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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Chemistry
 Degree Level: Doctoral
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Computational Studies of C–h/c–c Manipulation Utilizing Transition Metal Complexes

Computational Studies of C–h/c–c Manipulation Utilizing Transition Metal Complexes

Date: May 2015
Creator: Pardue, Daniel B.
Description: Density Functional Theory (DFT) is an effective tool for studying diverse metal systems. Presented herein are studies of a variety of metal systems, which can be applied to accomplish transformations that are currently difficult/impossible to achieve. The specific topics studied utilizing DFT include: 1) C–H bond activation via an Earth-abundant transition metal complex, 2) C–H bond deprotonation via an alkali metal superbase, 3) and amination/aziridination reactions utilizing a CuI reagent. Using DFT, the transformation to methanol (CH3OH) from methane (CH4) was examined. The transition metal systems studied for this transformation included a model FeII complex. This first-row transition metal is an economical, Earth-abundant metal. The ligand set for this transformation includes a carbonyl ligand in one set of complexes as well as a phosphite ligand in another. The 3d Fe metal shows the ability to convert alkyls/aryls to their oxidized counterpart in an energetically favorable manner. Also, “superbasic” alkali metal amides were investigated to perform C—H bond cleavage. Toluene was the substrate of interest with Cs chosen to be the metal of interest because of the highly electropositive nature of this alkali metal. These highly electrophilic Cs metal systems allow for very favorable C—H bond scission with a toluene substrate. ...
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Reduction Pathways in Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium Dicarbonyl Dibromide Deriviatives and Indenyl Rhenium Tricarbonyl: Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Anionic Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium Complexes. Ring Attack vs. Metal-Halogen Exchange

Reduction Pathways in Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium Dicarbonyl Dibromide Deriviatives and Indenyl Rhenium Tricarbonyl: Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Anionic Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium Complexes. Ring Attack vs. Metal-Halogen Exchange

Date: December 1989
Creator: Lee, Sang Woo, 1952-
Description: The reactions of diagonal and lateral Cp'Re(CO)2Br2 (where Cp' = n5-C5H5, n5-C5Me5) and (n5-CgH7)Re(CO)3 with reducing agents have been examined. Hydride reduction at -78 °C is observed to occur at the Cp ring in both CpRe(CO)2Br2 isomers, affording a thermally unstable [(n4 -C5Hg)Re(CO)2Br2]- complex. The product of hydride ring attack has been characterized by low-temperature IR and 1H NMR measurements in addition to 13C NOE and heteronuclear 2D NMR measurements. Reaction of lateral CpRe(CO)2Br2 with either MeLi or PhLi affords both Cp-ring attack and metalhalogen exchange, [CpRe(CO)2Br]- (1) while t-BuLi reacts exclusively via metal-halogen exchange. diag-CpRe(CO)2Br2 reacts with the above lithium reagents to yield the same metal-halogen exchange anion. Analogous reactions using diag- and lat-Cp*Re(CO)2Br2 (where Cp* = n5-CgMe5) afford only the corresponding rhenium metal-halogen exchange anion, [Cp*Re(CO)2Br] (2). The molecular structures of 1-[Li/15-Crown-5] and 2-PPP were established by X-ray crystallography. 1-[Li/15-Crown-5] crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21 with a = 10.860(4) A, b = 13.116(5) A, c = 7.417(3) A, B = 105.26(3)0, V = 1018.7(3) A3 , and Z = 2. 2-PPP crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 20.646(5) A, b = 17.690(5) A, c = 17.553(3) A, and z = 8. Solution ...
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Thermal and Flash Photolysis Studies of Ligand-Exchange Reactions of Substituted Metal Carbonyl Complexes of Cr and Mo

Thermal and Flash Photolysis Studies of Ligand-Exchange Reactions of Substituted Metal Carbonyl Complexes of Cr and Mo

