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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Electrical Engineering
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Automatic Extraction of Highlights from a Baseball Video Using HMM and MPEG-7 Descriptors

Automatic Extraction of Highlights from a Baseball Video Using HMM and MPEG-7 Descriptors

Date: May 2011
Creator: Saudagar, Abdullah Naseer Ahmed
Description: In today’s fast paced world, as the number of stations of television programming offered is increasing rapidly, time accessible to watch them remains same or decreasing. Sports videos are typically lengthy and they appeal to a massive crowd. Though sports video is lengthy, most of the viewer’s desire to watch specific segments of the video which are fascinating, like a home-run in a baseball or goal in soccer i.e., users prefer to watch highlights to save time. When associated to the entire span of the video, these segments form only a minor share. Hence these videos need to be summarized for effective presentation and data management. This thesis explores the ability to extract highlights automatically using MPEG-7 features and hidden Markov model (HMM), so that viewing time can be reduced. Video is first segmented into scene shots, in which the detection of the shot is the fundamental task. After the video is segmented into shots, extraction of key frames allows a suitable representation of the whole shot. Feature extraction is crucial processing step in the classification, video indexing and retrieval system. Frame features such as color, motion, texture, edges are extracted from the key frames. A baseball highlight contains certain ...
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Development of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

Development of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

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Date: December 2011
Creator: Nukala, Prathyusha
Description: An economically reliable technique for the synthesis of silicon nanowire was developed using silicon chloride as source material. The 30-40 micron long nanowires were found to have diameters ranging from 40 – 100 nm. An amorphous oxide shell covered the nanowires, post-growth. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the composition of the shell to be silicon-dioxide. Photoluminescence measurements of the as-grown nanowires showed green emission, attributed to the presence of the oxide shell. Etching of the oxide shell was found to decrease the intensity of green emission. n-type doping of the silicon nanowires was achieved using antimony as the dopant. The maximum dopant concentration was achieved by post-growth diffusion. Intrinsic nanowire parameters were determined by implementation of the as-grown and antimony doped silicon nanowires in field effect transistor configuration.
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Dual-band Microwave Components And Their Applications

Dual-band Microwave Components And Their Applications

Date: December 2011
Creator: Shao, Jin
Description: In general, Dual-Band technology enables microwave components to work at two different frequencies. This thesis introduces novel dual-band microwave components and their applications. Chapter 2 presents a novel compact dual-band balun (converting unbalanced signals to balanced ones). The ratio between two working frequencies is analyzed. A novel compact microstrip crossover (letting two lines to cross each other with very high isolation) and its dual-band application is the subject of chapter 3. A dual-frequency cloak based on lumped LC-circuits is introduced in chapter 4. In chapter 5, a dual-band RF device to detect dielectric constant changes of liquids in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels has been presented. Such a device is very sensitive, and it has significantly improved the stability. Finally, conclusion of this thesis and future works are given in chapter 6.
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Hardware Implementation Of Conditional Motion Estimation In Video Coding

Hardware Implementation Of Conditional Motion Estimation In Video Coding

Date: December 2011
Creator: Kakarala, Avinash
Description: This thesis presents the rate distortion analysis of conditional motion estimation, a process in which motion computation is restricted to only active pixels in the video. We model active pixels as independent and identically distributed Gaussian process and inactive pixels as Gaussian-Markov process and derive the rate distortion function based on conditional motion estimation. Rate-Distortion curves for the conditional motion estimation scheme are also presented. In addition this thesis also presents the hardware implementation of a block based motion estimation algorithm. Block matching algorithms are difficult to implement on FPGA chip due to its complexity. We implement 2D-Logarithmic search algorithm to estimate the motion vectors for the image. The matching criterion used in the algorithm is Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD). VHDL code for the motion estimation algorithm is verified using ISim and is implemented using Xilinx ISE Design tool. Synthesis results for the algorithm are also presented.
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Communication System over Gnu Radio and OSSIE

Communication System over Gnu Radio and OSSIE

Date: December 2011
Creator: Cheng, Zizhi
Description: GNU Radio and OSSIE (Open-Source SCA (Software communication architecture) Implementation-Embedded) are two open source software toolkits for SDR (Software Defined Radio) developments, both of them can be supported by USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). In order to compare the performance of these two toolkits, an FM receiver over GNU Radio and OSSIE are tested in my thesis, test results are showed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Results showed that the FM receiver over GNU Radio has better performance, due to the OSSIE is lack of synchronization between USRP interface and the modulation /demodulation components. Based on this, the SISO (Single Input Single Output) communication system over GNU Radio is designed to transmit and receive sound or image files between two USRP equipped with RFX2400 transceiver at 2.45G frequency. Now, GNU Radio and OSSIE are widely used for academic research, but the future work based on GNU Radio and OSSIE can be designed to support MIMO, sensor network, and real time users etc.
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Implementation of Wireless Communications on Gnu Radio

