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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Electrical Engineering
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Employment of dual frequency excitation method to improve the accuracy of an optical current sensor, by measuring both current and temperature.

Employment of dual frequency excitation method to improve the accuracy of an optical current sensor, by measuring both current and temperature.

Date: December 2008
Creator: Karri, Avinash
Description: Optical current sensors (OCSs) are initially developed to measure relatively large current over a wide range of frequency band. They are also used as protective devices in the event a fault occurs due to a short circuit, in the power generation and distribution industries. The basic principal used in OCS is the Faraday effect. When a light guiding faraday medium is placed in a magnetic field which is produced by the current flowing in the conductor around the magnetic core, the plane of polarization of the linearly polarized light is rotated. The angle of rotation is proportional to the magnetic field strength, proportionality constant and the interaction length. The proportionality constant is the Verdet constant V (λ, T), which is dependent on both temperature and wavelength of the light. Opto electrical methods are used to measure the angle of rotation of the polarization plane. By measuring the angle the current flowing in the current carrying conductor can be calculated. But the accuracy of the OCS is lost of the angle of rotation of the polarization plane is dependent on the Verdet constant, apart from the magnetic field strength. As temperature increases the Verdet constant decreases, so the angle of rotation ...
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Comparison of Source Diversity and Channel Diversity Methods on Symmetric and Fading Channels.

Comparison of Source Diversity and Channel Diversity Methods on Symmetric and Fading Channels.

Date: August 2009
Creator: Li, Li
Description: Channel diversity techniques are effective ways to combat channel fading and noise in communication systems. In this thesis, I compare the performance of source and channel diversity techniques on fading and symmetric continuous channels. My experiments suggest that when SNR is low, channel diversity performs better, and when SNR is high, source diversity shows better performance than channel diversity.
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An investigation into graph isomorphism based zero-knowledge proofs.

An investigation into graph isomorphism based zero-knowledge proofs.

Date: December 2009
Creator: Ayeh, Eric
Description: Zero-knowledge proofs protocols are effective interactive methods to prove a node's identity without disclosing any additional information other than the veracity of the proof. They are implementable in several ways. In this thesis, I investigate the graph isomorphism based zero-knowledge proofs protocol. My experiments and analyses suggest that graph isomorphism can easily be solved for many types of graphs and hence is not an ideal solution for implementing ZKP.
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Integrating environmental data acquisition and low cost Wi-Fi data communication.

Integrating environmental data acquisition and low cost Wi-Fi data communication.

Date: December 2009
Creator: Gurung, Sanjaya
Description: This thesis describes environmental data collection and transmission from the field to a server using Wi-Fi. Also discussed are components, radio wave propagation, received power calculations, and throughput tests. Measured receive power resulted close to calculated and simulated values. Throughput tests resulted satisfactory. The thesis provides detailed systematic procedures for Wi-Fi radio link setup and techniques to optimize the quality of a radio link.
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Study of the effects of background and motion camera on the efficacy of Kalman and particle filter algorithms.

Study of the effects of background and motion camera on the efficacy of Kalman and particle filter algorithms.

Date: August 2009
Creator: Morita, Yasuhiro
Description: This study compares independent use of two known algorithms (Kalmar filter with background subtraction and Particle Filter) that are commonly deployed in object tracking applications. Object tracking in general is very challenging; it presents numerous problems that need to be addressed by the application in order to facilitate its successful deployment. Such problems range from abrupt object motion, during tracking, to a change in appearance of the scene and the object, as well as object to scene occlusions, and camera motion among others. It is important to take into consideration some issues, such as, accounting for noise associated with the image in question, ability to predict to an acceptable statistical accuracy, the position of the object at a particular time given its current position. This study tackles some of the issues raised above prior to addressing how the use of either of the aforementioned algorithm, minimize or in some cases eliminate the negative effects
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A New Wireless Sensor Node Design for Program Isolation and Power Flexibility

