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 Department: Department of Chemistry
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Direct Inject Mass Spectrometry for Illicit Chemistry Detection and Characterization

Direct Inject Mass Spectrometry for Illicit Chemistry Detection and Characterization

Date: 2016-5
Creator: Williams, Kristina
Description: The field of direct inject mass spectrometry includes a massive host of ambient ionization techniques that are especially useful for forensic analysts. Whether the sample is trace amounts of drugs or explosives or bulk amounts of synthetic drugs from a clandestine laboratory, the analysis of forensic evidence requires minimal sample preparation, evidence preservation, and high sensitivity. Direct inject mass spectrometry techniques can rarely provide all of these. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization mass spectrometry, however, is certainly capable of achieving these goals. As a multifaceted tool developed in the Verbeck laboratory, many forensic applications have since been investigated (trace drug and explosives analysis). Direct inject mass spectrometry can also be easily coupled to assays to obtain additional information about the analytes in question. By performing a parallel artificial membrane assay or a cell membrane stationary phase extraction prior to direct infusion of the sample, membrane permeability data and receptor activity data can be obtained in addition to the mass spectral data that was already being collected. This is particularly useful for characterizing illicit drugs and their analogues for a biologically relevant way to schedule new psychoactive substances.
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Electrodeposited Metal Matrix Composites for Enhanced Corrosion Protection and Mechanical Properties

Electrodeposited Metal Matrix Composites for Enhanced Corrosion Protection and Mechanical Properties

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Date: 2016-5
Creator: Thurber, Casey Ray
Description: In the oil and gas industry, high corrosion resistance and hardness are needed to extend the lifetime of the coatings due to exposure to high stress and salt environments. Electrodeposition has become a favorable technique in synthesizing coatings because of low cost, convenience, and the ability to work at low temperatures. Electrodeposition of metal matrix composites has become popular for enhanced corrosion resistance and hardness in the oil and gas industry because of the major problems that persist with corrosion. Two major alloys of copper-nickel, 90-10 and 70-30, were evaluated for microbial corrosion protection in marine environments on a stainless steel substrate. Copper and copper alloys are commonly used in marine environments to resist biofouling of materials by inhibiting microbial growth. Literature surveying the electrodeposition of Cu-Ni incorporated with nano- to micro- particles to produce metal matrix composites has been reviewed. Also, a novel flow cell design for the enhanced deposition of metal matrix composites was examined to obtain the optimal oriented structure of the layered silicates in the metal matrix. With the addition of montmorillonite into the Ni and Cu-Ni matrix, an increase in strength, adhesion, wear and fracture toughness of the coating occurs, which leads to an increase ...
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Design of New Monodentate Ligands for Regioselectivity and Enantioselectivity Tuning in Late Transition Metal Catalysis

Design of New Monodentate Ligands for Regioselectivity and Enantioselectivity Tuning in Late Transition Metal Catalysis

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Date: 2016-5
Creator: Ruch, Aaron Anthony
Description: The ability of gold(I) to activate many types of unsaturated bonds toward nucleophilic attack was not widely recognized until the early 2000s. One major challenge in gold catalysis is the control over regioselectivity when there are two or more possible products as a result of complicated mechanistic pathways. It is well know that the choice of ligand can have dramatic effects on which pathway is being followed but very rarely are the reasons for this selectivity understood. The synthesis of new acyclic diaminocarbenes was developed and a study of the ligand effects on the regioselectivity of a gold-catalyzed domino enyne cyclization hydroarylation reaction and a Nazarov cyclization was undertaken. New chiral acyclic diaminocarbenes were also developed and tested along side new C3-symmetric phosphite ligands in an asymmetric intramolecular hydroamination of allenes. Structure activity correlations were developed for the potential use in further rational ligand design. The synthesis of 6a,7-dihydro-5-amino-dibenzo[c,g]chromene derivatives via a gold-catalyzed domino reaction of alkynylbenzaldehydes in the presence of secondary amines was developed. These were sent to be screened for biological activity.
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Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Raman Spectroscopy Imaging of Biological Tissues

Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Raman Spectroscopy Imaging of Biological Tissues