Implementation of Wireless Communications on Gnu Radio

Date: May 2012
Creator: Njoki, Simon M.
Description: This thesis investigates the design and implementation of wireless communication system over the GNU Radio. Wireless applications are on the rise with advent of new devices, therefore there is a need to transfer the hardware complexity to software. This development enables software radio function with minimum hardware dependency. the purpose of this thesis is to design a system that will transmit compressed data via Software Defined Radio (SDR). Some parameters such as modulation scheme, bit rate can be changed to achieve the desired quality of service. in this thesis GNU (GNU’s not unix) radio is used while the hardware structure is Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP). in order to accomplish the goal, a compression technique called H264 (MPEG_4) encoding is applied for converting data into compressed format. the encoder was implemented in C++ to get compressed data. After encoding, the transmitter reads the compressed data and starts modulation. After modulation, the transmitter put the packets into USRP and sends it to the receiver. Once packets are received they are demodulated and then decoded to recover the original data.
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Baseband Noise Suppression in Ofdm Using Kalman Filter

Baseband Noise Suppression in Ofdm Using Kalman Filter

Date: May 2012
Creator: Rodda, Lasya
Description: As the technology is advances the reduced size of hardware gives rise to an additive 1/f baseband noise. This additive 1/f noise is a system noise generated due to miniaturization of hardware and affects the lower frequencies. Though 1/f noise does not show much effect in wide band channels because of its nature to affect only certain frequencies, 1/f noise becomes a prominent in OFDM communication systems where narrow band channels are used. in this thesis, I study the effects of 1/f noise on the OFDM systems and implement algorithms for estimation and suppression of the noise using Kalman filter. Suppression of the noise is achieved by subtracting the estimated noise from the received noise. I show that the performance of the system is considerably improved by applying the 1/f noise suppression.
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An Interactive Tool to Investigate the Inference Performance of Network Dynamics From Data

An Interactive Tool to Investigate the Inference Performance of Network Dynamics From Data

Date: August 2012
Creator: Veenadhar, Katragadda
Description: Network structure plays a significant role in determining the performance of network inference tasks. An interactive tool to study the dependence of network topology on estimation performance was developed. The tool allows end-users to easily create and modify network structures and observe the performance of pole estimation measured by Cramer-Rao bounds. The tool also automatically suggests the best measurement locations to maximize estimation performance, and thus finds its broad applications on the optimal design of data collection experiments. Finally, a series of theoretical results that explicitly connect subsets of network structures with inference performance are obtained.
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Data Compression Using a Multi-residue System (Mrs)

Data Compression Using a Multi-residue System (Mrs)

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Date: August 2012
Creator: Melaedavattil Jaganathan, Jyothy
Description: This work presents a novel technique for data compression based on multi-residue number systems. The basic theorem is that an under-determined system of congruences could be solved to accomplish data compression for a signal satisfying continuity of its information content and bounded in peak-to -peak amplitude by the product of relatively prime moduli,. This thesis investigates this property and presents quantitative results along with MATLAB codes. Chapter 1 is introductory in nature and Chapter 2 deals in more detail with the basic theorem. Chapter 3 explicitly mentions the assumptions made and chapter 4 shows alternative solutions to the Chinese remainder theorem. Chapter 5 explains the experiments in detail whose results are mentioned in chapter 6. Chapter 7 concludes with a summary and suggestions for future work.
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Characterization of Ecg Signal Using Programmable System on Chip

Characterization of Ecg Signal Using Programmable System on Chip

Date: December 2012
Creator: Ravuru, Anusha
Description: Electrocardiography (ECG) monitor is a medical device for recording the electrical activities of the heart using electrodes placed on the body. There are many ECG monitors in the market but it is essential to find the accuracy with which they generate results. Accuracy depends on the processing of the ECG signal which contains several noises and the algorithms used for detecting peaks. Based on these peaks the abnormality in the functioning of the heart can be estimated. Hence this thesis characterizes the ECG signal which helps to detect the abnormalities and determine the accuracy of the system.
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Development of Wireless Sensor Network System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

Development of Wireless Sensor Network System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