Date: May 1989
Creator: Awad, Hani H. (Hani Hanna)
Description: Thermal and flash photolysis studies of ligand-substitution reactions of cis-(pip)(L)M(CO)_4 by L' (pip = piperidine; L, L' = CO, phosphines, phosphites; M = Cr, Mo) implicate square-pyramidal [(L)M(CO)_4], in which L occupies a coordination site in the equatorial plane, as the reactive species. In chlorobenzene (= CB) solvent, the predominant species formed after flash photolysis and a steady-state intermediate for the thermal reaction is cis—[(CB)(L)M(CO)_4], for which rates of CB-dissociation increase with increasing steric demands of coordinated L. Rates of CB-dissociation from trans-[(CB)(L)M(CO)_4] intermediates, formed after photolysis but not thermally, exhibit no observable dependence on the steric properties of the coordinated L.
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Kinetics Studies of Substituted Tungsten Carbonyl Complexes

Kinetics Studies of Substituted Tungsten Carbonyl Complexes

Date: August 1989
Creator: Wang, I-Hsiung, 1950-
Description: Thermal reactions and flash photolysis are used to study the olefin bond-migration promoted by tungsten carbonyls. Substitution of piperidine (pip) by 2- allylphenyldiphenylphosphine (adpp) in the cis-(pip)(η^1- adpp)W(CO)-4 complex was investigated, and no olefin bond-migration was observed. This suggests that a vacant coordinated site adjacent to the coordinated olefin is an essential requirement for olefin bond rearrangement. The rates of olefin attack on the photogenerated coordinatively unsaturated species, cis-[(CB)(η^1-ol- P)W(CO)-4] (CB = chlorobenzene, p-ol = Ph-2P(CH-2)-3CH=CH-2; n = 1-4) were measured. Kinetics data obtained both in pure CB and in CB/cyclohexane mixtures support a dissociative mechanism in which the W-CB bond is broken in the transition state. In contrast to results observed in studies of other related systems, no olefin bond-migration is noted. This observation is attributed to P-W coordination at all stages of the reaction, which precludes formation of a reactive intermediate containing a vacant coordination site adjacent to a P-ol bond.
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Studies of Nitrogen-containing Compounds Having Pyrethroid-like Bioactivity

Studies of Nitrogen-containing Compounds Having Pyrethroid-like Bioactivity

Date: August 1989
Creator: Lee, Jimmy Jing-Ming, 1955-
Description: During recent years most of the successful developments in pyrethroids have been primarily concerned with structural or compositional variations. As a part of our continuing interest in pyrethroid insecticides, nitrogen-containing compounds having pyrethroid-like structures were synthesized. Seven prolinate compounds, N-(substituted)-phenyl-prolinates and N-carbobenzoxy-prolinates were coupled with known pyrethroid alcohols. These structural variations which "locked in" a specific conformation between the nitrogen and chiral a-carbon in the acid moiety of fluvalinate were studied to determine the influence of certain conformations on insecticidal toxicity. The toxicity data for the prolinate compounds showed intermediate mortality against nonresistant cockroaches. It was concluded that the conformation imposed by the proline ring portion of the esters was probably close to the favored conformation for interaction of fluvalinate-like pyrethroids with the insect receptor site. A second series of nitrogen-containing compounds, twenty-five carbamate esters resulting from the condensation of N-isopropyl-(substituted)-anilines and N-alkyl-(substituted)-benzylamines with appropriate pyrethroid alcohols were studied for insecticidal activity. These studies were conducted on pyrethroid-susceptible houseflies. Some of the carbamate esters exhibited high toxicity when synergized by piperonyl butoxide. For example, the toxicity ( LD 50 ) of O-a-cyano-3-phenoxyfaenzyl-N-a,a-dimethyl-4-bromo-benzyl carbamate was 0.012 ug/g, which is significantly greater than that reported for the potent pyrethroid, fenvalerate. Correlations of ...
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Thermal Reactions of Four-Membered Rings Containing Silicon or Germanium

