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- Academic Dishonesty: Attitudes and Behaviors of Fundamentalist Christian College Students
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This study was designed to examine: (1) the extent to which cheating occurs in fundamentalist Christian colleges; (2) the attitudes of fundamentalist Christian college students toward cheating; (3) attitudes of fundamentalist Christian college students toward cheating among their peers; (4) the kinds of cheating practices of fundamentalist Christian college students; (5) the degree to which students engage in neutralizing behavior to justify cheating; (6) differences in cheating behaviors according to gender; (7) differences in cheating behaviors according to ethnicity; and (8) differences in cheating behaviors according to the length of duration of Christian commitment. Based upon the responses of 337 students attending 3 different Christian colleges, it was concluded that: (1) most Christian fundamentalist students do not engage in cheating; (2) respondents believe that each of 17 self-reported cheating behaviors are serious forms of cheating; (3) respondents are unlikely to report cheating among peers; (4) plagiarism is the most common cheating behavior; (5) most respondents justify cheating on the basis of the workload at school and the pressure to obtain good grades; (6) there are no differences in cheating behavior according to gender; (7) there are differences in cheating behavior according to groups; and (8) most respondents do not cheat regardless of the self-reported duration of Christian commitment.
- Alcohol and other drugs: Attitudes and use among graduate/professional students at a health science center.
- Alcohol and other drug use continue to be a major issue on college and university campuses. Few studies have examined alcohol and other drug related issues for a graduate or professional student population. This study examines attitudes, incidents, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use among students enrolled at an academic heath science center. This study incorporated a descriptive research design and utilized the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey for the collection of data. The data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and represented in tables as frequencies and percentages. The survey was mailed to all students enrolled in didactic course work at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) during the fall 2001 semester. This included master's students in physician assistant studies, master's and doctoral students in the biomedical sciences, master's and doctoral students in public health, as well as first and second year medical students. Of the 565 students enrolled in didactic course work, 321 responded to the survey for a return rate of 56.8 %. Statistically significant findings are reported for students at UNTHSC in relation to perceptions of use, actual use, reasons for use, and consequences for use. Similar findings are shown relative to age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and academic program. Additionally, the UNTHSC students reported statistically significant lower levels of alcohol and drug use, as well as consequences of use than the students represented in the CORE Institutes 2000 national data set. This study identifies the need to investigate alcohol and drug related attitudes, behaviors, and consequences among students studying for professions in health related fields. However, the findings are only relevant to UNTHSC and cannot be generalized to any other population. The study provides personnel at UNTHSC a guide for the development of prevention and intervention programs.
- An Analysis of On-Campus Housing at Public Rural Community Colleges in the United States
- This study has two purposes. First is to dispel myths that there are no residence halls at community colleges. Second is to discuss the ways in which these residence halls are administered, the amenities offered to students, the benefits of residence halls, and their future in community colleges. The study is based upon the Katsinas, Lacey and Hardy 2004 classifications and divides community colleges into 7 categories: Urban multi campus, Urban single campus, Suburban multi campus, Suburban single campus, and Rural small, medium and large. Included in the study are tables of data received from an original survey sent to 232 community college CEOs who reported to the US Department of Education that they had residence halls at their campus. The results indicate that a significant number of community colleges with residence halls exist, particularly at rural community colleges, that they bring significant financial gain to the colleges, and they append numerous benefits to students and to student life at these colleges. Residence halls are housed in divisions of student services and directed by experienced student affairs professionals. The study concludes with recommendations for policy as well as practice, the most important of which calls for more accurate data collection regarding on-campus residence housing by the US Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics.
- An Analysis of Sexist Language in ESL Textbooks by Thai Authors Used in Thailand
- This study identified the types of sexist language that appear in ESL textbooks by Thai authors. The study analyzed the ESL textbooks by Thai authors sold at the Chulalongkorn University bookstore during spring 2007. It was a qualitative case analysis of fifteen ESL textbooks covering the beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels of ESL instruction. The study used feminist criticism to discover what gender roles are sanctioned as appropriate in ESL textbooks by Thai authors and if the language used supports or challenges patriarchy. The results of this study show that sexist language is present in the textbooks and that the textbooks contain content that promotes sexist assumptions concerning gender roles. As a whole, the language and examples used in ESL textbooks by Thai authors support patriarchy.
- An analysis of the effects of high school student concurrent enrollment at Collin County Community College District.
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As efforts to provide seamless transitions from high school to college grow, so do the numbers of high school students who concurrently enroll in college courses across the country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various aspects of the concurrent enrollment program at Collin County Community College District in Texas. Six research questions were designed to address student success and continuing enrollment patterns after high school graduation, as well as evaluate differences in the various models of dual credit classes offered by the college. Literature related to concurrent enrollment and dual credit programs, senior year of high school, and part-time faculty effectiveness was reviewed. Student issues addressed include: grade performance of concurrent enrollment students compared to the general college population; the percentage of concurrent enrollment students who continue at the college after high school graduation; and a comparison of continuing concurrent enrollment students with a matched sample (based on high school class rank), on the student success factors of fall-to-spring retention rates, fall-to-fall retention rates, grade point averages, and completion rates. Findings were generally positive related to the impact of concurrent enrollment on students and their subsequent success at the college. Various models of offering concurrent enrollment courses were also evaluated as measured by student performance in subsequent courses. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences based on the location at which the courses were taught (high school, college campus, or a college center); differences based on the mix of students in the class (all from one high school; all high school representing several schools; or a mix of high school and college students); and differences based on the employment status of the instructor (full-time college instructor; part-time college instructor; or high school teacher). Differences were examined for the entire sample, and for the academic disciplines of economics, English, and government.
- An Analysis of the Satisfaction of the Students during the First Ten Years of the Collaborative Program between Dallas Theological Seminary and the University of North Texas
- This study analyzes the satisfaction of doctoral students in the joint doctoral program in Christian higher education between Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) and the University of North Texas (UNT). The study focuses on the 18 students who have been identified as advanced participants in or graduates from the joint program from its inception in 1997 through its 10-year mark in 2007. Fourteen of the 18 eligible students agreed to participate in this study for a 77.8 % response rate. The doctoral students completed a survey that was created using a study of Garrett in 2006 of doctoral students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and of McLaughlin in 2002 of graduate students in Christian education at DTS. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the joint doctoral program in higher education between both institutions meets the expectations of the students and prepares them for the range of careers that they then pursue. The study offers a number of findings surrounding the five research questions and offers several conclusions and recommendations for further research. The study concluded that the surveyed participants were immensely satisfied with their education experience thus assuming that the joint program does meet expectations and prepare students for future careers.
- The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating
- This study explored the relationship between cheating among university students and their cognitive developmental levels, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating. The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) The relationships between academic dishonesty and each of the following overall independent variables: cognitive development, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating, and (2) the reasons behind college student academic cheating behaviors. The study used data from anonymous, self-report surveys administered to undergraduate students in-class and at supplemental sessions. Student participation was voluntary. The study was correlational. The five hypotheses were: (1) Self-concept is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (2) Cognitive development is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (3) Attitude toward cheating is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (4) The use of neutralization techniques is significantly and positively related to academic dishonesty; (5) Cognitive development, self-concept, and attitude toward cheating will make significant contributions to the regression model for the dependent variables of academic dishonesty. The data supported the first, third, and fourth hypotheses. However, the second and fifth hypotheses were supported under certain conditions. The roles of cognitive development and self-concept in academic dishonesty represent major findings.