Date: December 2012
Creator: Borkar, Chirag
Description: This thesis describes development of low cost indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring system for research. It describes data collection of various parameters concentration present in indoor air and sends data back to host PC for further processing. Thesis gives detailed information about hardware and software implementation of IAQ monitoring system. Also discussed are building wireless ZigBee network, creating user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) and analysis of obtained results in comparison with professional benchmark system to check system reliability. Throughputs obtained are efficient enough to use system as a reliable IAQ monitor.
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Data Transmission in Quantized Consensus

Data Transmission in Quantized Consensus

Date: May 2013
Creator: Parvez, Imtiaz
Description: In the world of networked system, average consensus is an important dimension of co-ordinate control and cooperation. Since the communication medium is digital, real value cannot be transmitted and we need to perform quantization before data transmission. But for the quantization, error is introduced in exact value and initial average is lost. Based on this limitation, my 16 bit quantization method (sending MSB in 1-4 cycle and MSB+LSB in 5th cycle) reduces error significantly and preserves initial average. Besides, it works on all types of graphs (star, complete, ring, random geometric graph). My other algorithm, distributing averaging algorithm (PQDA) with probabilistic quantization also works on random geometric graph, star, ring and slow co-herency graph. It shows significant reduced error and attain strict consensus.
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Design of a Wideband Class J Power Amplifier

Design of a Wideband Class J Power Amplifier

Date: May 2013
Creator: Raavi, Srinivasa
Description: A conventional RF power amplifier will convert the low powered radio frequency signals into high powered signals. Along with the expected ability to increase the communication distance, data transfer rates, RF power amplifiers also have many applications which include military radar system, whether forecasting, etc. The main objective of any power amplifier research is to increase the efficiency while maintaining linearity and broadening the frequency of operation. The main motivation for the renewed interest in PA technology comes from the technical challenges and the economics of modern digital communication systems. Modern communications require high linear power amplifiers and in order to reduce the complete system cost, it is necessary to have a single broadband power amplifier, which can amplify multiple carriers. The improvement in the efficiency of the power amplifier increases the battery life and also reduces the cooling requirements for the same output power. In this thesis, I aim to design and build a wideband class J power amplifier suitable for modern communications. For wideband operation of the GaN technology PA, a bandwidth extension design method is studied and implemented. The simulation results are proved to have a good argument with the theoretical calculations.
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Design of a Dual Band Gan Pa Utilizing Dual Band Impedance Transformers

Design of a Dual Band Gan Pa Utilizing Dual Band Impedance Transformers

Date: May 2013
Creator: Poe, David R.
Description: This thesis discusses the design, fabrication, and testing of a high efficiency, dual band radio frequency power amplifier. While it is difficult to demonstrate an exact mode of operation for power amplifiers at radio frequencies, based on the characteristics of the transistor itself, the argument can be made that our high efficiency performance is due to an approximation to class E operation. The PA is designed around a CGH40025 transistor manufactured by Cree, Inc, which has developed a very useful nonlinear model of its transistor, which allows use of software load/source pull methods to determine optimum impedances to be presented to the gate and drain (hereafter referred to as source and load) of the transistor at each band of operation. A recent work on dual-band impedance matching is then used to design distributed element networks in order to present conjugate matches of these impedances to the transistor. This is followed by a careful layout, after which the PA is then fabricated on a low-impedance substrate using a LPKF Protomat S63 rapid prototyping machine. Measurements of gain and drain current provide values for power-added-efficiency. Simulated gains were 21 and 18 dB at 800 MHz and 1.85 GHz, respectively, with PAE around ...
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Synthesis and Design of Microwave Filters and Duplexers with Single and Dual Band Responses

Synthesis and Design of Microwave Filters and Duplexers with Single and Dual Band Responses

Date: August 2013
Creator: Mandal, Iman K.
Description: In this thesis the general Chebyshev filter synthesis procedure to generate transfer and reflection polynomials and coupling matrices were described. Key concepts such as coupled resonators, non-resonant nodes have been included. This is followed by microwave duplexer synthesis. Next, a technique to design dual band filter has been described including ways to achieve desired return loss and rejection levels at specific bands by manipulating the stopbands and transmission zeros. The concept of dual band filter synthesis has been applied on the synthesis of microwave duplexer to propose a method to synthesize dual band duplexers. Finally a numerical procedure using Cauchy method has been described to estimate the filter and duplexer polynomials from measured responses. The concepts in this thesis can be used to make microwave filters and duplexers more compact, efficient and cost effective.
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Design and Application of Phased Array System