Date: 2016-5
Creator: Gorishek, Emma
Description: Laser Ablation Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and Raman spectroscopy are both powerful imaging techniques. Their applications are numerous and extremely potential in the field of biology. In order to improve upon LA-ICP-MS an in-house built cold cell was developed and its effectiveness studied by imaging Brassica napus seeds. To further apply LA-ICP-MS and Raman imaging to the field of entomology a prong gilled mayfly (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from the Róbalo River, located on Navarino Island in Chile, was studied. Analysis of both samples showcased LA-ICP-MS and Raman spectroscopy as effective instruments for imaging trace elements and larger molecules in biological samples respectively.
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Lipidomic Analysis of Single Cells and Organelles Using Nanomanipulation Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

Lipidomic Analysis of Single Cells and Organelles Using Nanomanipulation Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

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Date: 2016-5
Creator: Bowman, Amanda
Description: The capability to characterize disease states by way of determining novel biomarkers has led to a high demand of single cell and organelle analytical methodologies due to the unexpected heterogeneity present in cells of the same type. Lipids are of particular interest in the search for biomarkers due to their active roles in cellular metabolism and energy storage. Analyzing localized lipid chemistry from individual cells and organelles is challenging however, due to low analyte volume, limited discriminate instrumentation, and common requirements of separation procedures and expenditure of cell sample. Using nanomanipulation in combination with mass spectrometry, individual cells and organelles can be extracted from tissues and cultures in vitro to determine if heterogeneity at the cellular level is present. The discriminate extraction of a single cell or organelle allows the remainder of cell culture or tissue to remain intact, while the high sensitivity and chemical specificity of mass spectrometry provides structural information for limited volumes without the need for chromatographic separation. Mass analysis of lipids extracted from individual cells can be carried out in multiple mass spectrometry platforms through direct-inject mass spectrometry using nanoelectrospray-ionization and through matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization.
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Exploring Inorganic Catalysis with Electronic Structure Simulations

Exploring Inorganic Catalysis with Electronic Structure Simulations

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Date: 2016-5
Creator: Karbalaei Khani, Sarah
Description: Organometallic catalysis has attracted significant interest from both industry and academia due to its wide applications in organic synthetic transformations. Example of such transformations include the reaction of a zinc carbenoid with olefins to form cyclopropanes. The first project is a computational study using both density functional and correlated wavefunction methods of the reaction between ethylene and model zinc carbenoid, nitrenoid and oxenoid complexes (L-Zn-E-X, E = CH2, NH or O, L = X = I or Cl). It was shown that cyclopropanation of ethylene with IZnCH2I and aziridination of ethylene with IZnNHI proceed via a single-step mechanism with an asynchronous transition state. The reaction barrier for the aziridination with IZnNHI is lower than that of cyclopropanation. Changing the leaving group of IZnNHI from I to Cl, changes the mechanism of the aziridination reaction to a two-step pathway. The calculation results from the epoxidation with IZnOI and ClZnOCl oxenoids suggest a two-step mechanism for both oxenoids. Another important example of organometallic catalysis is the formation of alkyl arenes from arenes and olefins using transition metal catalysis (olefin hydroarylation). We studied with DFT methods the mechanism of a novel Rh catalyst (FlDAB)Rh(TFA)(η2–C2H4) [FlDAB = N,N’ -bis(pentafluorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene; TFA = trifluoroacetate] that converts ...
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Characterization of post-plasma etch residues and plasma induced damage evaluation on patterned porous low-k dielectrics using MIR-IR spectroscopy.

Characterization of post-plasma etch residues and plasma induced damage evaluation on patterned porous low-k dielectrics using MIR-IR spectroscopy.

Date: 2016-5
Creator: Rimal, Sirish
Description: As the miniaturization of functional devices in integrated circuit (IC) continues to scale down to sub-nanometer size, the process complexity increases and makes materials characterization difficult. One of our research effort demonstrates the development and application of novel Multiple Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (MIR-IR) as a sensitive (sub-5 nm) metrology tool to provide precise chemical bonding information that can effectively guide through the development of more efficient process control. In this work, we investigated the chemical bonding structure of thin fluorocarbon polymer films deposited on low-k dielectric nanostructures, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Complemented by functional group specific chemical derivatization reactions, fluorocarbon film was established to contain fluorinated alkenes and carbonyl moieties embedded in a highly cross-linked, branched fluorocarbon structure and a model bonding structure was proposed for the first time. In addition, plasma induced damage to high aspect ratio trench low-k structures especially on the trench sidewalls was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Damage from different plasma processing was correlated with Si-OH formation and breakage of Si-CH3 bonds with increase in C=O functionality. In another endeavor, TiN hard mask defect formation after fluorocarbon plasma etch was characterized and investigated. ...
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Interfacial Electrochemistry of Cu/Al Alloys for IC Packaging and Chemical Bonding Characterization of Boron Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films for Infrared Cameras