Thermal Reactions of Four-Membered Rings Containing Silicon or Germanium

Date: December 1988
Creator: Namavari, Mohammad, 1950-
Description: The synthesis of E- and Z-1,1,2,3-tetramethylsilacyclobutanes is described. Pyrolysis of either isomer at 398.2 °C provides the same products but in different amounts: propene, E- and Z-2-butene, allylethyldimethylsilane, dimethylpropylsilane, the respective geometric isomers, 1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane, 1,1, l-ethyldimethyl-2,2,2-vinyldimethyl-disilane and E- and Z-1,1,2,3,3,4-hexamethyl-1,3-disilacyclobutane. Mechanisms involving di- and trimethylsilenes are described for disilane formation and rate constants of the elementary steps for the fragmentation reactions are reported. Photochemically generated dimethylsilylene in the hydrocarbon solution inserts into the cyclic Ge-C or Si-C bonds of 1,1-dimethylgerma- or silacyclobutane to produce 1-germa-2-sila- or 1,2-disilacyclopentane. The relative reactivities of 1,1-dimethylgerma- and silacyclobutanes toward the dimethylsilylene have been determined. The carbenoid resulting from the cuprous chloride catalyzed decomposition of diazomethane at 25 °C in cyclohexane reacts with 1,1-dimethylgermacyclobutane to give, surprisingly 1,1,5,5-tetramethyl-1,5-digermacyclooctane as the major product. The reactions of the carbenoid with 1,1-dimethylsilacyclobutane are described. The kinetics of gas phase thermal decomposition of 1,1-dimethylgermacyclobutane has been studied over the temperature range, 684 - 751 K at pressures near 14 Torr. The Arrhenius parameters for the formation of ethylene are k_1 (s^-1) = 10^(14.6 ± 0.3) exp (62.7 ± 2.9 kcal mol^-1/RT) and those for the formation of propene and cyclopropane are k_2 (s^-1) = 10^(14.0 ± 0.1 ) exp ...
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Intramolecular [2+2] Cycloadditions of Phenoxyketenes and Intermolecular [2+2] Cycloadditions of Aminoketenes

Intramolecular [2+2] Cycloadditions of Phenoxyketenes and Intermolecular [2+2] Cycloadditions of Aminoketenes

Date: May 1989
Creator: Gu, Yi Qi
Description: One objective of this study was to explore the intramolecular [2+2] cycloadditions of phenoxyketenes to carbonyl groups with isoflavones and benzofurans as target compounds. The other objective was to investigate the eyeloaddition reactions of rarely studied aminoketenes. The conversion of 2-(carboxyalkoxy)benzils to the corresponding phenoxyketenes leads to an intramolecular [2+2] cycloaddition to ultimately yield isoflavones and/or 3-aroylbenzofurans. The product distributions are dependent upon the substitution pattern in the original benzil acids. The initial cycloaddition products, β-lactones, are isolated in some instances while some β-lactones spontaneously underwent decarboxylation and could not be isolated. The ketene intermediate was demonstrated in the intramolecular reaction of benzil acids or ketoacids with sodium acetate and acetic anhydride. It is suggested that sodium acetate and acetic anhydride could serve as a source for the generation of ketenes directly from certain organic acids. The treatment of ketoacids with acetic anhydride and sodium acetate provides a simpler procedure to prepare benzofurans than going through the acid chloride with subsequent triethylamine dehydrochlorination to give the ketenes. N-Ary1-N-alkylaminoketenes were prepared for the first time from the corresponding glycine derivatives by using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine. These aminoketenes underwent in situ cycloadditions with cyclopentadiene, cycloheptene and cyclooctenes to yield only the ...
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Pyrolysis Capillary Chromatography of Refuse-Derived Fuel and Aquatic Fulvic Acids

Pyrolysis Capillary Chromatography of Refuse-Derived Fuel and Aquatic Fulvic Acids