Design and Application of Phased Array System

Date: August 2013
Creator: Ren, Han
Description: Since its invention, phased array has been extensively applied in both military and civil areas. The applications include target detecting and tracking, space probe communication, broadcasting, human-machine interfaces, and remote sensing. Although the phased array applications show a broad range of potential market, there are some limitations of phased array's development: high cost, complex structure, narrow bandwidth, and high power consumption. Therefore, novel ideas are needed to reduce these constraints. In this thesis, several new approaches about the design and application of phased array are presents. First, the principle of phased array and fundamental design equations are introduced. Second, a new application of phased array antenna for radar respiration measurement is presented. By integrating a 4×4 Butler matrix with four-element antenna array, there will be four distinct main beams in radiation pattern. This new approach can improve the measurement accuracy and realize a high detecting rate. Third, a compact phased array antenna system based on dual-band operations is introduced. Dual-band function can make N-antenna system obtain 2N unique radiation beams (N is an integer) and achieve a significant size reduction compared to the conventional single-band system. To verify the design concept, a four-element phased array antenna working at 5GHz and ...
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A Comprehensive Modeling Framework for Airborne Mobility

A Comprehensive Modeling Framework for Airborne Mobility

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Date: December 2013
Creator: Xie, Junfei
Description: Mobility models serve as the foundation for evaluating and designing airborne networks. Due to the significant impact of mobility models on the network performance, mobility models for airborne networks (ANs) must realistically capture the attributes of ANs. In this paper, I develop a comprehensive modeling framework for ANs. The work I have done is concluded as the following three parts. First, I perform a comprehensive and comparative analysis of AN mobility models and evaluate the models based on several metrics: 1) networking performance, 2) ability to capture the mobility attributes of ANs, 3) randomness levels and 4) associated applications. Second, I develop two 3D mobility models and realistic boundary models. The mobility models follow physical laws behind aircraft maneuvering and therefore capture the characteristics of aircraft trajectories. Third, I suggest an estimation procedure to extract parameters in one of the models that I developed from real flight test data. The good match between the estimated trajectories and real flight trajectories also validate the suitability of the model. The mobility models and the estimation procedure lead to the creation of “realistic” simulation and evaluation environment for airborne networks.
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A 018μm Cmos Transmitter for Ecg Signals

A 018μm Cmos Transmitter for Ecg Signals

Date: December 2013
Creator: Kakarna, Tejaswi
Description: Electrocardiography (ECG) signal transmitter is the device used to transmit the electrical signals of the heart to the remote machine. These electrical signals are ECG signals caused due to electrical activities in the heart. ECG signals have very low amplitude and frequency; hence amplification of the signals is needed to strengthen the signal. Conversion of the amplified signal into digital information and transmitting that information without losing any data is the key. This information is further used in monitoring the heart.
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Parameter Estimation Using Consensus Building Strategies with Application to Sensor Networks

Parameter Estimation Using Consensus Building Strategies with Application to Sensor Networks

Date: December 2013
Creator: Dasgupta, Kaushani
Description: Sensor network plays a significant role in determining the performance of network inference tasks. A wireless sensor network with a large number of sensor nodes can be used as an effective tool for gathering data in various situations. One of the major issues in WSN is developing an efficient protocol which has a significant impact on the convergence of the network. Parameter estimation is one of the most important applications of sensor network. In order to model such large and complex networks for estimation, efficient strategies and algorithms which take less time to converge are being developed. To deal with this challenge, an approach of having multilayer network structure to estimate parameter and reach convergence in less time is estimated by comparing it with known gossip distributed algorithm. Approached Multicast multilayer algorithm on a network structure of Gaussian mixture model with two components to estimate parameters were compared and simulated with gossip algorithm. Both the algorithms were compared based on the number of iterations the algorithms took to reach convergence by using Expectation Maximization Algorithm.Finally a series of theoretical and practical results that explicitly showed that Multicast works better than gossip in large and complex networks for estimation in consensus ...
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Design and Application of a New Planar Balun

Design and Application of a New Planar Balun

Date: May 2014
Creator: Mohamed, Younes
Description: The baluns are the key components in balanced circuits such balanced mixers, frequency multipliers, push–pull amplifiers, and antennas. Most of these applications have become more integrated which demands the baluns to be in compact size and low cost. In this thesis, a new approach about the design of planar balun is presented where the 4-port symmetrical network with one port terminated by open circuit is first analyzed by using even- and odd-mode excitations. With full design equations, the proposed balun presents perfect balanced output and good input matching and the measurement results make a good agreement with the simulations. Second, Yagi-Uda antenna is also introduced as an entry to fully understand the quasi-Yagi antenna. Both of the antennas have the same design requirements and present the radiation properties. The arrangement of the antenna’s elements and the end-fire radiation property of the antenna have been presented. Finally, the quasi-Yagi antenna is used as an application of the balun where the proposed balun is employed to feed a quasi-Yagi antenna. The antenna is working in the S-band radio frequency and achieves a measured 36% fractional bandwidth for return loss less than -10 dB. The antenna demonstrates a good agreement between its measurement ...
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Dual-band Microwave Device Design

