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20102019
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UNT Theses and Dissertations
 Algebraically Determined Rings of Functions
 Let R be any of the following rings: the smooth functions on R^2n with the Poisson bracket, the Hamiltonian vector fields on a symplectic manifold, the Lie algebra of smooth complex vector fields on C, or a variety of rings of functions (real or complex valued) over 2nd countable spaces. Then if H is any other Polish ring and φ:H →R is an algebraic isomorphism, then it is also a topological isomorphism (i.e. a homeomorphism). Moreover, many such isomorphisms between function rings induce a homeomorphism of the underlying spaces. It is also shown that there is no topology in which the ring of real analytic functions on R is a Polish ring. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31543/
 Algebraically Determined Semidirect Products
 Let G be a Polish group. We say that G is an algebraically determined Polish group if given any Polish group L and any algebraic isomorphism from L to G, then the algebraic isomorphism is a topological isomorphism. We will prove a general theorem that gives useful sufficient conditions for a semidirect product of two Polish groups to be algebraically determined. This will smooth the way for the proofs for some special groups. For example, let H be a separable Hilbert space and let G be a subset of the unitary group U(H) acting transitively on the unit sphere. Assume that I in G and G is a Polish topological group in some topology such that H x G to H, (x,U) to U(x) is continuous, then H x G is a Polish topological group. Hence H x G is an algebraically determined Polish group. In addition, we apply the above the above result on the unitary group U(A) of a separable irreducible C*algebra A with identity acting transitively on the unit sphere in a separable Hilbert space H and proved that the natural semidirect product H x U(A) is an algebraically determined Polish group. A similar theorem is true for the natural semidirect product R^{n} x G(n), where G(n) = GL(n,R), or GL^{+}(n,R), or SL(n,R), or SL(n,R)={A in GL(n,R) : det(A)=1}. On the other hand, it is known that the Heisenberg group H_{3}(R) , (R, +), (R{0}, x), and GL^{+}(n,R) are not algebraically determined Polish groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc67993/
 Centers of Invariant Differential Operator Algebras for Jacobi Groups of Higher Rank
 Let G be a Lie group acting on a homogeneous space G/K. The center of the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of G maps homomorphically into the center of the algebra of differential operators on G/K invariant under the action of G. In the case that G is a Jacobi Lie group of rank 2, we prove that this homomorphism is surjective and hence that the center of the invariant differential operator algebra is the image of the center of the universal enveloping algebra. This is an extension of work of Bringmann, Conley, and Richter in the rank 1case. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283833/
 A Comparative Study of Non Linear Conjugate Gradient Methods
 We study the development of nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, Fletcher Reeves (FR) and Polak Ribiere (PR). FR extends the linear conjugate gradient method to nonlinear functions by incorporating two changes, for the step length αk a line search is performed and replacing the residual, rk (rk=bAxk) by the gradient of the nonlinear objective function. The PR method is equivalent to FR method for exact line searches and when the underlying quadratic function is strongly convex. The PR method is basically a variant of FR and primarily differs from it in the choice of the parameter βk. On applying the nonlinear Rosenbrock function to the MATLAB code for the FR and the PR algorithms we observe that the performance of PR method (k=29) is far better than the FR method (k=42). But, we observe that when the MATLAB codes are applied to general nonlinear functions, specifically functions whose minimum is a large negative number not close to zero and the iterates too are large values far off from zero the PR algorithm does not perform well. This problem with the PR method persists even if we run the PR algorithm for more iterations or with an initial guess closer to the actual minimum. To improve the PR algorithm we suggest finding a better weighing parameter βk, using better line search method and/or using specific line search for certain functions and identifying specific restart criteria based on the function to be optimized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283864/
 Descriptive Set Theory and Measure Theory in Locally Compact and Nonlocally Compact Groups