Date: December 1989
Creator: Haj-Mahmoud, Qasem M. (Qasem Mohammed)
Description: Pyrolysis-capillary gas chromatography combined with FID, ECD and MS detection were used to characterize refuse-derived fuel and aquatic fulvic acids. Different pyrolysis methods and programs were evaluated. Pyrolysis temperatures of 700-800°C produced the strongest signal for organics present in RDF and fulvic acid. Cellulose and fatty acids pyrolyzates were identifiable by GC-MS following preparative pyrolysis fractionation. At organic chloride content of 0.023%, only three halogenated compounds were detected in the GC-MS of the fractions. None of the priority pollutants were detected at lower detection limit of 0.72 to 24 mg/ kg RDF. Selective solvent extraction improves the reproduciblities of the technique and allows the detection of polymeric structures. Pyrograms of polyvinyl chloride and regular typing paper showed some common peaks that are present in the RDF pyrogram. About 65% of the peaks in the RDF pyrogram might be of paper origin. The organic chloride content of the RDF was evaluated by ion chromatography of the trapped pyrolyzates in 2% NaOH trap and it was found to be 221 mg Cl/ kg dry RDF. Pyrolysis conditions and temperature programs for FA were systematically evaluated. Samples included purified FA, methylated FA and HPLC separated fractions. Characteristic pyrograms were developed. Profiles of benzene, ...
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Molecular Dynamics in the Liquid Phase by FT-NMR, FT-IR and Laser Raman Lineshape Analysis

Molecular Dynamics in the Liquid Phase by FT-NMR, FT-IR and Laser Raman Lineshape Analysis

Date: August 1988
Creator: Chen, Fu-Tseng Andy
Description: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a convenient probe for the study of molecular reorientation in liquids because nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times are dependent upon the details of molecular motion. The combined application of Raman and Infrared (IR) lineshape analysis can furnish more complete information to characterize the anisotropic rotation of molecules. Presented here are the studies of NMR relaxation times, together with Raman/IR Mneshape analysis of the solvent and temperature dependence of rotational diffusion in 1,3,5-tribromobenzene and 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene. In these experiments, it was found that the rotational diffusion constants calculated from Perrin's stick model were two to three times smaller than the measured values of D, and D,,. Similarly, rotational diffusion constants predicted by the Hu-Zwanzig slip model were too large by a factor of 2. Application of the newer Hynes-Kapral-Weinberg model furnished rotational diffusion constants that were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The vibrational peak frequencies and relaxation times of the isotropic Raman spectra of the υ1 modes of CD2Br2 and CHBr3 were studied in solution. The frequency shifts in non-interactive solvents were explained well on the basis of solution variations in the dispersion energy. In Lewis bases, the displacements were in some, but not all, cases ...
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Analysis of Acid Gas Emissions in the Combustion of the Binder Enhanced d-RDF by Ion Chromatography

Analysis of Acid Gas Emissions in the Combustion of the Binder Enhanced d-RDF by Ion Chromatography

Date: August 1988
Creator: Jen, Jen-Fon
Description: Waste-to-energy has become an attractive alternative to landfills. One concern in this development is the release of pollutants in the combustion process. The binder enhanced d-RDF pellets satisfy the requirements of environmental acceptance, chemical/biological stability, and being storeable. The acid gas emissions of combusting d-RDF pellets with sulfur-rich coal were analyzed by ion chromatography and decreased when d-RDF pellets were utilized. The results imply the possibility of using d-RDF pellets to substitute for sulfur-rich coal as fuel, and also substantiate the effectiveness of a binder, calcium hydroxide, in decreasing emissions of SOx. In order to perform the analysis of the combustion sample, sampling and sample pretreatment methods prior to the IC analysis and the first derivative detection mode in IC are investigated as well. At least two trapping reagents are necessary for collecting acid gases: one for hydrogen halides, and the other for NOx and SOx. Factors affecting the absorption of acid gases are studied, and the strength of an oxidizing agent is the main factor affecting the collection of NOx and SOx. The absorption preference series of acid gases are determined and the absorption models of acid gases in trapping reagents are derived from the analytical results. To prevent ...
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Syntheses of Highly Strained Energetic Molecules and Development of New Synthetic Methodology