A New Wireless Sensor Node Design for Program Isolation and Power Flexibility

Date: December 2009
Creator: Skelton, Adam W.
Description: Over-the-air programming systems for wireless sensor networks have drawbacks that stem from fundamental limitations in the hardware used in current sensor nodes. Also, advances in technology make it feasible to use capacitors as the sole energy storage mechanism for sensor nodes using energy harvesting, but most current designs require additional electronics. These two considerations led to the design of a new sensor node. A microcontroller was chosen that meets the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. The hardware design for this new sensor node is presented, as well as a preliminary operating system. The prototypes are tested, and demonstrated to be sustainable with a capacitor and solar panel. The issue of capacitor leakage is considered and measured.
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A Study of Anti-collision Multi-tag Identification Algorithms for Passive RFID Systems

A Study of Anti-collision Multi-tag Identification Algorithms for Passive RFID Systems

Date: May 2010
Creator: Kamineni, Neelima
Description: The major advantages of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology over barcodes are that the RFID-tagged objects do not require to be in line-of-sight with the reader for their identification and multiple objects can be read simultaneously. But when multiple objects are read simultaneously there is always a problem of collision which reduces the efficiency of the system. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the dynamic framed slotted ALOHA (DFSA)-based anti-collision multi-tag identification algorithms for passive RFID system. Performance of various DFSA algorithms is compared through extensive simulation results. In addition, a number of simple performance improvement techniques have also been investigated in this thesis, including improved estimation techniques for the number of tags in each read cycle and a low-complexity heuristic stopping criterion that can be easily implemented in the practical system.
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Design and Implementation of Communication Platform for Autonomous Decentralized Systems

Design and Implementation of Communication Platform for Autonomous Decentralized Systems

Date: December 2010
Creator: Gottipati, Naga Sravani
Description: This thesis deals with the decentralized autonomous system, in which individual nodes acting like peers, communicate and participate in collaborative tasks and decision making processes. An experimental test-bed is created using four Garcia robots. The robots act like peers and interact with each other using user datagram protocol (UDP) messages. Each robot continuously monitors for messages coming from other robots and respond accordingly. Each robot broadcasts its location to all the other robots within its vicinity. Robots do not have built-in global positioning system (GPS). So, an indoor localization method based on signal strength is developed to estimate robot's position. The signal strength that the robot gets from the nearby wireless access points is used to calculate the robot's position. Trilateration and fingerprint are some of the indoor localization methods used for this purpose. The communication functionality of the decentralized system has been tested and verified in the autonomous systems laboratory.
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Implementation of Turbo Codes on GNU Radio

Implementation of Turbo Codes on GNU Radio

Date: December 2010
Creator: Talasila, Mahendra
Description: This thesis investigates the design and implementation of turbo codes over the GNU radio. The turbo codes is a class of iterative channel codes which demonstrates strong capability for error correction. A software defined radio (SDR) is a communication system which can implement different modulation schemes and tune to any frequency band by means of software that can control the programmable hardware. SDR utilizes the general purpose computer to perform certain signal processing techniques. We implement a turbo coding system using the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a widely used SDR platform from Ettus. Detail configuration and performance comparison are also provided in this research.
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Consensus Building in Sensor Networks and Long Term Planning for the National Airspace System

Consensus Building in Sensor Networks and Long Term Planning for the National Airspace System

Date: May 2011
Creator: Akula, Naga Venkata Swathik
Description: In this thesis, I present my study on the impact of multi-group network structure on the performance of consensus building strategies, and the preliminary mathematical formulation of the problem on improving the performance of the National Airspace system (NAS) through long-term investment. The first part of the thesis is concerned with a structural approach to the consensus building problem in multi-group distributed sensor networks (DSNs) that can be represented by bipartite graph. Direct inference of the convergence behavior of consensus strategies from multi-group DSN structure is one of the contributions of this thesis. The insights gained from the analysis facilitate the design and development of DSNs that meet specific performance criteria. The other part of the thesis is concerned with long-term planning and development of the NAS at a network level, by formulating the planning problem as a resource allocation problem for a flow network. The network-level model viewpoint on NAS planning and development will give insight to the structure of future NAS and will allow evaluation of various paradigms for the planning problem.
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Simulation and Performance Analysis of Strategic Air Traffic Management under Weather Uncertainty

Simulation and Performance Analysis of Strategic Air Traffic Management under Weather Uncertainty