 In this thesis we study descriptivesettheoretic and measuretheoretic properties of Polish groups, with a thematic emphasis on the contrast between groups which are locally compact and those which are not. The work is divided into three major sections. In the first, working jointly with Robert Kallman, we resolve a conjecture of Gleason regarding the Polish topologization of abstract groups of homeomorphisms. We show that Gleason's conjecture is false, and its conclusion is only true when the hypotheses are considerably strengthened. Along the way we discover a new automatic continuity result for a class of functions which behave like but are distinct from functions of Baire class 1. In the second section we consider the descriptive complexity of those subsets of the permutation group S? which arise naturally from the classical LevySteinitz series rearrangement theorem. We show that for any conditionally convergent series of vectors in Euclidean space, the sets of permutations which make the series diverge, and diverge properly, are ?03complete. In the last section we study the phenomenon of Haar null sets a la Christensen, and the closely related notion of openly Haar null sets. We identify and correct a minor error in the proof of Mycielski that a countable union of Haar null sets in a Polish group is Haar null. We show the openly Haar null ideal may be distinct from the Haar null ideal, which resolves an uncertainty of Solecki. We show that compact sets are always Haar null in S? and in any countable product of locally compact noncompact groups, which extends the domain of a result of Dougherty. We show that any countable product of locally compact noncompact groups decomposes into the disjoint union of a meager set and a Haar null set, which gives a partial positive answer to a question of Darji. We display a translation property in the homeomorphism group Homeo+[0,1] which is impossible in any nontrivial locally compact group. Other related results are peppered throughout. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271792/
 Determinacyrelated Consequences on Limit Superiors
 Laczkovich proved from ZF that, given a countable sequence of Borel sets on a perfect Polish space, if the limit superior along every subsequence was uncountable, then there was a particular subsequence whose intersection actually contained a perfect subset. Komjath later expanded the result to hold for analytic sets. In this paper, by adding AD and sometimes V=L(R) to our assumptions, we will extend the result further. This generalization will include the increasing of the length of the sequence to certain uncountable regular cardinals as well as removing any descriptive requirements on the sets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271913/
 Equivalence Classes of Subquotients of Pseudodifferential Operator Modules on the Line
 Certain subquotients of Vec(R)modules of pseudodifferential operators from one tensor density module to another are categorized, giving necessary and sufficient conditions under which two such subquotients are equivalent as Vec(R)representations. These subquotients split under the projective subalgebra, a copy of ????2, when the members of their composition series have distinct Casimir eigenvalues. Results were obtained using the explicit description of the action of Vec(R) with respect to this splitting. In the length five case, the equivalence classes of the subquotients are determined by two invariants. In an appropriate coordinate system, the level curves of one of these invariants are a pencil of conics, and those of the other are a pencil of cubics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc149627/
 Gibbs/Equilibrium Measures for Functions of Multidimensional Shifts with Countable Alphabets
 Consider a multidimensional shift space with a countably infinite alphabet, which serves in mathematical physics as a classical lattice gas or lattice spin system. A new definition of a Gibbs measure is introduced for suitable realvalued functions of the configuration space, which play the physical role of specific internal energy. The variational principle is proved for a large class of functions, and then a more restrictive modulus of continuity condition is provided that guarantees a function's Gibbs measures to be a nonempty, weakly compact, convex set of measures that coincides with the set of measures obeying a form of the DLR equations (which has been adapted so as to be stated entirely in terms of specific internal energy instead of the Hamiltonians for an interaction potential). The variational equilibrium measures for a such a function are then characterized as the shift invariant Gibbs measures of finite entropy, and a condition is provided to determine if a function's Gibbs measures have infinite entropy or not. Moreover the spatially averaged limiting Gibbs measures, i.e. constructive equilibria, are shown to exist and their weakly closed convex hull is shown to coincide with the set of true variational equilibrium measures. It follows that the "pure thermodynamic phases", which correspond to the extreme points in the convex set of equilibrium measures, must be constructive equilibria. Finally, for an even smoother class of functions a method is presented to construct a compatible interaction potential and it is checked that the two different structures generate the same sets of Gibbs and equilibrium measures, respectively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc68021/
 Graev Metrics and Isometry Groups of Polish Ultrametric Spaces
