roberts Greenbelt Corridor (RRGC) in north central Texas. Home ranges were calculated using three estimation types. Male white-tailed deer tend to have home ranges twice that of female home ranges. Seasonal home ranges were largest during spring (Feb. - April) and fall (Aug. - Oct.) seasons. Males had greater seasonal variation in utilization than females. No statistically significant difference (p=0.24) between white-tailed deer locations when the RRGC experiences heavy human traffic compared to days when there is light human traffic. Linearity indices indicated home ranges less linear than expected (LI = 3.02). The RRGC should be maintained at its current status to provide a variety of vegetational types and protective cover for white-tailed deer and other wildlife of Denton County.
- Cytoplasmic Antigen Relationships among Streptomyces Species
- The present study was concerned with the testing of antigenic material derived from a number of streptomycetes in an effort to establish an auxiliary taxonomic scheme based upon cytoplasmic antigen relationships among these organisms.
- Pleomorphism in Selected Genera of Algae
- It is the purpose of this study to ascertain what environmental factors might cause morphological changes exhibited by certain algae, also to determine if this variation in morphology is vegetative, reproductive, or artifactual in nature, and to show what effects these changes in morpohology might have on classification of the organisms in question.
- Sanitary Aspects of Milk and Dairy Products Dispensed in Sherman, Texas
- The aim of this investigation is to determine whether there is a correlation between the sanitary condition of milk and dairy products dispensed in Sherman, Texas, and the plate counts, the morphology, and the Gram stain reaction of the organisms in predominant colonies from these.
- Ecology and Recolonization of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in a Groundwater-dependent Stream in North Central Texas During a Supra-seasonal Drought
- Extreme climatic events such as droughts are known to eliminate aquatic biota and alter community structure and function. Perennial headwater springs provide important drought refugia to benthic macroinvertebrates and an important source of colonists via drift or aerial adults to intermittent streams post-drought. During a supra-seasonal drought in North-central Texas summer and fall 2006, benthic macroinvertebrates from persistent groundwater-dependent macrohabitats of varying hydrological connectivity and riparian shading were studied: perennial riffles, connected pools, shaded disconnected pools, and full sun disconnected pools. Riffles were a distinct habitat with significantly higher taxa richness, proportion of lotic taxa, diversity and evenness than other macrohabitats. Macrohabitats were found to be important refugia for 106 benthic macroinvertebrates and 4 microcrustacean taxa. Throughout the extreme drought, perennially flowing habitats were refugia to 19 taxa (17.9% total taxa) not collected in disconnected pools. Shaded disconnected pools contained lotic taxa not previously known to be able to complete their lifecycles in lentic habitats, emphasizing the importance of groundwater effluent and shading. With the resumption of flow at a downstream intermittent site of Ash Creek in mid-October 2006, an annual recolonization study was conducted comparing the perennial headwaters’ benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness, densities and community ecology with the downstream intermittent site. The headwaters supported higher mean taxa richness than the intermittent site over the duration of the study (ANOVA P < 0.001). However, the unexpected result of overall decreasing taxa richness at the perennial headwater site from August 2006 to April 2008 appears to reflect lag effects of the supra-seasonal drought combined with effects of multiple spates of 2007, which are factors confounding the point of recovery for taxa richness. Recovery of taxa richness at the intermittent site took 9 months compared to 1 to 2 months reported in other arid and semi-arid streams in the United States recovering from seasonal drying and floods. Sustainable use of groundwater resources and conservation of riparian corridors is vital to protecting groundwater-dependent ecosystems that play a vital role in maintaining regional biodiversity by serving as biotic refugia during catastrophic disturbance.
- Lactate Dehydrogenase of Hymenolepis Diminuta: Isolation and Characterization
- Lactate dehydrogenase was isolated in pure form from crude extract of the cestode Hymenoleois diminuta by heat treatment and column chromatography. The purified enzyme has a specific activity of 106 units per mg protein. The molecular weight of the purified protein was 75,000 as determined by Sephadex gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation. An equilibrium ultracentrifugation study suggests a subunit molecular weight of 39,000. From these data, a dimer form of the native enzyme is proposed.
- The Production of Fragile Cysts by an Aberrant Strain of Azotobacter Chroococcum Isolated from Soil
- The purpose of this study is to determine if a strain of Azotobacter chroococcum isolated from the soil in northern Louisiana produces cysts which are as resistant to deleterious agents as those produced by previously reported strains os Azotobacter.