Syntheses of Highly Strained Energetic Molecules and Development of New Synthetic Methodology

Date: May 1987
Creator: Wu, An-hsiang
Description: The objective of this study was to synthesize new energetic, strained, saturated polycyclic compounds. For this purpose, new methodology has been developed, as follows: (i) Ketenes have been generated in situ via treatment of aldo-, keto- or alkenoic acid with either toluenesulfonyl chloride or 2-chloro-1-methylpyridfniurn iodide (Mulkaiyama's reagent). The reactive intermediates thereby generated have been found to undergo intramolecular [2+2] cycloaddition reactions in these systems.
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Synthesis and Structure of Polynitro- and Polymenthylpolycyclic "Cage" Monomers and Polymers

Synthesis and Structure of Polynitro- and Polymenthylpolycyclic "Cage" Monomers and Polymers

Date: May 1987
Creator: Jin, Pei-Wen
Description: The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize new energetic polycyclic "cage" compounds. As part of a program involved in the synthesis of new polynitropolycyclic compounds, 2,6-dinitro-5-methoxy- 7-carbomethoxypentacyclo[5. 3 .0 . 0* • * . CP • i ° . 0* •8]decane has been synthesized. This is a model system which can be used to study (1) the effect of nitro substitution on the photolability of carbon-carbon double bonds and (2) to develop methods for avoiding Haller-Bauer cleavage in cage /3-keto esters when synthesizing polynitro-substituted cage compounds.
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The Stereochemistry of Silenes and Alpha-Lithio Silanes

The Stereochemistry of Silenes and Alpha-Lithio Silanes

Date: May 1987
Creator: Bates, Tim Frank
Description: When E- or Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentylsilene was generated by the retro-Diels-Alder vacuum-sealed tube thermolysis of its corresponding anthracene adduct, in the presence of various alkoxysilanes, only one diastereomeric adduct was formed in each case, showing that the reactions are stereospecific. An x-ray crystal structure of the methoxytriphenylsilane adduct of the E-silene confirmed its relative configuration as (R,S) or (S,R). This demonstrated that the addition of alkoxysilanes to silenes is stereospecific and syn. The relative configurations of similar alkoxysilane and alkoxystannane adducts to E- and Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentylsilene were assigned based on a combination of xray structures and *3C NMR data. A strong, nonbonded oxygen-metal interaction is apparent in all of those compounds studied. Treatment of the alkoxystannane adducts with alkyl lithium reagents results in tin-lithium exchange in some cases. The results indicate that the resulting <x-lithio alkoxysilanes are not configurationally stable in either THF or hydrocarbon solvents. The reaction of tert butyl lithium with a-trimethylsilylvinylmethylphenylchlorosilane in hydrocarbon solvents yields E- and Z-l-methyl-l-phenyl-2-neopentyl-2-trimethylsilylsilene. In the absence of any traps these silenes undergo a novel tert butyl lithium catalyzed rearrangement to 2-phenyl-3-trimethylsilyl-5,5-dimethyl-2-silahex-3-ene. These silenes were also trapped as their [4+2] cycloadducts with anthracene. The Z-isomer of the anthracene adduct was separated and its stereochemistry confirmed by ...
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Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Studies on Aquatic Fulvic Acid

Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Studies on Aquatic Fulvic Acid