 This dissertation presents results about computations of Graev metrics on free groups and characterizes isometry groups of countable noncompact HeineBorel Polish ultrametric spaces. In Chapter 2, computations of Graev metrics are performed on free groups. One of the related results answers an open question of Van Den Dries and Gao. In Chapter 3, isometry groups of countable noncompact HeineBorel Polish ultrametric spaces are characterized. The notion of generalized tree is defined and a correspondence between the isomorphism group of a generalized tree and the isometry group of a HeineBorel Polish ultrametric space is established. The concept of a weak inverse limit is introduced to capture the characterization of isomorphism groups of generalized trees. In Chapter 4, partial results of isometry groups of uncountable compact ultrametric spaces are given. It turns out that every compact ultrametric space has a unique countable orbital decomposition. An orbital space consists of disjoint orbits. An orbit subspace of an orbital space is actually a compact homogeneous ultrametric subspace. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271898/
 Hochschild Cohomology and Complex Reflection Groups
 A concrete description of Hochschild cohomology is the first step toward exploring associative deformations of algebras. In this dissertation, deformation theory, geometry, combinatorics, invariant theory, representation theory, and homological algebra merge in an investigation of Hochschild cohomology of skew group algebras arising from complex reflection groups. Given a linear action of a finite group on a finite dimensional vector space, the skew group algebra under consideration is the semidirect product of the group with a polynomial ring on the vector space. Each representation of a group defines a different skew group algebra, which may have its own interesting deformations. In this work, we explicitly describe all graded Hecke algebras arising as deformations of the skew group algebra of any finite group acting by the regular representation. We then focus on rank two exceptional complex reflection groups acting by any irreducible representation. We consider indepth the reflection representation and a nonfaithful rotation representation. Alongside our study of cohomology for the rotation representation, we develop techniques valid for arbitrary finite groups acting by a representation with a central kernel. Additionally, we consider combinatorial questions about reflection length and codimension orderings on complex reflection groups. We give algorithms using character theory to compute reflection length, atoms, and poset relations. Using a mixture of theory, explicit examples, and calculations using the software GAP, we show that Coxeter groups and the infinite family G(m,1,n) are the only irreducible complex reflection groups for which the reflection length and codimension orders coincide. We describe the atoms in the codimension order for the groups G(m,p,n). For arbitrary finite groups, we show that the codimension atoms are contained in the support of every generating set for cohomology, thus yielding information about the degrees of generators for cohomology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc149591/
 Kleinian Groups in Hilbert Spaces
 The theory of discrete groups acting on finite dimensional Euclidean open balls by hyperbolic isometries was borne around the end of 19th century within the works of Fuchs, Klein and Poincaré. We develop the theory of discrete groups acting by hyperbolic isometries on the open unit ball of an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space. We present our investigations on the geometry of limit sets at the sphere at infinity with an attempt to highlight the differences between the finite and infinite dimensional theories. We discuss the existence of fixed points of isometries and the classification of isometries. Various notions of discreteness that were equivalent in finite dimensions, no longer turn out to be in our setting. In this regard, the robust notion of strong discreteness is introduced and we study limit sets for properly discontinuous actions. We go on to prove a generalization of the BishopJones formula for strongly discrete groups, equating the Hausdorff dimension of the radial limit set with the Poincaré exponent of the group. We end with a short discussion on conformal measures and their relation with Hausdorff and packing measures on the limit set. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc149579/
 MycielskiRegular Measures
 Let μ be a Radon probability measure on M, the ddimensional Real Euclidean space (where d is a positive integer), and f a measurable function. Let P be the space of sequences whose coordinates are elements in M. Then, for any point x in M, define a function ƒn on M and P that looks at the first n terms of an element of P and evaluates f at the first of those n terms that minimizes the distance to x in M. The measures for which such sequences converge in measure to f for almost every sequence are called Mycielskiregular. We show that the selfsimilar measure generated by a finite family of contracting similitudes and which up to a constant is the Hausdorff measure in its dimension on an invariant set C is Mycielskiregular. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84171/
 Nonparametric Estimation of Receiver Operating Characteristic Surfaces Via Bernstein Polynomials