- The Assessment of Cognitive Development and Writing Aptitude Within Learning Communities
- Learning communities have emerged as an efficient and effective paradigm for improving undergraduate education, especially for entering freshmen. The academy has become increasingly interested in learning outcomes and student retention, especially as they are related to the assessment of various approaches to educating the whole student. Learning community pedagogy has developed through rigorous research. However, little is known about the impact of this pedagogy upon college students' cognitive development and writing aptitude. Cognitive development theory has been most significantly influenced by the work of William G. Perry, Jr. Though no theory exists which would address the stages of writing development in university students, many composition theorists suggest a correlation between cognitive development and writing aptitude. This study measured cognitive development and writing aptitude in learning community students and non-learning community students, matching them for SAT scores, high school grade point averages, gender, and ethnicity. The research questions of interest were: 1) How does participation in a learning community affect students' cognitive development; and 2) How does participation in a learning community affect students' writing aptitude? The participants were pre- and post-assessed for cognitive development, using the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID). Additionally, participants were preand post-assessed for writing aptitude, using a diagnostic essay and exit exam. Results of this study indicate no statistically significant differences in cognitive development and writing aptitude for learning community students and non-learning community students as measured by the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) and the diagnostic essay and exit exam. These findings may have been influenced by the small sample size. It is suggested that this research be replicated, ensuring a larger sample size, to determine the efficacy of this pedagogy on these variable sets.
- An Assessment of the Parent Orientation Program at the University of North Texas
- Although most institutions offer a parent program option to the orientation program, there has been little formalized research into the quality, planning or programming of parent orientation. There has been very little research into the impact parent orientation has on parents and whether or not they feel that such programs have met their needs, particularly by gender, minority status, educational background, or by geographic distance from the institution. This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the parent orientation program at the University of North Texas to the parents who participate in this program. The study attempts to measure whether parents feel that they have adequate information about the institution to adequately support their student through the college transition; if parents feel welcomed by the UNT campus community; and if they feel that they have developed resources and institutional contacts that may be useful in the future in assisting their child to have a successful college experience at UNT. The study, conducted in the summer of 2002, had 736 respondents. An instrument developed to determine parent's perceptions of the effectiveness of the parent orientation program consisted of 31 questions using a Likert scale. A t-Test was utilized to analyze the data because it is designed to compare the means of the same variable with two different groups. Generally, all aspects of the parent orientation program were found to be positive by each subgroup. Parents found value in the orientation program and how it prepared them to support their new college student. In all four components studied, women had a stronger feeling than the males. Minority status had no significant impact on the outcomes of orientation according to the participants. Educational background proved not to be a significant factor. Distance parents lived from UNT revealed significant difference in three of the four categories. The farther a parent resides from UNT, the more valuable the orientation experience was for them.
- An Assessment of the Use of Student Price Response Models to Predict Changes in Undergraduate Enrollment at a Metropolitan University
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Most colleges and universities invest substantial resources in an effort to strategically plan for a sound financial base. The revenue for the financial base is dependent on student enrollment that must be effectively managed. Increases in the price of tuition and fees can lead to decreased enrollment and negatively impact the revenue of an institution. The increases can also impact the enrollment of certain student populations such as minority students and high school graduates enrolling in college for the first time. Many studies have analyzed the price elasticity and student price response models that have been developed over time by reviewing historical price increases and enrollment across institutions. Few studies have used the models to predict changes in the enrollment of students for one college or university after the increases in the cost of attendance are imposed on students. This study sought to analyze the effectiveness of the most commonly reviewed student price response and price elasticity models in predicting changes in undergraduate enrollment at one metropolitan academic university. The three models introduced by Leslie and Brinkman, St. John and Heller were used to analyze the tuition and fee increases and to identify the likely percentage of increase or decrease in student enrollment at the University of North Texas for the fall 2004 semester. The study predicted the change in undergraduate enrollment among Caucasian, Hispanic, African American and Asian student populations. The price elasticity among full-time students, part-time students, undergraduate transfer students and new from high school students entering the University of North Texas were also analyzed in the research study. The results of the study found the student price response developed by Heller accurately predicted decreases in enrollment among first-time undergraduate students, continuing undergraduate students and undergraduate Caucasian students. The model introduced by Heller accurately predicted increases in enrollment among first-time Asian undergraduate students, first-time African American undergraduate students, continuing Asian undergraduate students and continuing African American undergraduate students. The study found an inelastic demand to price elasticity among full-time and part-time students and undergraduate transfer students. New from high school students were found to have an elastic demand to price elasticity.
- Attitudes toward Research and Teaching: Differences Between Faculty and Administrators at Three Saudi Arabian Universities
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This study is an investigation of the perceived attitudinal differences between administrators and faculty toward research and teaching at three Saudi Arabian universities, King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), and the Islamic University (IU). The researcher also investigated the effect of several variables, such as rank, university, and academic field on administrators and faculty members' attitudes toward teaching and research. Little Attention has been given to studies that examine the differences between faculty and administrators with regard to their attitudes toward the priorities of teaching and research in Saudi Arabian institutions. Also, little research has been conducted regarding the effects of rank and academic field on faculty attitudes in Saudi Arabian institutions. The author used a mail survey and collected 518 useable responses from a total of 710 questionnaires distributed. Factor analysis, MANCOVA, MANOVA, and ANOVA were the statistical methods employed in data analysis. Five attitudes were identified as a result of factor analysis: (a) attitudes toward teaching; (b) attitudes toward research; (c) mission; (d) promotion; and (e) interest. Results indicated that there was a significant difference between faculty and administrators regarding teaching and resea4rch. Administrators showed stronger attitudes toward teaching than faculty at all three universities. There were also significant differences regarding these attitudes in terms of rank, academic field, and university. Full professors had the strongest attitude toward a research emphasis compared to assistant professors. Assistant professors had the strongest teaching orientation. In addition, faculty members in the humanities had stronger teaching orientations preferences than did those in the natural and social sciences. Regarding the universities, faculty members at IU had the strongest teaching orientation preferences, whereas faculty members at KSU had the strongest research orientation preferences.
- Burnout Among Student Affairs Professionals at Metropolitan Universities
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The purpose of this study was to determine the level of burnout among student affairs professionals at the 52 U.S. member institutions of the Coalition of Urban and Metropolitan Universities. Packets containing the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Moos Work Environment Scale (WES), and a demographic survey were mailed to 371 senior student affairs administrators at the member institutions, with a completed response rate of 58.22%. The senior student affairs administrators surveyed included the chief student affairs officers and the professional staff who reported to them. The research design employed t-tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson's Product Moment correlations. The scores obtained from the MBI and WES subscales were compared overall and along 9 independent variablestitle of position, size of institution, appointment, salary, years in current position, years in profession, age, gender, and highest degree attained. Average levels of burnout were found on each of the MBI subscores. Contrary to earlier studies, women did not suffer from statistically significant higher levels of burnout than men, and burnout levels decreased with age and years in the profession for both sexes. Lower scores on the MBI depersonalization subscale were found in employees in mid-career and in professionals from smaller schools. Emotional exhaustion was not a factor. Environmental factors relating to burnout and job satisfaction were also explored. Statistically significant differences on the WES were found on all of the independent variables except the years in the current position variable. The metropolitan environment may have been effective in reducing the amount of burnout felt by this group of student affairs professionals. The study underscored the need for continuing research in burnout for student affairs professionals and for continued professional development throughout the career span.
- Career Paths of Female Chief Academic Officers in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities
- This study examined the career paths of women administrators serving as chief academic officers in Christian colleges and universities which belong to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). The CCCU is a professional association of evangelical Christian institutions dedicated to integrating faith and learning. The exploration included each administrator's demographic information; her early, adolescent, college, and graduate school experiences; early vocational experiences; the effect of marriage and motherhood on her career; critical factors she identified as important in achieving her current position; and the importance of spiritual convictions or Christian faith in career decision making. Sixteen of the eighteen identified women holding the rank of chief academic officer agreed to participate in the study. The typical woman administrator was 50, married, and the mother of one or more children. She most likely had received her education in the humanities, with the terminal degree of choice being a Ph.D. She had served at her current institution for more than five years, but in her current administrative position for less than five. As an adolescent she excelled in the humanities, less so in math and science, and was involved in many extracurricular activities, including music endeavors, leadership, and her local church. She had received the most encouragement from her mother, although both parents expected her to do her best in school. For post secondary education, she had benefited from a mentor, had excelled easily, and had taken no time off between her bachelor's and master's degrees or between her master's or doctoral degrees. Although she had aspired to teach and received most of her early vocational experience in the professoriate, she had not aspired to be an administrator. As an adult, she had married in her 20's and had children before the age of 30. She had an unusually supportive spouse and believed her marriage to be a key factor in her career success. Her family and professional roles were potentially conflicted and required her to "juggle" her responsibilities. She believed the influence of her mentors, faith influences, and chairing an academic department were critical experiences that had led to her position in administration. Regarding her spiritual convictions and disciplines, she adamantly believed both affect her daily work and personal life. CCCU women administrators are deeply committed to their Christian higher education callings, highly educated, persistent, spiritually minded, and devoted to their families.