Date: August 1986
Creator: Chang, David Juan-Yuan
Description: High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to investigate the utility of this technique for the analytical and preparative separation of components of aquatic fulvic acids (FA). Three modes of HPLC namely adsorption, anion exchange and reversed phase were evaluated. Aquatic fulvic acids were either extracted from surface water and sediment samples collected from the Southwest of the U.S., or were provided in a high purity form from the USGS. On the adsorption mode, a major fraction of aquatic fulvic acid was isolated on a semipreparative scale and subjected to Carbon-13 NMR and FAB Mass Spectroscopy. Results indicated that (1) The analyzed fraction of fulvic acid contains more aliphatic than aromatic moieties; (2) Methoxy, carboxylic acids, and esters are well-defined moieties of the macromolecule; (3) Phenolic components of the macromolecules were not detected in the Carbon-13 NMR spectrum possibly because of the presence of stable free radicals. Results of the anion exchange mode have shown that at least three types of acidic functionalities in aquatic fulvic acid can be separated. Results also indicated that aquatic fulvic acid can be progressively fractionated by using subsequent modes of HPLC. Results of reversed phase mode have shown that (1) The fractionation of aquatic ...
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Methods Development for Ion Chromatography

Methods Development for Ion Chromatography

Date: May 1986
Creator: Supachai Maketon
Description: Ion chromatography (IC) as developed by Small et. al. in 1975 has become an efficient and reliable analytical technique for simultaneous analysis of multiple ions in solution. The principle requirement prior to use the IC for an analysis is sample preparation; these include sample decomposition, solvent extraction, and trapping in case the target element is in the gas phase, etc. Solvent extractions for fluoride, chloride, sodium, ammonium, and potassium ions which are soluble in soils are described. Sample decompositions include silicate rocks using hydrofluoric acid for the determination of phosphorus; organic pesticides using lithium fusion technique for the determination of halide and cyanide ions are also described. After these sample preparation techniques, the aqueous solutions obtained were analyzed on the ion chromatograph for the analyses of the anions and cations mentioned above. Recovery and reproducibility of each technique is in general quite good and the comparison between the results obtained from the IC method and other instrumentation are given.
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The Nature of Intermediates Produced Through Ligand-Substitution Reactions of Octahedral Metal Carbonyls

The Nature of Intermediates Produced Through Ligand-Substitution Reactions of Octahedral Metal Carbonyls

Date: May 1986
Creator: Mansour, Saber E. (Saber El-Sayed)
Description: Pulsed laser time-resolved ligand-substitution photochemistry for (DTO)W(CO)4, (DTN)W(CO)4, and (NP)Mo(CO)4 (DTO = 2,2,7,7-tetramethyl-3,6-diathiaoctane; DTN = 2,2,8,8- tetramethyl-3,7-diathianonane; NP = l-diethylamino-2- diphenylphosphinoethane) proceeds via initial fission of the W-S and Mo-P bonds, affording Cs and C4v five-coordinate intermediates for DTN and NP but largely Cs for DTO. The rates of reaction of these intermediates, via chelate ring closure and competitive bimolecular interaction with Lewis bases (= L, alkylphosphines and alkyl phosphites) for the Cs intermediates and via bimolecular interaction of L with the C4v intermediates, together with activation parameters for these processes have been determined. The rates of interactions at the Cs intermediates are significantly faster than at the C4v intermediates.
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Raman and NMR Relaxation Studies of Molecular Dynamics in Liquids

Raman and NMR Relaxation Studies of Molecular Dynamics in Liquids

Date: August 1987
Creator: Rodriguez, Arturo A. (Arturo Angel)
Description: Raman vibrational bands are sensitive to fluctuations in the molecular environment. Variations in the bandwidth and peak position can then be utilized to monitor molecular forces and interactions present in condense phases. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) provides a convenient probe for the study of molecular reorientation in liquids since nuclear spin relaxation times are dependent on the details of molecular motion. Presented here is the solvent study of the Raman bandwidths and frequency displacements of the mode of the compounds CH3MCI3 (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn) in a number of solvents of widely varying molecular structure. Also, a detailed isotope dilution study of the modes in CH2CI2/CD2CI2 mixtures is presented. In this set of experiments, I observed broadening of the v1 mode of CH2C12 upon dilution,which is the first experimental observation of such behavior. The temperature-dependent carbon-13 relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser enhancements in neat dichloromethane were measured. In this study we found that the molecular reorientation of this molecule was highly anisotropic, but could be well characterized assuming quasi-symmetric top behavior. In addition, in order to gain a more complete understanding of the reorientational dynamics in dichloromethane, we analyzed the 13-C NMR relaxation of CH2CI2 both in "inert" ...
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Intramolecular 2+2 Cycloadditions of Ketenes