Dual-band Microwave Device Design

Date: May 2014
Creator: Li Shen, Andres E.
Description: This thesis presents a brief introduction to microwave components and technology. It also presents two novel dual-band designs, their analysis, topology, simulation and fabrication. In chapter 2, a novel dual-band bandpass filter using asymmetric stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonators (SLSIRs) operating at 1 and 2.6 GHz is shown. This type of design applies suitable arrangements to improve the filter’s performance. Then, in chapter 3, a novel dual-band balun (transforms unbalanced input signals to balanced output signals or vice versa) operating at 1.1 and 2 GHz with flexible frequency ratios is presented, which has more advantages in microwave applications. Then, conclusion and future works are discussed in chapter 4.
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A Low-cost Wireless Sensor Network System Using Raspberry Pi and Arduino for Environmental Monitoring Applications

A Low-cost Wireless Sensor Network System Using Raspberry Pi and Arduino for Environmental Monitoring Applications

Date: May 2014
Creator: Ferdoush, Sheikh Mohammad
Description: Sensors are used to convert physical quantity into numerical data. Various types of sensors can be coupled together to make a single node. A distributed array of these nodes can be deployed to collect environmental data by using appropriate sensors. Application of low powered short range radio transceivers as a communication medium between spatially distributed sensor nodes is known as wireless sensor network. In this thesis I build such a network by using Arduino, Raspberry Pi and XBee. My goal was to accomplish a prototype system so that the collected data can be stored and managed both from local and remote locations. The system was targeted for both indoor and outdoor environment. As a part of the development a controlling application was developed to manage the sensor nodes, wireless transmission, to collect and store data using a database management service. Raspberry Pi was used as base station and webserver. Few web based application was developed for configuring the network, real time monitoring, and database management. Whole system functions as a single entity. The use of open source hardware and software made it possible to keep the cost of the system low. The successful development of the system can be considered ...
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A Lego Mindstorms Nxt Based Test Bench for Multiagent Exploratory Systems and Distributed Network Partitioning

A Lego Mindstorms Nxt Based Test Bench for Multiagent Exploratory Systems and Distributed Network Partitioning

Date: May 2014
Creator: Patil, Riya Raghuvir
Description: Networks of communicating agents require distributed algorithms for a variety of tasks in the field of network analysis and control. For applications such as swarms of autonomous vehicles, ad hoc and wireless sensor networks, and such military and civilian applications as exploring and patrolling a robust autonomous system that uses a distributed algorithm for self-partitioning can be significantly helpful. A single team of autonomous vehicles in a field may need to self-dissemble into multiple teams, conducive to completing multiple control tasks. Moreover, because communicating agents are subject to changes, namely, addition or failure of an agent or link, a distributed or decentralized algorithm is favorable over having a central agent. A framework to help with the study of self-partitioning of such multi agent systems that have most basic mobility model not only saves our time in conception but also gives us a cost effective prototype without negotiating the physical realization of the proposed idea. In this thesis I present my work on the implementation of a flexible and distributed stochastic partitioning algorithm on the Lego® Mindstorms’ NXT on a graphical programming platform using National Instruments’ LabVIEW™ forming a team of communicating agents via NXT-Bee radio module. We single out mobility, ...
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Low Leakage Asymmetric Stacked Sram Cell

Low Leakage Asymmetric Stacked Sram Cell

Date: May 2014
Creator: Ahrabi, Nina
Description: Memory is an important part of any digital processing system. On-chip SRAM can be found in various levels of the memory hierarchy in a processor and occupies a considerable area of the chip. Leakage is one of the challenges which shrinking of technology has introduced and the leakage of SRAM constitutes a substantial part of the total leakage power of the chip due to its large area and the fact that many of the cells are idle without any access. In this thesis, we introduce asymmetric SRAM cells using stacked transistors which reduce the leakage up to 26% while increasing the delay of the cell by only 1.2% while reducing the read noise margin of the cell by only 15.7%. We also investigate an asymmetric cell configuration in which increases the delay by 33% while reduces the leakage up to 30% and reducing the read noise margin by only 1.2% compared to a regular SRAM cell.
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