Date: May 2011
Creator: Zhou, Yi
Description: In this thesis, I introduce a promising framework for representing an air traffic flow (stream) and flow-management action operating under weather uncertainty. I propose to use a meshed queuing and Markov-chain model---specifically, a queuing model whose service-rates are modulated by an underlying Markov chain describing weather-impact evolution---to capture traffic management in an uncertain environment. Two techniques for characterizing flow-management performance using the model are developed, namely 1) a master-Markov-chain representation technique that yields accurate results but at relatively high computational cost, and 2) a jump-linear system-based approximation that has promising scalability. The model formulation and two analysis techniques are illustrated with numerous examples. Based on this initial study, I believe that the interfaced weather-impact and traffic-flow model analyzed here holds promise to inform strategic flow contingency management in NextGen.
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A Bidirectional Two-Hop Relay Network Using GNU Radio and USRP

A Bidirectional Two-Hop Relay Network Using GNU Radio and USRP

Date: August 2011
Creator: Le, Johnny
Description: A bidirectional two-hop relay network with decode-and-forward strategy is implemented using GNU Radio (software) and several USRPs (hardware) on Ubuntu (operating system). The relay communication system is comprised of three nodes; Base Station A, Base Station B, and Relay Station (the intermediate node). During the first time slot, Base Station A and Base Station B will each transmit data, e.g., a JPEG file, to Relay Station using DBPSK modulation and FDMA. For the final time slot, Relay Station will perform a bitwise XOR of the data, and transmit the XORed data to Base Station A and Base Station B, where the received data is decoded by performing another XOR operation with the original data.
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A Real-Time Electronic Sound Analysis System with Graphical User Interface

A Real-Time Electronic Sound Analysis System with Graphical User Interface

Date: August 2011
Creator: Brgulja, Amir
Description: Noise-induced hearing loss is a serious problem common to musical environments. Current dosimetry technology is primarily designed for industrial environments and not suited for musical settings. At present, there are no government regulations that apply to the educational music environment as it relates to monitoring and prevention of hearing loss. Also, no system exists than can serve as a proactive tool in observation and reporting of sound exposure levels with the goal of hearing conservation. Newly proposed system takes a software based approach in designing a proactive dosimetry system that can assess the risk of sound noise exposure. It provides real-time feedback trough a graphical user interface that is capable of database storage for further study.
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Kalman Filtering Approach to Optimize OFDM Data Rate

Kalman Filtering Approach to Optimize OFDM Data Rate

Date: August 2011
Creator: Wunnava, Sashi Prabha
Description: This study is based on applying a non-linear mapping method, here the unscented Kalman filter; to estimate and optimize data rate resulting from the arrival rate having a Poisson distribution in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system. OFDM is an emerging multi-carrier modulation scheme. With the growing need for quality of service in wireless communications, it is highly necessary to optimize resources in such a way that the overall performance of the system models should rise while keeping in mind the objective to achieve high data rate and efficient spectral methods in the near future. In this study, the results from the OFDM-TDMA transmission system have been used to apply cross-layer optimization between layers so as to treat different resources between layers simultaneously. The main controller manages the transmission of data between layers using the multicarrier modulation techniques. The unscented Kalman filter is used here to perform nonlinear mapping by estimating and optimizing the data rate, which result from the arrival rate having a Poisson distribution.
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Matlab Implementation of a Tornado Forward Error Correction Code

Matlab Implementation of a Tornado Forward Error Correction Code

Date: May 2011
Creator: Noriega, Alexandra
Description: This research discusses how the design of a tornado forward error correcting channel code (FEC) sends digital data stream profiles to the receiver. The complete design was based on the Tornado channel code, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation on a Gaussian channel (AWGN). The communication link was simulated by using Matlab, which shows the theoretical systems efficiency. Then the data stream was input as data to be simulated communication systems using Matlab. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the audience to a simulation technique that has been successfully used to determine how well a FEC expected to work when transferring digital data streams. The goal is to use this data to show how FEC optimizes a digital data stream to gain a better digital communications systems. The results conclude by making comparisons of different possible styles for the Tornado FEC code.
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Design and Implementation of Broad Band and Narrow Band Antennas and Their Applications

Design and Implementation of Broad Band and Narrow Band Antennas and Their Applications