Intramolecular 2+2 Cycloadditions of Ketenes

Date: December 1986
Creator: Giang, Yun-Seng F. (Yun-Seng Frank)
Description: The objective of this study was to explore intramolecular ketene cycloadditions with the anticipated results of developing new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of polycyclic compounds difficult to obtain by other procedures. (o-Alkenylphenoxy)ketenes were initially selected for this study because these ketenes provided a favorable proximity for the intramolecular [2+2] cycloaddition reactions. The difunctional precursors, (o-alkenylphenoxy)- acetic acids, were readily prepared from o-alkenylphenols and ∝-halocarboxylic acids and were converted to the corresponding acid chlorides by reaction with oxalyl chloride. The acid chlorides were dehydrochlorinated to the corresponding (o-alkenylphenoxy)ketenes by treatment with triethylamine. The ketenes undergo a facile intramolecular [2+2] cycloaddition to give polycyclic eye 1obutanones. The (o-vinylphenoxy)ketenes are clearly more reactive than the (o-allylphenoxy)ketenes and provide much better yields of the cycloaddition products because of electronic effects in the transition state in the cycloaddition process. The intramolecular [2+2] cycloadditions of keteniminium salts were included in this study as a more electrophilic alternative to ketenes that will react with less nucleophilic carbon-carbon double bonds. However, the use of keteniminium salts instead of ketenes in Intramolecular cycloadditions does have some limitations. The synthesis of benzofurans via the intramolecular [2+2] cycloadditions of (o-acylphenoxy)ketenes was accomplished. The initially formed ß-lactone cycloaddition products spontaneously underwent ...
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Silenes and Silenoids in the Chemistry of Cyclopentadienylsilanes

Silenes and Silenoids in the Chemistry of Cyclopentadienylsilanes

Date: August 1986
Creator: Rozell, James M. (James Morris)
Description: Evidence is presented that apparent silene products obtained from the metalation of cyclopentadienyldimethyl - chlorosilane either with tert-butyl1ithium or with methylenetriphenylphosphorane actually arise from the metalated starting material, a silenoid, rather than from a silafulvene intermediate. Trimethylmethoxysi1ane is shown to be an effective trap for dimethylsilafulvene. A new dimethylsilafulvene precursor, bis(dimethylmethoxysi1yl) cyclopentadiene, which gives high yields of dimethyldimethoxysi1ane and the silafulvene at temperatures as low as 240°C is reported.
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Studies of Solvent Displacement from Solvated Metal Carbonyl Complexes of Chromium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten

Studies of Solvent Displacement from Solvated Metal Carbonyl Complexes of Chromium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten

Date: August 1990
Creator: Zhang, Shulin
Description: Flash photolysis techniques were applied to studies of solvent displacement by Lewis bases (L) from solvated metal carbonyl complexes of Cr, Mo, and W. On the basis of extensive studies of the reaction rate laws, activation parameters , and linear-free-energy-relationships, it was concluded that the mechanisms of solvent displacement reactions depend on the electronic and steric properties of the solvents and L, as well as the identities of the metal atoms. The strengths of solvent-metal bonding interactions, varying from ca. 7 to 16 kcal/mol, and the bonding "modes" of solvents to metals are sensitive to the structures of the solvent molecules and the identities of the metal centers. The results indicate dissociative desolvation pathways for many arene solvents in (solvent)Cr(CO)_5 (solvent = benzene, fluorobenzene, toluene, etc.) complexes, and are consistent with competitive interchange and dissociative pathways for (n-heptane)M(CO)_5. Different types of (arene)-Cr(CO)_5 interactions were suggested for chlorobenzene (CB) vs. fluorobenzene and other non-halogenated arenes, i.e. via σ-halogen-Cr bond formation in the CB solvate vs. π-arene-Cr bond formation through "isolated" double bonds in solvates of the other arenes. The data also indicate the increasing importance of interchange pathways for solvent displacement from the solvates of Mo and W vs. that of ...
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Interactions of Clean and Sulfur-modified Reactive Metal Surfaces with Aqueous Vapor and Liquid Environments : A Combined Ultra-high Vacuum/electrochemistry Study