Interfacial Electrochemistry of Cu/Al Alloys for IC Packaging and Chemical Bonding Characterization of Boron Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films for Infrared Cameras

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Date: 2016-5
Creator: Ross, Nick Mark
Description: We focused on a non-cooling room temperature microbolometer infrared imaging array device which includes a sensing layer of p-type a-Si:H component layers doped with boron. Boron incorporation and bonding configuration were investigated for a-Si:H films grown by plasma enhanced chemical deposition (PECVD) at varying substrate temperatures, hydrogen dilution of the silane precursor, and dopant to silane ratio using multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (MIR-IR). This study was then confirmed from collaborators via Raman spectroscopy. MIR-IR analyses reveal an interesting counter-balance relationship between boron-doping and hydrogen-dilution growth parameters in PECVD-grown a-Si:H. Specifically, an increase in the hydrogen dilution ratio (H2/SiH4) or substrate temperature was found to increase organization of the silicon lattice in the amorphous films. It resulted in the decrease of the most stable SiH bonding configuration and thus decrease the organization of the film. The new chemical bonding information of a-Si:H thin film was correlated with the various boron doping mechanisms proposed by theoretical calculations. The study revealed the corrosion morphology progression on aluminum alloy (Al, 0.5% Cu) under acidic chloride solution. This is due to defects and a higher copper content at the grain boundary. Direct galvanic current measurement, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and Tafel plots are used ...
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Investigation of Post-Plasma Etch Fluorocarbon Residue Characterization, Removal and Plasma-Induced Low-K Damage for Advanced Interconnect Applications

Investigation of Post-Plasma Etch Fluorocarbon Residue Characterization, Removal and Plasma-Induced Low-K Damage for Advanced Interconnect Applications

Date: 2016-5
Creator: Mukherjee, Tamal
Description: Modern three-dimensional integrated circuit design is rapidly evolving to more complex architecture. With continuous downscaling of devices, there is a pressing need for metrology tool development for rapid but efficient process and material characterization. In this dissertation work, application of a novel multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy metrology is discussed in various semiconductor fabrication process development. Firstly, chemical bonding structure of thin fluorocarbon polymer film deposited on patterned nanostructures was elucidated. Different functional groups were identified by specific derivatization reactions and model bonding configuration was proposed for the first time. In a continued effort, wet removal of these fluorocarbon polymer was investigated in presence of UV light. Mechanistic hypothesis for UV-assisted enhanced polymer cleaning efficiency was put forward supported by detailed theoretical consideration and experimental evidence. In another endeavor, plasma-induced damage to porous low-dielectric constant interlayer dielectric material was studied. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of dielectric degradation in terms of increased silanol content and carbon depletion provided directions towards less aggressive plasma etch and strip process development. Infrared spectroscopy metrology was also utilized in surface functionalization evaluation of very thin organic films deposited by wet and dry chemistries. Palladium binding by surface amine groups was examined in plasma-polymerized amorphous ...
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Forensic Analysis of Ink on Documents Using Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction Coupled Techniques

Forensic Analysis of Ink on Documents Using Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction Coupled Techniques

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Date: 2016-5
Creator: Huynh, Vivian
Description: Analzying questioned documents in a nondestructive nature has been an issue for the forensic science community. Using nondestructive techniques such as video spectral comparator does not give reliable information due to the variations in gray or color levels that are distinguished differently by analysts. Destructive techniques such as chromatography give dependable, qualitative and quantitative, information but involves altering the evidentiary value of these questioned documents. The paradox of document examination becomes a problem when document evidence is involved, especially when trying to preserve its evidentiary value and critical data is needed. Thus, a nondestructive technique has been developed to solve the loopholes in document examinations. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction (DAPNe) is a nanomanipulation technique that extracts ink directly off the document for further examination. A watermark is left, at most, post-extraction. DAPNe utilizes a tip emitter, pre-filled with a solvent, which is controlled in x-, y-, and z-coordinates via joystick controller and aspirates/extracts using a pressure injector. The versatility of this technique lies within the solvent chemistry and its capability to be coupled to various types of instrumentation. The extraction solvent can be altered to target specific components in the ink. For example, a chelator may be added to target metal ...
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