- Changes in Social Distance Among American Undergraduate Students Participating in a Study Abroad Program in China
- As the world becomes increasingly interdependent, mutual understanding becomes increasingly important. Therefore, it is essential that people strive for reductions in social distance on an international level. Study abroad is one of the ways to approach internationalization and promote understanding among different peoples and cultures. Prior research has been done on the degrees of social distance between people from different cultures; however, little research has been done regarding changes that cultural immersion produces among those who reside in different cultures. Studies about study abroad programs have focused on cultural sensitivity and adaptability, yet few have combined the study abroad experience with the perceptions of self and other cultural groups. This study presents a framework for understanding people through intercultural activities. It studied social distance and attitude changes brought about in social distance as an artifact of cultural immersion. The study took place both in China and in the United States. It focused on the social distance among American undergraduate students who participated in a China Study Abroad program sponsored by the University of North Texas. The study measured before and after social distance of a group of American students who studied abroad in China. The study abroad program itself was the intervention and lasted for three weeks. A mixed methods research design was used in the study. Social distance data were collected before and after students studied abroad in China. Both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed in the study. Most of the sample population were close to the Chinese people to begin with. Some participants positively changed their social distance and attitudes towards the Chinese people after the study abroad program, even though the changes were not statistically significant. This study merits replication among randomly selected samples. Study abroad programs should be promoted and supported. More research needs to be done that explores the quality of cultural immersion study abroad programs. Studies also need to be done to examine attitude changes among peoples in host countries.
- Chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education: An exploratory investigation into their conflict management styles and praxis
- This study investigated the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The data for the study were collected using Hall's Conflict Management Survey. The sample for the study consisted of 25 chief student affairs officers. The purpose of the study was to identify the conflict management style preferences of chief student affairs officers. The other variables studied to ascertain if they had an impact on the style preferences were age, gender, number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer, ethnicity, and the size (enrollment) of their employing institution. The study found statistically significant associations (p<.05) between ethnicity and conflict management style, specifically the synergistic and win-lose styles, and between the synergistic style and age. The association between ethnicity and conflict management style could be attributed to the fact that the Caucasian group of chief student affairs officers comprised 66.7 % of the synergistic styles and 100 % of the win-lose styles. The association between the synergistic style and age could be due to the fact that the majority of the chief student affairs officers had a synergistic style, and of that group, 66.7 % were in the 50-59 age range. No statistically significant associations were found for correlations between conflict management style and gender; conflict management styles and number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer; or conflict management styles and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions. The lack of significance shows that there are no associations between the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers stratified according to gender, number of years of experience, and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions.
- Christian Higher Education at Dallas Theological Seminary: An Assessment of Doctor of Ministry Programs
- This study involved non-experimental research to identify alumni perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the Doctor of Ministry degree program at Dallas Theological Seminary. An international survey was conducted to collect data from 165 Doctor of Ministry degree holders from Dallas Theological Seminary; 131 usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 79.4 percent was achieved. The intent of the study was to ascertain (a) the extent to which D.Min. alumni perceive that the objectives and goals of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met, (b) alumni-perceived strengths of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (c) alumni-perceived weaknesses of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (d) compare the findings of this case study assessment with a 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs, and (e) make recommendations for the improvement of D. Min programs at Dallas Theological Seminary. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates that the D.Min. alumni believe objectives and goals of the Doctor of Ministry program at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary has its strengths. The overall opinion of the D.Min. faculty and curriculum are strong indicators of its strength. The D.Min. program has had a positive impact on the lives of its alumni and on their ministries. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary also has its weaknesses. A casual comparison of the findings of this case study assessment with a similar 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs revealed more similarities than differences. The alumni provided a number of suggestions to be implemented into the Doctor of Ministry curriculum, structure, faculty, administration, overall image of the program, its purpose and objectives.
- Christian Liberal Arts Higher Education in Russia: A Case Study of the Russian-American Christian University
- This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2006. This bi-national school was founded as the Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, RACU was accredited by the Russian Ministry of Education under the name Russko-Americansky Christiansky Institute. RACU offers two state-accredited undergraduate academic programs: 1) business and economics, and 2) social work. RACU also offers a major in English language and literature. The academic model of RACU was designed according to the traditional American Christian liberal arts model and adapted to Russian higher education system. The study documents the founding, vision, and growth of RACU. It provides insight into the academic, organizational, and campus life of RACU. The study led to the creation of an operational framework of the historical development of RACU. The study also provides recommendations for the development of new Christian liberal arts colleges and universities based on the experience and the underlying structure of RACU.
- College and University Executive Leadership: The Impact of Demography on the Propensity for Strategic Change
- This study explores the relationship between diversity within executive decision-making teams at institutions of higher education and their propensity for strategic change. Previous research in the areas of strategic change, group decision making, and higher education was drawn from in this study. Statistically significant relationships were discovered the demographic background of executive decision-making teams at public colleges and universities, as measured by both the pursuit of new degree and certificate program offerings and multiple measures of student retention. The results also indicated the presence of an insufficiently diverse pool of potential executives for colleges and universities to draw from.
- College Choice in the Philippines
- This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this nonexperimental, quantitative study were (1) to describe the relative importance of major college choice factors (as identified in U.S. research) to Philippine high school seniors, and (2) to determine whether there were statistically significant differences in the importance ascribed to these factors, according to students' demographic attributes. For all statistical analyses, SPSS 16.0 software was used. To address the first purpose, the mean and standard deviation were calculated for each college choice factor addressed in the survey. To address the second purpose, ANOVAs, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were run, in order to study the relationship between each of the major college choice factors and students' demographic attributes. This study found that all of the major U.S. college choice factors were important, to some degree, in the Philippine context. Other factors were added based on pilot studies. This study also found that some of the U.S.-literature-generated demographic choice attributes functioned similarly in the Philippine setting (e.g. academic ability, gender), while others did not (e.g. educational level of fathers and of mothers). Moreover, students' academic ability was the primary demographic attribute, accounting for statistically significant differences in assessment of the importance of college choice factors for most (12 out of 13) of the factors. The major U.S. college choice factors appear to be important to Philippine private high school students. Two choice attributes (academic ability, gender) appear to apply to private high school students in the Philippines, while the attributes of father's and mother's education levels do not appear to apply. Among Philippine private high school students, academic ability may account for differences in assessment of the importance of college choice factors. Using a survey method alone to study college choice is limiting. Future studies should utilize a variety of methods to collect data and should involve several schools.
- College Student Adaptability and Greek Membership: A Single Institution Case Study
- Since the birth of the United States in 1776, Greek-letter societies have been an integral part of American higher education. Research on the impact of Greek membership varies at best, and often is in conflict from study to study. This study surveyed students affiliated with Greek-letter organizations at the University of North Texas. The research examined the college adaptability of Greek students by gender in five areas: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, and attachment to the institution. The study, conducted in the spring of 2006 at the University of North Texas had 80 respondents. The Student Adaptability to College Questionnaire (SACQ) consisted of 67 items on a 9-point scale. The SACQ is designed to assess how well students adapt to the demands of the college experience. Raw scores and percentile rankings were determined by t-test calculations. Test scores were expressed through t-scores in relation to the standardized sample. Data show no statistical significance in any of the five areas studied: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, or attachment to the institution. Female participants scored higher on all scales than male participants, indicating a slightly higher level of adjustment, though not enough to be significant. Both males and females scored highest in attachment to the institution and social adjustment, while both scored lowest in personal-emotional adjustment.