Date: August 2011
Creator: Salmani, Zeeshan
Description: The thesis deals with the design and implementation of broadband and narrowband antennas and their applications in practical environment. In this thesis, a new concept for designing the UWB antenna is proposed based on the CRLH metamaterials and this UWB antenna covers a frequency range from 2.45 GHz to 11.6 GHz. Based on the design of the UWB antenna, another antenna is developed that can cover a very wide bandwidth i.e from 0.66 GHz to 120 GHz. This antenna can not only be used for UWB applications but also for other communication systems working below the UWB spectrum such as GSM, GPS, PCS and Bluetooth. The proposed antenna covering the bandwidth from 0.66 GHz to 120 GHz is by far the largest bandwidth antenna developed based on metamaterials. Wide band antennas are not preferred for sensing purpose as it is difficult to differentiate the received signals. A multiband antenna which can be used as a strain sensor for structural health monitoring is proposed. The idea is to correlate the strain applied along the length or width with the multiple resonant frequencies. This gives the advantage of detecting the strain applied along any direction (either length or width), thus increasing the ...
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Development of Indium Oxide Nanowires as Efficient Gas Sensors

Development of Indium Oxide Nanowires as Efficient Gas Sensors

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Gali, Pradeep
Description: Crystalline indium oxide nanowires were synthesized following optimization of growth parameters. Oxygen vacancies were found to impact the optical and electronic properties of the as-grown nanowires. Photoluminescence measurements showed a strong U.V emission peak at 3.18 eV and defect peaks in the visible region at 2.85 eV, 2.66 eV and 2.5 eV. The defect peaks are attributed to neutral and charged states of oxygen vacancies. Post-growth annealing in oxygen environment and passivation with sulphur are shown to be effective in reducing the intensity of the defect induced emission. The as-grown nanowires connected in an FET type of configuration shows n-type conductivity. A single indium oxide nanowire with ohmic contacts was found to be sensitive to gas molecules adsorbed on its surface.
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Electronic Sound Analysis with Hardware System and Remote Internet Display

Electronic Sound Analysis with Hardware System and Remote Internet Display

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2010
Creator: McCord, Cameron Forrest
Description: Currently, standards from government agencies such as the National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health exist to aid in safeguarding individuals’ capacity for hearing, but only in factory settings in which large machines often produce loud levels of sound. Neglecting the fact that these preventative measures are only in place in the most limited of settings, no system currently exists to observe and report sound exposure levels in a manner timely or easily recognizable enough to adequately serve its purpose of hearing conservation. Musicians may also incur significant levels of risk for hearing loss in their day-to-day rehearsals and concerts, from high school marching bands to university wind bands. As a result, music school accrediting organizations such as the National Association of Schools of Music and even the European Union have begun taking steps meant to determine the risks associated with music. To meet these goals and improve upon current technologies, a system has been developed that electronically records sound levels utilizing modern hardware, increases the speed of reporting by transmitting data over computer networks and the Internet, and displays measures calculated from these data in a web browser for a highly viewable, user-friendly interface.
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Automatic Extraction of Highlights from a Baseball Video Using HMM and MPEG-7 Descriptors

Automatic Extraction of Highlights from a Baseball Video Using HMM and MPEG-7 Descriptors

Date: May 2011
Creator: Saudagar, Abdullah Naseer Ahmed
Description: In today’s fast paced world, as the number of stations of television programming offered is increasing rapidly, time accessible to watch them remains same or decreasing. Sports videos are typically lengthy and they appeal to a massive crowd. Though sports video is lengthy, most of the viewer’s desire to watch specific segments of the video which are fascinating, like a home-run in a baseball or goal in soccer i.e., users prefer to watch highlights to save time. When associated to the entire span of the video, these segments form only a minor share. Hence these videos need to be summarized for effective presentation and data management. This thesis explores the ability to extract highlights automatically using MPEG-7 features and hidden Markov model (HMM), so that viewing time can be reduced. Video is first segmented into scene shots, in which the detection of the shot is the fundamental task. After the video is segmented into shots, extraction of key frames allows a suitable representation of the whole shot. Feature extraction is crucial processing step in the classification, video indexing and retrieval system. Frame features such as color, motion, texture, edges are extracted from the key frames. A baseball highlight contains certain ...
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Development of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