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Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is one of the most widely used methods in evaluating the accuracy of a classification method. It is used in many areas of decision making such as radiology, cardiology, machine learning as well as many other areas of medical sciences. The dissertation proposes a novel nonparametric estimation method of the ROC surface for the threeclass classification problem via Bernstein polynomials. The proposed ROC surface estimator is shown to be uniformly consistent for estimating the true ROC surface. In addition, it is shown that the map from which the proposed estimator is constructed is Hadamard differentiable. The proposed ROC surface estimator is also demonstrated to lead to the explicit expression for the estimated volume under the ROC surface . Moreover, the exact mean squared error of the volume estimator is derived and some related results for the mean integrated squared error are also obtained. To assess the performance and accuracy of the proposed ROC and volume estimators, MonteCarlo simulations are conducted. Finally, the method is applied to the analysis of two real data sets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc177212/  On Steinhaus Sets, Orbit Trees and Universal Properties of Various Subgroups in the Permutation Group of Natural Numbers
 In the first chapter, we define Steinhaus set as a set that meets every isometric copy of another set at exactly one point. We show that there is no Steinhaus set for any fourpoint subset in a plane.In the second chapter, we define the orbit tree of a permutation group of natural numbers, and further introduce compressed orbit trees. We show that any rooted finite tree can be realized as a compressed orbit tree of some permutation group. In the third chapter, we investigate certain classes of closed permutation groups of natural numbers with respect to their universal and surjectively universal groups. We characterize twosided invariant groups, and prove that there is no universal group for countable groups, nor universal group for twosided invariant groups in permutation groups of natural numbers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc149691/
 Random Iteration of Rational Functions
 It is a theorem of Denker and Urbański that if T:ℂ→ℂ is a rational map of degree at least two and if ϕ:ℂ→ℝ is Hölder continuous and satisfies the “thermodynamic expanding” condition P(T,ϕ) > sup(ϕ), then there exists exactly one equilibrium state μ for T and ϕ, and furthermore (ℂ,T,μ) is metrically exact. We extend these results to the case of a holomorphic random dynamical system on ℂ, using the concepts of relative pressure and relative entropy of such a system, and the variational principle of Bogenschütz. Specifically, if (T,Ω,P,θ) is a holomorphic random dynamical system on ℂ and ϕ:Ω→ ℋα(ℂ) is a Hölder continuous random potential function satisfying one of several sets of technical but reasonable hypotheses, then there exists a unique equilibrium state of (X,P,ϕ) over (Ω,Ρ,θ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc115157/
 Real Analyticity of Hausdorff Dimension of Disconnected Julia Sets of Cubic Parabolic Polynomials
 Consider a family of cubic parabolic polynomials given by for nonzero complex parameters such that for each the polynomial is a parabolic polynomial, that is, the polynomial has a parabolic fixed point and the Julia set of , denoted by , does not contain any critical points of . We also assumed that for each , one finite critical point of the polynomial escapes to the superattracting fixed point infinity. So, the Julia sets are disconnected. The concern about the family is that the members of this family are generally not even biLipschitz conjugate on their Julia sets. We have proved that the parameter set is open and contains a deleted neighborhood of the origin 0. Our main result is that the Hausdorff dimension function defined by is real analytic. To prove this we have constructed a holomorphic family of holomorphic parabolic graph directed Markov systems whose limit sets coincide with the Julia sets of polynomials up to a countable set, and hence have the same Hausdorff dimension. Then we associate to this holomorphic family of holomorphic parabolic graph directed Markov systems an analytic family, call it , of conformal graph directed Markov systems with infinite number of edges in order to reduce the problem of real analyticity of Hausdorff dimension for the given family of polynomials to prove the corresponding statement for the family . digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271768/
 Semisupervised and Selfevolving Learning Algorithms with Application to Anomaly Detection in Cloud Computing