- Comparing and contrasting college algebra success rates in traditional versus eight-week courses at a specific community college: A single institution case study.
- There is a need to understand the relationship between, the traditional 16-week versus an 8-week, and college-level mathematics success rates. This study applied chi-square (χ2) and analysis of variance to compare and contrast which course length of time, 8-weeks or 16-weeks, for college algebra resulted in a higher proportion of students successfully completing the course. In addition, success rates among ethnicities, gender, and age groups were also examined. The population sample for this study was 231 students enrolled in college algebra from fall 2004 through fall 2007. Data was analyzed on four sections of the traditional 16-week courses and four sections of 8-week courses. Success was defined as earning a grade of A, B, or C in the course. The study found that overall there was no significant difference in success rates for the 8-week and 16-week college algebra courses. However, significant differences were found in success rates among Asian, Pacific Islander students enrolled in the 8-week and 16-week courses. No significant differences in success rates were found for White, Non-Hispanic; African-American, and Hispanic, Mexican American students. There was a significant difference in the number of A's, B's, C's, D's and F's among White, Non-Hispanic students, but there was no difference in A's, B's, C's, D's or F's for African-American; Hispanic, Mexican American and Asian, Pacific Islander. When considering success rates among genders, no difference was found in success rates for males or females who were enrolled in the 8-week and 16-week college algebra courses. There were a significant greater number of students in the age group (23-30) who were successful in the 16-week college algebra course than in the 8-week college algebra course. However, no differences in success rates were found in the age groups (18-22) and (31-40).
- Comparison of 2-year and 4-year telecommunications technicians' training programs against the industry standards
- The study focused on the academic programs offered for telecommunications technicians provided by 16 two-year and four-year higher education institutions and the ways in which the programs compared to the established telecommunications technicians' skill standards. Six specific research questions concerned the training programs for telecommunications technicians. The first verified the validity of the information in Peterson's 2000: 2 Year Colleges and Peterson's 2000: 4 Year Colleges identifying the institutions offering a communication equipment technology major. The second question focused on the institutions that included telecommunications as part of the curriculum. The third identified the importance of the skill standards to the 2-year and 4-year training programs, and the fourth identified the job functions that were included in or excluded from the training. The fifth question identified the job tasks that were included in or excluded from the training. The final question determined whether the 2-year or the 4-year telecommunications technicians' training program was more closely aligned with the skill standards. In order to accomplish the objectives of this research, a survey methodology was selected. The survey instrument was developed to compare the importance of the telecommunications technicians' skill standards to the 2-year and the 4-year training programs. The skill standards identified in the 1997 collaborative effort facilitated by the South King County Tech Prep Consortium (SKCTPC) was used as the basis for the survey instrument and reference tool. The reference tool provided additional information regarding SCANS skills and personal qualities that were identified in the skill standards for the telecommunications network technician. The survey included five job functions and 16 tasks. The evolution the telecommunications industry has created a demand for a highly skilled, flexible workforce. Higher education institutions have an opportunity to make a contribution to telecommunications industry by expanding existing training programs or initiating telecommunications technicians' training programs. The 4-year institutions should consider revising not only the curriculum but also their mission and goals. The 2-year institutions are closely aligned with the skill standards, and this is an opportunity for the 2-year institutions to update existing programs.
- A Comparison of the Leadership Styles Of Occupational Therapy Education Program Directors and Clinic Administrators
- Are there differences in leadership styles among occupational therapy clinic administrators and program directors in professional and technical education programs? This study investigated transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and effectiveness as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5x-Short behaviors and demographic characteristics of leaders and their organizations using a questionnaire designed by the researcher. MLQ Leader Forms were received from 50 clinic administrators randomly selected from the membership list of the Administration and Management Special Interest Section (AMSIS) of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), 56 professional program directors, and 41 technical program directors from accredited occupational therapy education programs in the United States, for a total of 147 leader respondents. Rater forms were received from 2 to 5 occupational therapy staff or faculty per leader and average scores calculated. More than 86% of leader respondents were female and white. Major findings indicate that administrative positions indifferent institutional contexts relate to leadership behaviors and effectiveness. Technical education program directors and clinic administrators scored higher on transformational behaviors and effectiveness than professional education program directors. Consistent with other research on leadership, the self-ratings of leaders were higher than ratings of subordinates. The data indicated statistically significant positive correlations between transformational leadership behaviors and perceived effectiveness, a frequent finding in the literature. With the exception of Contingent Reward (CR), all transactional behaviors had a negative correlation with effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between transformational behaviors and leader’s gender or ethnicity, but males scored higher than females on the transactional behavior Management by Exception-Passive (MEP) and Laissez-Faire (LF). Some transformational behaviors were related to the leader’s age and years of experience in academia, but relationships were not linear. Highest level of education was related to leadership effectiveness. No significant relationships were found between leadership behaviors and demographic characteristics of the institution (e.g. size, public or private). Differences in leadership styles among the three groups of leaders may be attributed to differences in organizational culture and raises additional research questions on transformational leadership and measures of effectiveness in the university culture. The findings suggest the need for education and training in transformational leadership during this era of rapid change in occupational therapy practice and education.
- Computer-mediated communication impact on the academic and social integration of community college students.
- Although research findings to date have documented that computer-mediated communication (CMC) gets students involved, a substantial gap remained in determining the impact of CMC on academic and social integration of community college students. Because computer technology, specifically CMC, has proliferated within teaching and learning in higher education and because of the importance of academic and social integration, this study was significant in documenting through quantitative data analysis the impact that CMC had on the academic and social integration of community college students. The following research question was addressed: Does computer-mediated communication have an impact on the academic and social integration of community college students as measured by the CCSEQ? The study hypothesized that data analysis will show that there will be no difference in the integrations reported by the control and experimental groups. The overall approach was to conduct a pretest-posttest control-group experimental study using CMC as the experimental treatment. The Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CCSEQ) was given to collect data that were used to measure the academic and social integration of the control and experimental groups. After an in-depth analysis of data using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and ANCOVA, the finding of this study was that there is no statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups on their academic and social integrations as measured by the CCSEQ. In other words, CMC did not have a positive or negative impact on the integrations of community college students. This study examined for the first time the impact that CMC had on the integrations of community college students and provided an experimental methodology that future researchers might replicate or modify to further explore this topic. Because CMC will continue to increase as technology becomes more available and accessible to faculty and students and because of the importance of academic and social integration, further study on this relationship is vital to higher education research.
- Contributions of W. A. Criswell to the establishment and development of The Criswell College.
- This study researched the role of W. A. Criswell as Chancellor of The Criswell College and his involvement in the areas of development, facilities acquisitions, personnel, and academics. This qualitative historical research was taken from Criswell's personal files from 1968 through 2001. W. A. Criswell gave written approval for this review and publication in November 2001. Included in Criswell's files were primary and secondary sources including copies of letters, board meeting minutes, personal notes, catalogs, newspaper articles, sermons, speeches, and other printed forms of communication. All documents pertaining to Criswell's involvement in these four categories were copied and the documents organized in chronological order, by the decade of the 1970s, the 1980s, and 1990s. Primary sources also included personal interviews and telephone interviews with eyewitnesses who were present at the events described, and board meeting minutes. Secondary sources included newspaper articles, magazine articles, national Christian magazines, and journals. Findings were summarized, evaluated and the following research questions answered (1) What was the purpose for establishing a Christian institution of higher education sponsored by First Baptist Church in Dallas, Texas? (2) What was the rationale for establishing a Christian institution of higher education in an area where a high density of Christian colleges already existed? (3) What was Chancellor Criswell's vision for a Christian institution of higher education in its infancy? (4) Do alumni survey results in 1999 reflect the vision Criswell had for The Criswell College? (5) How did Chancellor Criswell develop endowment for The Criswell College? (6) What involvement did Chancellor Criswell have in the acquisition of physical facilities for The Criswell College? (7) What influence did Chancellor Criswell have over the curriculum development process in the history of The Criswell College? (8) Were there changes in the gender and diversity make-up of student enrollment at The Criswell College during Criswell's tenure as chancellor? Conclusions were that Criswell significantly influenced the education of the next generation of Christian leaders.