Interactions of Clean and Sulfur-modified Reactive Metal Surfaces with Aqueous Vapor and Liquid Environments : A Combined Ultra-high Vacuum/electrochemistry Study

Date: May 1998
Creator: Lin, Tien-Chih, 1966-
Description: The focus of this research is to explore the molecular-level interactions between reactive metal surfaces and aqueous environments by combined ultra-high vacuum/electrochemistry (UHV-EC) methodology. The objectives of this work are to understand (1) the effects of sulfate ions on the passivity of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, (2) the effects of sulfur-modification on the evolution of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, and (3) the effects of sulfur adsorbate on cation adsorption at metal surfaces.
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Chemical Equilibria in Binary Solvents

Chemical Equilibria in Binary Solvents

Date: August 1997
Creator: McHale, Mary E. R.
Description: Dissertation research involves development of Mobile Order Theory thermodynamic models to mathematically describe and predict the solubility, spectral properties, protonation equilibrium constants and two-phase partitioning behavior of solutes dissolved in binary solvent mixtures of analytical importance. Information gained provide a better understanding of solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions at the molecular level, which will facilitate the development of better chemical separation methods based upon both gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography, and better analysis methods based upon complexiometric and spectroscopic methods. Dissertation research emphasizes chemical equilibria in systems containing alcohol cosolvents with the understanding that knowledge gained will be transferable to more environmentally friendly aqueous-organic solvent mixtures.
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Kinetics and Mechanisms of Metal Carbonyls

Kinetics and Mechanisms of Metal Carbonyls

Date: May 1998
Creator: Ladogana, Santino
Description: Pulsed laser flash photolysis with both visible and infrared detection has been applied to the study of the displacement of weakly coordinating ligands (Lw) by strongly "trapping" nucleophiles (Ls) containing either an olefinic functionality (Ls = 1-hexene, 1-decene, 1-tetradecene) or nitrogen (Ls = acetonitrile, hydrocinnamonitrile) from the photogenerated 16 electron pentacarbonylchromium (0) intermediate. 5-Chloropent-l-ene (Cl-ol), a potentially bidentate ligand, has been shown to form (ol-Cl) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to Cr via a lone pair on the chlorine, and isomerize to (Cl-ol) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to the olefinic functionality on the submillisecond time scale. This process has been studied in both the infrared and visible region employing both fluorobenzene or n-heptane as the "inert" diluent. Parallel studies employing 1-chlorobutane and 1-hexene were also evaluated and showed great similiarity with the Cl-ol system. The data supported a largely dissociative process with a possibility of a small interchange process involving the H's on the alkyl chain. Studies were also carried out for various Cr(CO)6/arene/Ls systems (arene = various alkyl or halogenated substituted benzenes). The data indicated that for both C6H5R (R=various alkyl chains) or multi-alkyl substituted arenes (i.e. o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene) containing an "unhindered" ring-edge, bonding ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
Syntheses of Antimetabolites

Syntheses of Antimetabolites

Date: January 1970
Creator: Clifton, George Gil
Description: In these studies several different types of antimetabolites were synthesized, and their biological effects were examined in various assay systems. More extensive investigations were done in microbial systems in which many of the compounds proved to be inhibitory to growth, and attempts were made to determine the mode of biochemical action by adding supplements of the appropriate natural metabolite.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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