 Semisupervised learning (SSL) is the most practical approach for classification among machine learning algorithms. It is similar to the humans way of learning and thus has great applications in text/image classification, bioinformatics, artificial intelligence, robotics etc. Labeled data is hard to obtain in real life experiments and may need human experts with experimental equipments to mark the labels, which can be slow and expensive. But unlabeled data is easily available in terms of web pages, data logs, images, audio, video les and DNA/RNA sequences. SSL uses large unlabeled and few labeled data to build better classifying functions which acquires higher accuracy and needs lesser human efforts. Thus it is of great empirical and theoretical interest. We contribute two SSL algorithms (i) adaptive anomaly detection (AAD) (ii) hybrid anomaly detection (HAD), which are self evolving and very efficient to detect anomalies in a large scale and complex data distributions. Our algorithms are capable of modifying an existing classier by both retiring old data and adding new data. This characteristic enables the proposed algorithms to handle massive and streaming datasets where other existing algorithms fail and run out of memory. As an application to semisupervised anomaly detection and for experimental illustration, we have implemented a prototype of the AAD and HAD systems and conducted experiments in an oncampus cloud computing environment. Experimental results show that the detection accuracy of both algorithms improves as they evolves and can achieve 92.1% detection sensitivity and 83.8% detection specificity, which makes it well suitable for anomaly detection in large and streaming datasets. We compared our algorithms with two popular SSL methods (i) subspace regularization (ii) ensemble of Bayesian submodels and decision tree classifiers. Our contributed algorithms are easy to implement, significantly better in terms of space, time complexity and accuracy than these two methods for semisupervised anomaly detection mechanism. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc177238/
 Strong Choquet Topologies on the Closed Linear Subspaces of Banach Spaces
 In the study of Banach spaces, the development of some key properties require studying topologies on the collection of closed convex subsets of the space. The subcollection of closed linear subspaces is studied under the relative slice topology, as well as a class of topologies similar thereto. It is shown that the collection of closed linear subspaces under the slice topology is homeomorphic to the collection of their respective intersections with the closed unit ball, under the natural mapping. It is further shown that this collection under any topology in the aforementioned class of similar topologies is a strong Choquet space. Finally, a collection of category results are developed since strong Choquet spaces are also Baire spaces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84202/
 Three Topics in Descriptive Set Theory
 This dissertation deals with three topics in descriptive set theory. First, the order topology is a natural topology on ordinals. In Chapter 2, a complete classification of order topologies on ordinals up to Borel isomorphism is given, answering a question of Benedikt Löwe. Second, a map between separable metrizable spaces X and Y preserves complete metrizability if Y is completely metrizable whenever X is; the map is resolvable if the image of every open (closed) set in X is resolvable in Y. In Chapter 3, it is proven that resolvable maps preserve complete metrizability, generalizing results of Sierpiński, Vaintein, and Ostrovsky. Third, an equivalence relation on a Polish space has the LaczkovichKomjáth property if the following holds: for every sequence of analytic sets such that the limit superior along any infinite set of indices meets uncountably many equivalence classes, there is an infinite subsequence such that the intersection of these sets contains a perfect set of pairwise inequivalent elements. In Chapter 4, it is shown that every coanalytic equivalence relation has the LaczkovichKomjáth property, extending a theorem of Balcerzak and Głąb. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28441/
 Traveling Wave Solutions of the Porous Medium Equation
 We prove the existence of a oneparameter family of solutions of the porous medium equation, a nonlinear heat equation. In our work, with space dimension 3, the interface is a half line whose end point advances at constant speed. We prove, by using maximum principle, that the solutions are stable under a suitable class of perturbations. We discuss the relevance of our solutions, when restricted to two dimensions, to gravity driven flows of thin films. Here we extend the results of J. Iaia and S. Betelu in the paper "Solutions of the porous medium equation with degenerate interfaces" to a higher dimension. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271876/
 Uniformly σFinite Disintegrations of Measures
 A disintegration of measure is a common tool used in ergodic theory, probability, and descriptive set theory. The primary interest in this paper is in disintegrating σfinite measures on standard Borel spaces into families of σfinite measures. In 1984, Dorothy Maharam asked whether every such disintegration is uniformly σfinite meaning that there exists a countable collection of Borel sets which simultaneously witnesses that every measure in the disintegration is σfinite. Assuming Gödel’s axiom of constructability I provide answer Maharam's question by constructing a specific disintegration which is not uniformly σfinite. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84165/