- The correlation between a general critical thinking skills test and a discipline specific critical thinking test for associate degree nursing students
- In 1997, NLNAC added critical thinking as a required outcome for accreditation of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs. Until recently general critical thinking tests were the only available standardized critical thinking assessment tools. The emphasis has shifted to discipline specific tools. This concurrent validity study explored the correlation between two critical thinking tests, a general skills test, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and a discipline specific test, the Arnett Critical Thinking Outcome Evaluation (CTOE). Both tests are based on the same definition of critical thinking. The CCTST, developed in 1990, covers discipline neutral content in multiple choice items. The CTOE, a free entry, written response test developed in 1998, assesses critical thinking in nursing situations using a partial credit model. A convenience sample of 434 sophomore ADN students from 9 programs in Texas completed the demographic survey and critical thinking tests in 1999. The sample was 87.9% female and 74.2% Caucasian, with a mean age of 31, mean GPA of 3.13, mean 3.7 years healthcare employment experience, mean CCTST score of 15.0023 and mean CTOE of 82.69. The sample also included 22.4% current LVNs, 15.7% with prior degrees and 53.5% in the first generation of their family to go to college. With Pearson correlation, three of four hypotheses concerning correlation between CCTST and CTOE scores were accepted, showing weak but significant correlation. GPA positively correlated but healthcare employment experience, first generation and minority status negatively correlated with CCTST scores. GPA correlated positively with CTOE scores. Stepwise multiple linear regression with CCTST scores retained GPA, healthcare employment experience, prior degree, and first generation in college status. The significant, positive correlation between CCTST and CTOE scores was weaker than expected. This may be due to the different formats of the tools, or a fundamental difference between a general critical thinking skills test and a discipline specific tool. Critical thinking is highly contextually sensitive and disciplines emphasize skills differently. Both tests may be useful in a critical thinking assessment program since they measure different aspects and contribute to a composite picture of critical thinking. Research should continue on discipline specific tools.
- Cross-Cultural Adaptability of Texas Dental Hygienists and Dental Hygiene Students: A Preliminary Study
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This causal-comparative and correlational study examined cross-cultural adaptability of randomly selected licensed dental hygienists, 1995-2005 graduates, practicing in the state of Texas and first and second-year dental hygiene students attending 5 randomly selected accredited 2 and 4-year dental hygiene schools in the state of Texas. A sample of 289 individuals: 194 enrolled students and 95 licensed dental hygienists, alumni of the 5 schools, completed the 50-item Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI ®) and a brief demographic survey. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant differences existed among and between licensed dental hygienists and first and second-year dental hygiene students in the state of Texas on a cross-cultural adaptability measure. The study also examined relationships among and between cross-cultural adaptability scores, as measured by the CCAI, and several independent variables. The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 12). Eight hypotheses related to group differences and relationships among and between groups and variables were tested. The groups were compared on total CCAI scores using a t-test, and on subscale CCAI scores simultaneously using a descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA). A 3X2 MANOVA was used to compare all groups simultaneously on subscale CCAI scores. The sample was also analyzed for statistically significant differences among 3 levels of ethnicity and total CCAI scores using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Lastly, various Pearson correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships among and between the 3 independent variables mentioned above and total and subscale CCAI scores. The results revealed no statistically significant differences among the various groups and CCAI scores. A statistically significant relationship (r = .148) was found between age and 1 of the 4 CCAI subscale scores, flexibility/openness. No other statistically significant relationships were found. The study concluded that number of years for degree, level of practice, ethnicity, and years employed may not play a significant role in enhancing cross-cultural adaptability. Further research needs to be conducted to determine differences and relationships between and among various dental hygiene groups and their cross-cultural adaptability performance.
- Descriptive Analysis of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Dissertation of the Year Award Winning Dissertation and Recipients, 1979 - 2004
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This mixed-methodology study examined a set of award winning dissertations to determine what factors may have led to their receiving recognition by the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE). The study addressed seven specific research questions which were answered via two different research designs: 1) a survey administered to the 27 recipients of the dissertation award, and 2) through the qualitative assessment of a sample of the winning dissertations. The quantitative survey was distributed to recipients of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Dissertation of the Year award from 1979 through 2004. The survey collected specific information on the personal attributes and characteristics of the award recipients, descriptive information about the award winning dissertations, information concerning the quality of the winner's doctoral experiences, the quality of their relationship with their dissertations advisors and the progression of their careers after winning the award. The qualitative assessment involved applying a set of evaluative questions provided by Gall, Gall and Borg to describe a sample of the award winning documents. The results indicated that recipients of the ASHE award were not representative of education doctoral students as indicated by 2004 data. The results of the study also indicated that, as a group, these dissertations winners were full-time doctoral students, likely recipients of some form of financial assistance (assistantship and fellowships) and were able to complete their dissertations and degrees in substantially less time than typical education doctoral students. The findings also suggest that Gall, Gall and Borg's procedure for evaluating educational research can be used to assess doctoral dissertations.
- Determining the relationship between motivation and academic outcomes among students in the health professions.
- Admissions processes for health professions programs result in students entering these programs academically homogeneous. Yet some students have great difficulty with the programs. Research has shown a limited ability of traditional academic indicators to predict successful outcomes for health professions education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learning motivation and academic outcomes for students in health professions programs. The Modified Archer Health Professions Motivation Scale (MAHPMS) and a demographic survey were administered at orientation to 131 medical and 29 physician assistant students at the University of North Texas Health Science Center in the fall of 2005. At the end of the semester, the same version of the MAHPMS was administered, and final course grades and semester averages were collected. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for all the study variables. Analysis of variance was utilized to examine within subjects and between subjects differences for the learning motivation scores among programs and demographic categories. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between learning motivation scores and end-of-semester grades. And finally, logistic regression was performed to explore the ability of the motivation scores to predict academically high-risk students. Approximately three-fourths of the students indicated a preference for mastery learning and an internal locus of control. For the PA students, alienation to learning and performance goal scores statistically related to semester grades, and alienation to learning scores predicted high-risk academic performance almost 90% of the time. For the medical students, mastery goal scores statistically related to semester grades, but no motivation score predicted high-risk performance. External locus of control scores predicted high-risk performance 81% of the time for the total group of students at the end of the semester. Students in this study exhibited learning motivation preferences similar to those of other health professions students reported in the literature. The findings of this study agreed with the literature on achievement motivation theory and raised questions regarding the effect of health professions curricula on student learning goals. Similar studies, measuring larger samples longitudinally need to be conducted in order to further validate or elucidate the results of this study.
- Educationally at-risk college students from single-parent and two-parent households: An analysis of differences employing Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) data.
- Using factors of low income, parents' levels of education, and family composition as determinants of educationally at-risk status, study investigated differences between first generation, undergraduate college students from families in lowest quintile of income in the U.S, One group consisted of students from single-parent households and the other of students from two-parent households. Data were from CIRP 2003 College Student Survey (CSS) and its matched data from the Freshman Survey (Student Information Form - SIF). Differences examined included student inputs, involvements, outcomes, and collegiate environments. Included is portrait of low income, first generation college students who successfully navigated U.S. higher education. The number of cases dropped from 15,601 matched SIF/CSS cases to 308 cases of low income, first generation college students (175 from single-parent households and 133 from two-parent households). Most of the 308 attended private, 4-year colleges. Data yielded more similarities than differences between groups. Statistically significant differences (p < .05) existed in 9 of 100 variables including race/ ethnicity, whether or not English was first language, and concern for ability to finance education as freshman. Data were not generalizable to all low income, first generation college students because of lack of public, 4-year and 2-year colleges and universities in dataset. Graduating seniors' average expected debt in June 2003 was $23,824 for students from single-parent households and $19,867 for those from two-parent households. 32% from single-parent households and 22% from two-parent households expected more than $25,000 of debt. Variables used on SIF proved effective tools to develop derived variables to identify low income, first generation college students from single-parent and two-parent households within CIRP database. Methodology to develop derived variables is explained.
