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- Hospital Readmissions: the Need for a Coordinated Transitional Care Model: Analysis and Synthesis of Research on Medicare Policy and Interventions for the Elderly
- The transition from hospital to home or alternate care setting is a time of vulnerability for all patients and particularly for our elders. If not handled appropriately there is a risk to our elders for readmission to the hospital environment that may decrease their overall quality of life and further compromise their health status. in addition to the individual risks associated with patient readmissions, there are societal impacts that reach far beyond our current generation of elders 65 and older. This impact may have dire implications for the future fiscal health of the next generation. a review of the current and past literature shows that there are a limited number of resources available for hospitals to use in order to comply with the new Value Based Purchasing initiatives that are being implemented by CMS regarding the reduction in readmission rates. the problem of hospital readmissions is confounded by the many processes that are available for study, from pre-hospitalization conditions and care through hospitalization, discharge, and finally to post discharge processes. While most research and literature reviews have focused on individual disease causes, there is a need to provide hospitals with a resource that outlines the available options and interventions that have been shown to be effective in reducing hospital readmissions. the purpose of this study is to review relevant literature related to the problem of hospital readmissions for our elder population. This study is designed to look at interventions, both disease based and non-disease based, that have been previously implemented and have shown effective reductions in readmission rates. This analysis and synthesis can provide an important contribution to our understanding of the factors and variables that influence the readmission rates of our elder population. This review has the potential to assist and direct hospital administrators and to discharge planners, social workers, and other health professions to implement intervention strategies that promote the continuing health status of our elder population while reducing their overall rates of readmissions.
- Misinformation About the Misinformation Effect
- This study partially replicated the research of Cook, Kwak, Hoffman, & Loftus where they examined post-event activities that induces subjects to pick a wrong person in a forced choice identification procedure. The goal was to investigate if providing a neither option to a match to sample task increases the accuracy of responding. Subjects were asked to study three faces for 10 seconds, after which they were asked to pick out the faces in a forced choice setting where two other faces were presented. Later the subjects were asked to pick out faces in a setting in which they could use a neither option. Results indicated that a generalization effect occurs when identifying faces and the effect is seen as subjects choosing the wrong face. This suggests that when using faces with some similar features in a lineup setting the procedure may cause the subject to pick the wrong person.
- Progressing From Multiple-respondent Anecdotal Assessments to Test-control Analyses of Problem Behavior
- The current study was designed to evaluate the utility of progressing sequentially from multiple-respondent anecdotal assessments through test-control treatment analysis as an effective and efficient method of identifying the environmental determinants of problem behavior. the goal of the study was to evaluate overall agreement among multiple respondents on the primary function of aberrant behavior using the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) and, if agreement was obtained, conduct a test-control evaluation to confirm anecdotal assessment findings while simultaneously evaluating the effects of function-based treatment. for 4 individuals, at least 4 of 5 respondents to the anecdotal assessments agreed (both within and across assessments) on the probable maintaining consequence for their problem behaviors. Test-control multielement evaluations were then conducted in which baseline sessions, corresponding to the suspected operant function of each individual’s problem behavior, were alternated with sessions in which the identified contingency was arranged for alternative behavior. Each evaluation showed substantial decreases in problem behavior and maintenance of alternative responses.