Development of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Nukala, Prathyusha
Description: An economically reliable technique for the synthesis of silicon nanowire was developed using silicon chloride as source material. The 30-40 micron long nanowires were found to have diameters ranging from 40 – 100 nm. An amorphous oxide shell covered the nanowires, post-growth. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the composition of the shell to be silicon-dioxide. Photoluminescence measurements of the as-grown nanowires showed green emission, attributed to the presence of the oxide shell. Etching of the oxide shell was found to decrease the intensity of green emission. n-type doping of the silicon nanowires was achieved using antimony as the dopant. The maximum dopant concentration was achieved by post-growth diffusion. Intrinsic nanowire parameters were determined by implementation of the as-grown and antimony doped silicon nanowires in field effect transistor configuration.
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Communication System over Gnu Radio and OSSIE

Communication System over Gnu Radio and OSSIE

Date: December 2011
Creator: Cheng, Zizhi
Description: GNU Radio and OSSIE (Open-Source SCA (Software communication architecture) Implementation-Embedded) are two open source software toolkits for SDR (Software Defined Radio) developments, both of them can be supported by USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). In order to compare the performance of these two toolkits, an FM receiver over GNU Radio and OSSIE are tested in my thesis, test results are showed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Results showed that the FM receiver over GNU Radio has better performance, due to the OSSIE is lack of synchronization between USRP interface and the modulation /demodulation components. Based on this, the SISO (Single Input Single Output) communication system over GNU Radio is designed to transmit and receive sound or image files between two USRP equipped with RFX2400 transceiver at 2.45G frequency. Now, GNU Radio and OSSIE are widely used for academic research, but the future work based on GNU Radio and OSSIE can be designed to support MIMO, sensor network, and real time users etc.
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Development Of A Testbed For Multimedia Environmental Monitoring

Development Of A Testbed For Multimedia Environmental Monitoring

Date: December 2011
Creator: Kandula, Harsha
Description: Multimedia environmental monitoring involves capturing valuable visual and audio information from the field station. This will permit the environmentalists and researchers to analyze the habitat and vegetation of a region with respect to other environmental specifics like temperature, soil moisture, etc. This thesis deals with the development of a test bed for multimedia monitoring by capturing image information and making it available for the public. A USB camera and a Single board computer are used to capture images at a specified frequency. A web-client is designed to display the image data and establish a secured remote access to reconfigure the field station. The development includes two modes of image acquisition including a basic activity recognition algorithm. Good quality images are captured with the cost for development of the system being less than 2 hundred dollars.
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Dual-band Microwave Components And Their Applications

Dual-band Microwave Components And Their Applications

Date: December 2011
Creator: Shao, Jin
Description: In general, Dual-Band technology enables microwave components to work at two different frequencies. This thesis introduces novel dual-band microwave components and their applications. Chapter 2 presents a novel compact dual-band balun (converting unbalanced signals to balanced ones). The ratio between two working frequencies is analyzed. A novel compact microstrip crossover (letting two lines to cross each other with very high isolation) and its dual-band application is the subject of chapter 3. A dual-frequency cloak based on lumped LC-circuits is introduced in chapter 4. In chapter 5, a dual-band RF device to detect dielectric constant changes of liquids in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels has been presented. Such a device is very sensitive, and it has significantly improved the stability. Finally, conclusion of this thesis and future works are given in chapter 6.
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Hardware Implementation Of Conditional Motion Estimation In Video Coding

Hardware Implementation Of Conditional Motion Estimation In Video Coding

Date: December 2011
Creator: Kakarala, Avinash
Description: This thesis presents the rate distortion analysis of conditional motion estimation, a process in which motion computation is restricted to only active pixels in the video. We model active pixels as independent and identically distributed Gaussian process and inactive pixels as Gaussian-Markov process and derive the rate distortion function based on conditional motion estimation. Rate-Distortion curves for the conditional motion estimation scheme are also presented. In addition this thesis also presents the hardware implementation of a block based motion estimation algorithm. Block matching algorithms are difficult to implement on FPGA chip due to its complexity. We implement 2D-Logarithmic search algorithm to estimate the motion vectors for the image. The matching criterion used in the algorithm is Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD). VHDL code for the motion estimation algorithm is verified using ISim and is implemented using Xilinx ISE Design tool. Synthesis results for the algorithm are also presented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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