- The Effect of Faculty Development on Active Learning in the College Classroom
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This study examined the effect of active learning seminars and a mentoring program on the use of active learning teaching techniques by college faculty. A quasi-experimental study was conducted using convenience samples of faculty from two private Christian supported institutions. Data for the study were collected from surveys and faculty course evaluations. The study lasted one semester. Faculty volunteers from one institution served as the experimental group and faculty volunteers from the second institution were the comparison group. The experimental group attended approximately eight hours of active learning seminars and also participated in a one-semester mentoring program designed to assist faculty in application of active learning techniques. Several individuals conducted the active learning seminars. Dr. Charles Bonwell, a noted authority on active learning, conducted the first three-hour seminar. Seven faculty who had successfully used active learning in their classrooms were selected to conduct the remaining seminars. The faculty-mentoring program was supervised by the researcher and conducted by department chairs. Data were collected from three surveys and faculty course evaluations. The three surveys were the Faculty Active Learning Survey created by the researcher, the Teaching Goals Inventory created by Angelo and Cross, and the college edition of Learner-Centered Practices by Barbara McCombs. The use of active learning techniques by the experimental group increased significantly more than the use by those in the convenience sample. No statistical difference was found in the change of professors' teaching beliefs or the course evaluation results.
- The Effects of Interactive Reviews and Learning Style on Student Learning Outcomes at a Texas State University
- This study investigated the effects of interactive lessons and learning style on student learning outcomes in self-defense education classes. The study utilized an experimental design that incorporated four self-defense education classes at the University of North Texas (UNT) during the fall semester 2007 (N = 87). A pre-test was administered during the first week of class to determine prior knowledge of the participants. The Visual Auditory Reading/Kinesthetic Inventory (VARK) was used to assess the learning styles of the students and was completed after the pre-test of knowledge was administered. The treatment group received the interactive lesson and the control received a paper review. The difference between the pre and posttest was used as a measure of improvement of the student's learning outcomes. A 2 (treatment/control) by 2 (pretest/posttest) ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted to examine the differential improvement in knowledge across the intervention. Based on the 2-way ANOVA there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group based on their learning outcomes. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine if there was a significant difference between the groups based on the pre and post test scores. Based on the results of a one week study it was determined that interactive lessons do make a significant impact on learning outcomes compared to traditional reviews.
- Enrollment Management in Higher Education : From Theory to Practice
- This study investigated enrollment management practices found in higher education. The research identified enrollment management and retention practices described in the higher education literature. These suggested practices were incorporated into a sixty-six question survey that was distributed to a random sample of colleges and universities taken from the 1999 US News and World Report of college rankings. The survey data were used to identify which of the suggested enrollment management practices were of greatest utility. First, the sixty-six items were grouped into 14 categories of enrollment management strategies. Second, the institutional responses for each category were averaged and then correlated with each institution's graduation rate. Finally, each institution's "yes" responses for the entire survey were totaled and correlated with each institution's graduation rate. This study developed a list of the 26 most frequently used enrollment management practices in higher education, and as well, identified the 10 least used enrollment management practices. Given the results of this study graduation rate is not a sufficient criterion to assess enrollment management practices at a college or university. Enrollment management strategies contribute to many institutional and student outcomes; thus, multiple indicators are required to accurately evaluate enrollment management practices.
- Ethics of Teaching: Beliefs and Behaviors of Community College Faculty
- This study examines the ethical beliefs and behaviors of full-time community college faculty. Respondents report to what degree they practice sixty-two behaviors as teachers and whether they believe the behaviors to be ethical. Survey participants engaged in few of the behaviors, and only reported two actions as ethical: (1) accepting inexpensive gifts from students and (2) teaching values or ethics. The participants reported diverse responses to questions about behavior of a sexual nature, but most agreed that sexual relationships with students or colleagues at the same, higher or lower rank were unethical. Additional findings relate to the presence of diversity among the faculty, using school resources to publish textbooks and external publications, selling goods to students, and an expansive list of other behaviors. Findings of this study are compared to results from earlier studies that utilized the same or similar survey instrument with teaching faculty. The study has implications for organizational policy and procedure, for faculty training and development, the teaching of ethics or values in the classroom and for future research.
- Evaluating a Doctoral Program in College and University Teaching: A Single Case Study
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This study assessed alumni of the College and University Teaching Program at the University of North Texas and how they perceived the training they received. Three hundred sixty alumni holding a college and university teaching degree were surveyed. One hundred forty-two usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 39.4 % was achieved. A survey instrument was used to gather alumni perceptions of learning experiences, academics, and professional benefits as a result of earning a doctorate in the major of college and university teaching at the University of North Texas. Alumni were asked their perceptions on the following: 1) the quality of graduate professional education in college and university teaching degree program, 2) whether they thought the goals and objectives of the program were met, and 3) their recommendations regarding the college and university teaching degree program. It is the overall opinion of the alumni that the quality of the graduate education in college and university teaching degree program was high. The majority of alumni indicated that the program should be reinstated and continued and if the program was still available they would recommend it to others.
- Evaluation of a Master of Divinity Program in a Theological Seminary
- The objective of this research project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the M.Div. program of Alliance Bible Seminary, Hong Kong. The research was designed for evaluation based solely upon the perceptions of the participant (graduate). The research identified and described the graduates enrolled, assessed perceived career development and attainment, and measured the degree of satisfaction experienced by the graduates who have matriculated from the degree program. A questionnaire was mailed to obtain the necessary data from the graduates of the M.Div. program of Alliance Bible Seminary. The questionnaire which was used was adapted from a previously used one used in the study of graduate educational programs. It has been tested in two other previous studies and was deemed effective. In order to verify its effectiveness in the Eastern context, a pilot test was conducted before the formal research, and the adapted questionnaire was found effective. Responses to the questionnaire were coded and the SPSS system was used to analyze the data. Tables and figures were constructed showing frequencies and significant differences where they occurred. Generally, the graduates at Alliance Bible Seminary were very satisfied with their educational experiences. Both males and females indicated that they would choose the same path again, and would recommend the program to others. The graduates were having full-time employment in the field of Christian ministry, and were positively attaining their career goals. The steps leading to the degree at Alliance Bible Seminary were perceived as very helpful and useful, not just the course work and independent reading, but also extre-curricular activities such as voluntary work on campus, Student Evangelistic Band, and interaction with faculty. Some aspects of the program need improvement and consolidation, such as freshmen advising in the majors, course work in the core, quality of instruction, varieties of course offered, and access to computing resources. A special concern should be made on spiritual formation activities. Over half of the respondents (55%) were not satisfied with this. This evaluation was the first of its kind in the history of the seminary. It emphasized the importance of keeping the institution responsive to the rapidly changing conditions of the society, especially in Hong Kong and China, where the focus of Christian ministry will be in the new century. Hopefully, this research project will kindle a series of research efforts that in the end will help the seminary creating an evaluation system within the institution, so that the institution is kept sensitive to the changing environment and can improve its programs accordingly.
- Factors affecting African American faculty job satisfaction at a historically black university and a predominantly white institution.
- This study sought to discover job satisfaction factors of African American faculty at a historically black university and a predominantly white institution. Data were gathered through the use of semi-structured interviews of 6 faculty members from a historically black university and 5 faculty from a predominantly white institution. Several themes emerged from the study. The most salient was that African American faculty at the historically black university were satisfied by their work with students, satisfied with the flexibility of their schedules, and dissatisfied with their pay, workload, and the lack of recognition that they receive from their institution. African American faculty at the predominantly white institution were satisfied by the impact the programs and courses they developed had upon students, satisfied with their job's freedom and flexibility, and dissatisfied with the ideas of being micromanaged or working with people who are not open and honest. The findings of this study showed that service is an important factor to job satisfaction of African American faculty and that there is a distinction between factors faculty are dissatisfied with but willing to endure and those that would cause them to leave an institution.
- Faculty Attitudes Toward Residential and Distance Learning: A Case Study in Instructional Mode Preferences Among Theological Seminary Faculty
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Twenty-first century learners have bought into a cafeteria-style mentality for obtaining higher education that learning should be available at the student's convenience. Institutions that ignore this postmodern trend will likely find their applicant pools dwindling along with significant reductions in entering class sizes. Students will simply choose other schools able to provide respected, accredited, and useful learning which fits their busy lifestyles. Since 1987, Dallas Theological Seminary (Texas), a 76-year-old graduate school of theology in the conservative, evangelical, free-church movement, has offered distance learning classes in both extension and print-based delivery models. Because the faculty plays a pivotal role in the successful or unsuccessful implementation of online courses (McKenzie, Mims, Bennett, & Waugh, 2000), the present study uncovered the attitudes of full-time, graduate theological faculty at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) regarding distance learning and the likelihood of faculty to adopt this delivery innovation. Bruce Manning's (1976) Trouble-Shooting Checklist (TSC) for Higher Education Institutions was the instrument used in the study. The TSC is a nonparametric test designed to uncover differences between the observed and expected levels of acceptance that a department, program, or institution possesses regarding change toward distance learning in contrast to residential learning. The checklist's two major purposes are to provide an overall norm-referenced, predictive score estimating the organization's likelihood of adopting and implementing an innovation and to profile the strengths and weaknesses of an organization's environment (culture) relative to the adoption and implementation of innovations. Five scales provide a comprehensive understanding of the organizational climate, personality and leadership characteristics of participants, communication pathways within the organization, the degree of sophistication or expertise within the organization, and the receptivity of the students. An official administration of the instrument was conducted involving all full-time faculty at DTS. Frequency counts, percentage distributions, and the chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic were used to analyze the data at the .05 alpha level. A summary of findings from the questionnaire was prepared indicating that significant change must take place within the faculty culture of DTS before distance learning innovations can be implemented.
- Faculty Practice Among Commission of Collegiate Nursing Education Accredited Nursing Schools
- This descriptive survey study investigated the value of faculty practice among Commission of Collegiate Nurse Education (CCNE) Accredited Nursing Schools. The sample included all CCNE accredited schools that offered a Masters degree. Subjects from the 66 schools in the sample the dean and three Nurse Practitioner faculty who are teaching a clinical course. Response rate was 51% for the deans and 35% for the faculty. The opinions of deans were compared to the opinions of faculty on the views of faculty practice as research and the incorporation of faculty practice in the tenure and merit review system. The results showed faculty and deans differed on the value of faculty practice as research. However, only 6.5 % of statistically significance difference was contributable to whether the response was from a dean of a faculty. There was no significant difference to the inclusion of faculty practice in the tenure and merit review system. Boyer's expanded definition of research was used as a theoretical background. Deans viewed faculty practice more important as compared to the traditional faculty expectation of research than faculty did. The operational definition of faculty practice was that it required scholarly outcomes from the practice. Deans were more willing than faculty to acknowledge there were scholarly measurable outcomes to evaluate faculty practice than faculty were. The greatest difference in opinion of outcomes was the deans were more willing to accept clinically focused articles as an outcome than faculty were. Faculty were asked how the money from faculty practice was distributed. Faculty overwhelmingly reported that money generated from faculty practice most often goes to the individual faculty member. Suggested areas for future research involve investigation of the role of tenure committees in tenure decisions relating to research and faculty practice.
- Faculty use of the World Wide Web: Modeling information seeking behavior in a digital environment
- There has been a long history of studying library users and their information seeking behaviors and activities. Researchers developed models to better understand these information seeking behaviors and activities of users. Most of these models were developed before the onset of the Internet. This research project studied faculty members' use of and their information seeking behaviors and activities on the Internet at Angelo State University, a Master's I institution. Using both a quantitative and qualitative methodology, differences were found between tenured and tenure-track faculty members on the perceived value of the Internet to meet their research and classroom information needs. Similar differences were also found among faculty members in the broad discipline areas of the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. Tenure-track faculty members reported a higher average Internet use per week than tenured faculty members. Based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with seven tenured and seven tenure-track faculty members, an Internet Information Seeking Activities Model was developed to describe the information seeking activities on the Internet by faculty members at Angelo State University. The model consisted of four basic stages of activities: "Gathering," "Validating," "Linking" with a sub-stage of "Re-validating," and "Monitoring." There were two parallel stages included in the model. These parallel stages were "Communicating" and "Mentoring." The Internet Information Seeking Activities Model was compared to the behavioral model of information seeking by faculty members developed by Ellis. The Internet Model placed a greater emphasis on validating information retrieved from the Internet. Otherwise there were no other substantive changes to Ellis' model.
- First-generation College Students: Their Use of Academic Support Programs and the Perceived Benefit
- The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which academically successful first-generation college students, compared to academically successful non-first-generation college students, used academic support programs provided by UNT and to measure their perception of the benefits of these programs. Differences were examined using information gathered from a Graduate Student Survey administered to students graduating in fall 2006 from the University of North Texas. Analysis of the data from the survey indicated that there was no statistical significance between the use and perception of benefit of academic support programs between the two groups. Overall, students that used academic support programs provided by the university believed they benefited from the programs they utilized. Both groups indicated that they believed the Math Lab provided the most benefit. The Graduating Student Survey also examined input, environment and output factors of academically successful first-generation and academically successful non-first-generation students. Again, both groups indicated similar responses to the questions asked. First-generation college students in this study were successful in graduating from the University of North Texas and utilized some of the resources provided by the university to do so.
- For-profit higher education programs in the United States.
- This study examined the extent of research and teaching on higher education programs in the United States that focuses on for-profit higher education. This descriptive study used a 30-item questionnaire to gather the information reported here. This survey instrument was sent to the entire population of interest. This population was made up of all of the programs in higher education that are listed in the ASHE Higher Education Program Directory, which is produced by the Association for the Study of Higher Education. The results of this research show that little research and teaching is being done that has a primary focus on for-profit higher education. Recommendations on how to address this are provided.
- The four major education GI Bills: A historical study of the shifting national purposes and accompanying changes in economic value to veterans.
- Benefits for soldiers follow the formation of ancient and present day armies raised for the purpose of extending the national or state will. Veterans' benefits for defenders of the U.S. emerged during the American colonial period. College benefits began after WWII with the GI Bill of Rights. This study examines the variations in purpose for nationally established educational benefits for veterans and the singular value to the veterans of these 5educational benefits. The study begins with an overview of the history of veterans' benefits. Primary emphasis is then placed on the educational portion of the World War II Servicemen's Readjustment Act and the current educational benefit, the Montgomery GI Bill. As the purpose of awarding educational benefits changed from World War II to the latest U.S. war, the Gulf War of 1990-1991, the economic value to the individual veteran also changed. The WWII GI Bill featured an educational provision intended to keep returning veterans out of the changing economy whereas current GI Bills is intended as a recruiting incentive for an all-volunteer force. Correspondingly, the economic value to the individual veteran has changed. Data supporting this study were extracted from historical documents in primary and secondary scholarly studies and writings, government documents, national newspapers and periodicals, Veterans Administration publications, service newspapers, and anecdotal writings. The study offers conclusions regarding the shifting purposes and economic value and recommends changes to current and future GI Bills. The conclusions of this study are: (a) the purpose of the Montgomery GI Bill is to serve as a recruitment tool for the armed force, whereas the WWII GI Bill emphasized concern over the return of millions of veterans to a changing wartime economy unable to offer full employment and, (b) the present GI Bill funds less than 50% of the costs for a 4-year degree while the first GI Bill fully funded a college degree, including tuition and living expenses.
- From reactionary to responsive: Applying the internal environmental scan protocol to lifelong learning strategic planning and operational model selection.
- This study describes and implements a necessary preliminary strategic planning procedure, the Internal Environmental Scanning (IES), and discusses its relevance to strategic planning and university-sponsored lifelong learning program model selection. Employing a qualitative research methodology, a proposed lifelong learning-centric IES process based on Bryson's (2004) strategic planning model was tested at a large public university in the American Southwest with the intention of both refining the IES process for general use in the field as well as providing a set of useable reference documents for strategic planners at that university. The prototype lifelong learning IES process as tested proved to be highly effective in identifying and categorizing previously unrecognized lifelong learning programming and organizational structures and, was reasonably efficient in process execution. Lessons learned from the application of the prototype lifelong learning IES procedure led to the development of a revised scanning procedure. This revised procedure is considered more reliable and can be accomplished by a single investigator in as little as 35 production hours, providing a detailed snapshot of the total university lifelong learning system and a point of departure for the larger strategic planning effort.
- Gender differences in college choice, aspirations, and self-concept among community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering.
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Educational researchers, practitioners, and policy makers have long expressed their concern that gender disparity of academic performance and participation in science and mathematics education continues to increase with educational progress of students through the pipeline. Educational and occupational aspirations, high school experience, external support from family members and significant others appear to be influential factors that develop strong self-concept among female students who aspire to study science and mathematics. Using a national sample of aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering majors in public community colleges, that participated in the 1996 Cooperative Institutional Research Program American Freshman Survey, this study investigated the influences of students' pre-college experiences on their college choice, aspirations, and self-concept by examining three theoretical structural models. In addition, gender differences were tested by using multiple group analysis. The findings from the multiple group analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant gender difference in predicting college choice, aspirations, and self-concept. The results from the descriptive analysis indicated that the female students were already underrepresented in science, mathematics, and engineering majors. Taken together, the findings challenge researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to examine why the persistent fall off, and how can community colleges support and retain these students who already enrolled. The results from the model fit analysis revealed that the encouragement from family and others played as a contributing factor in predicting students' college choice, aspirations, and self-concept. This study confirmed that the development of self-concept among community college students in science, mathematics, and engineering is complex and unique. Several recommendations that are pertaining to policy implications, improvement of practice, and future research to increase the representations of female students in science, mathematics, and engineering in the post-secondary education were developed from the findings of this study. The results of this study contribute to the research literature by providing new theoretical models and a comprehensive understanding of aspirants in science, mathematics, and engineering at community college as well as their surrounding environment.
- Graduate Professional Training in Christian Education at Dallas Theological Seminary and Alumni Perceptions of Program Quality
- This study assessed the quality of graduate professional training in Christian education at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) in terms of the perceptions of program alumni. The subjects of the investigation were 780 alumni who graduated from DTS between 1984 and 2000. The Christian Education program was assessed utilizing Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP model and alumni data collected from a survey instrument. A response rate of 65% (N=504) was achieved. The research procedure employed a non-experimental design methodology for the quantitative component and open-ended questions for the qualitative component. Most results were statistically significant at the .05 alpha level utilizing chi-square goodness-of-fit tests.
- Hardiness and public speaking anxiety: Problems and practices.
- This study explored the relationship between the personality construct of hardiness and public speaking anxiety. Although hardiness has been widely explored in a variety of anxiety-arousing life events, its relationship with communication anxiety had not been previously studied. Therefore, hardiness, public speaking trait anxiety, and public speaking state anxiety were measured in a course requiring an oral presentation assignment. One hundred fifty students enrolled in a basic speech communication course participated in the study. A statistically significant correlation was revealed between hardiness and trait communication anxiety. Students higher in hardiness reported lower trait communication apprehension in three contexts: 1) meeting, 2) interpersonal, and 3) group. Overall, students did not differ on measures of hardiness and a fourth communication context: public speaking anxiety. Likewise, on measures of hardiness and state public speaking anxiety, students did not differ.
- Hardiness, stress, and coping strategies among mid-level nurse managers: Implications for continuing higher education.
- This study investigated relationships among hardiness, stress, and coping strategies among mid-level nurse managers in hospitals. Coping strategies were hypothesized to be positively related to stress. In addition, hardiness and its components were hypothesized to be positively related to stress and coping strategies. Demographics were hypothesized to be unrelated to stress, hardiness, and coping strategies. Both hardiness and coping strategies were hypothesized to be predictors of stress. Pearson correlation coefficients, multiple regression, and linear regression were used in data analysis. Stress was associated with specific coping strategies viz., confrontation, selfcontrolling, accepting responsibility, and escape-avoidance. High hardiness, particularly commitment and challenge, was associated with low levels of stress and with problemfocused coping strategies. By contrast, low hardiness was associated with high stress and use of emotion-focused strategies. Significant demographics, when compared to study variables, included age, experience, time with supervisors, number of direct reports, highest degrees obtained, and formal or informal higher education in management. Young nurse managers who were less experienced in nursing and management, and who had fewer direct reports, reported the highest stress levels among nurse managers. High hardiness, particularly commitment, was a strong predictor of low levels of stress; use of escape-avoidance was a significant predictor of occupational stress. This study supported the theoretical suppositions of lower stress if hardiness and specific coping strategies are high among mid-level nurse managers. Potential exists for work-related stress to be reduced by increasing hardiness and adaptive coping strategies. Implications for higher education research and practice are discussed.
- Hazard mitigation and disaster preparedness planning at American Coastal University: Seeking the disaster-resistant university.
- This study employed a qualitative case study method to evaluate the efforts of one university to conduct hazard mitigation and disaster preparedness planning activities and used the Federal Emergency Management Agency framework and selected writings of sociologist and disaster researcher E.L. Quarantelli as models for evaluating the institution's approach. The institution studied was assigned a fictitious name and the identities of the study participants withheld in order to protect the integrity of the institution's planning efforts and its personnel. The study utilized a 92-item questionnaire, field interviews, and review and analysis of documentary materials provided by the institution for data collection purposes. Pattern-matching techniques were applied to identify themes and trends that emerged through the course of data collection. The results indicate the institution has developed an organizational culture that is broadly responsive to and engaged in disaster preparedness planning at multiple levels in a manner generally consistent with principles identified in select writings of Quarantelli. Results further indicate the institution has engaged in identifying hazard mitigation priorities but not in a manner consistent with that advocated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in its publication entitled Building a Disaster-Resistant University.
- High-temperature corrosion of aluminum alloys: Oxide-alloy interactions and sulfur interface chemistry
- The spallation of aluminum, chromium, and iron oxide scales is a chronic problem that critically impacts technological applications like aerospace, power plant operation, catalysis, petrochemical industry, and the fabrication of composite materials. The presence of interfacial impurities, mainly sulfur, has been reported to accelerate spallation, thereby promoting the high-temperature corrosion of metals and alloys. The precise mechanism for sulfur-induced destruction of oxides, however, is ambiguous. The objective of the present research is to elucidate the microscopic mechanism for the high-temperature corrosion of aluminum alloys in the presence of sulfur. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions on oxidized sulfur-free and sulfur-modified Al/Fe and Ni3Al(111). Evaporative deposition of aluminum onto a sulfur-covered iron surface results in the insertion of aluminum between the sulfur adlayer and the substrate, producing an Fe-Al-S interface. Aluminum oxidation at 300 K is retarded in the presence of sulfur. Oxide destabilization, and the formation of metallic aluminum are observed at temperatures > 600 K when sulfur is located at the Al2O3-Fe interface, while the sulfur-free interface is stable up to 900 K. In contrast, the thermal stability (up to at least 1100 K) of the Al2O3 formed on an Ni3Al(111) surface is unaffected by sulfur. Sulfur remains at the oxide-Ni3Al(111) interface after oxidation at 300 K. During annealing, aluminum segregation to the g ¢ -Al2O3-Ni3Al(111) interface occurs, coincident with the removal of sulfur from the interfacial region. A comparison of the results observed for the Al2O3/Fe and Al2O3/Ni3Al systems indicates that the high-temperature stability of Al2O3 films on aluminum alloys is connected with the concentration of aluminum in the alloy.