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- Academic Lineage and Student Performance in Medical School
- This research investigated the association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine whether the Carnegie classifications of medical school applicants' institutions of origin are associated with academic performance in medical school; (2) consider the relationship between the admission selectivity of the schools of origin and the academic performance of medical school students; (3) compare the performance of medical students from institutions under public governing control with students from privately controlled institutions; and (4) establish a model by which the relative academic strengths of applicants from a variety of undergraduate institutions can be understood more clearly based on the previous performance of medical students from schools with similar institutional characteristics. A review of the literature on medical school admissions was completed and used to develop this research. Medical students from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas who enrolled between the years 1990 and 1994 and graduated or were dismissed between the years 1994 and 1998 were selected as the sample for the study (n=933). The undergraduate institution of origin for each student was coded based on its Carnegie classification, admissions selectivity group, and whether its governing control was public or private. Because the sample was not randomly selected and the data likely would not meet the assumptions of equal means and variance with the population, nonparametric analyses of variance and multiple comparison tests were completed to compare the groups of the independent variables over each dependent variable. The analyses revealed that for the sample of medical students selected for this study there was an association between academic lineage and student performance in medical school. Differences were found among Carnegie classifications on the dependent variables of cumulative medical school grade point average, class rank, failure rate, and score on Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensure Examination. Further, it was found that admission selectivity was also associated with student performance in medical school for each dependent variable except failure rate. Finally, the study results indicated no association between public or private governing control and student performance in medical school.
- Adhesion/diffusion barrier layers for copper integration: carbon-silicon polymer films and tantalum substrates
- The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has identified the integration of copper (Cu) with low-dielectric-constant (low-k) materials as a critical goal for future interconnect architectures. A fundamental understanding of the chemical interaction of Cu with various substrates, including diffusion barriers and adhesion promoters, is essential to achieve this goal. The objective of this research is to develop novel organic polymers as Cu/low-k interfacial layers and to investigate popular barrier candidates, such as clean and modified tantalum (Ta) substrates. Carbon-silicon (C-Si) polymeric films have been formed by electron beam bombardment or ultraviolet (UV) radiation of molecularly adsorbed vinyl silane precursors on metal substrates under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies show that polymerization is via the vinyl groups, while Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) results show that the polymerized films have compositions similar to the precursors. Films derived from vinyltrimethyl silane (VTMS) are adherent and stable on Ta substrates until 1100 K. Diffusion of deposited Cu overlayers is not observed below 800 K, with dewetting occurred only above 400 K. Hexafluorobenzene moieties can also be incorporated into the growing film with good thermal stability. Studies on the Ta substrates demonstrate that even sub-monolayer coverages of oxygen or carbide on polycrystalline Ta significantly degrade the strength of Cu/Ta chemical interactions, and affect the kinetics of Cu diffusion into bulk Ta. On clean Ta, monolayer coverages of Cu will de-wet only above 600 K. A partial monolayer of adsorbed oxygen (3L O2 at 300 K) results in a lowering of the de-wetting temperature to 500 K, while saturation oxygen coverage (10 L O2, 300 K) results in de-wetting at 300 K. Carbide formation also lowers the de-wetting temperature to 300 K. Diffusion of Cu into the Ta substrate at 1100 K occurs only after a 5-minute induction period. This induction period increases to 10 min for partially oxidized Ta, 15 min for carbidic Ta and 20 min for fully oxidized Ta.
- Affective Reactions and Psychosocial Functioning in the Course of Psycho-Educational Assessment
- Every day, children throughout the United States are given psychological evaluations for many different clinical and psycho-educational purposes. Very little research has attempted to investigate children's responses to the experience of having intellectual and achievement tests administered. The goal of the current research was to explore the effect a psycho-educational evaluation has on children in areas of self-concept and anxiety. Dependent variables consisted of pre- and post-test measures of anxiety and self-concept. A total of 75 children in the 4th 5th and 6th grades were recruited after referral for evaluation and possible placement in the Talented and Gifted Program or Special Education. This study employed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), t-tests, multiple regression analysis, and correlational analysis. Findings included initial evidence that children endorsed decreased anxiety after psycho-educational assessments rather than increased anxiety, suggesting that fear of unknown situations may be more anxiety provoking than the actual situation itself, potentially beneficial findings for psychology and psychometric professionals who evaluate children daily. Students endorsement of academic self-concept significantly predicted anxiety after a psycho-educational evaluation, indicating that students who feel capable in academic areas may endorse less anxiety after an evaluation than students who do not feel academically capable. Finally, negative verbal interaction with parents significantly predicted lower general self-concept scores, providing evidence that the manner in which parents verbally relate to their children may have significant impact for the mental health of children.
- The Afro-British Slave Narrative: The Rhetoric of Freedom in the Kairos of Abolition
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The dissertation argues that the development of the British abolition movement was based on the abolitionists' perception that their actions were kairotic; they attempted to shape their own kairos by taking temporal events and reinterpreting them to construct a kairotic process that led to a perceived fulfillment: abolition. Thus, the dissertation examines the rhetorical strategies used by white abolitionists to construct an abolitionist kairos that was designed to produce salvation for white Britons more than it was to help free blacks. The dissertation especially examines the three major texts produced by black persons living in England during the late eighteenth centuryIgnatius Sancho's Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho (1782), Ottobauh Cugoano's Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slavery (1787), and Olaudah Equiano's The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (1789)to illustrate how black rhetoric was appropriated by whites to fulfill their own kairotic desires. By examining the rhetorical strategies employed in both white and black rhetorics, the dissertation illustrates how the abolitionists thought the movement was shaped by, and how they were shaping the movement through, kairotic time. While the dissertation contends that the abolition movement was rhetorically designed to provide redemption, and thus salvation, it illustrates that the abolitionist's intent was not merely to save the slave, but to redeem blacks first in the eyes of white Christians by opening blacks to an understanding and acceptance of God. Perhaps more importantly, abolitionists would use black salvation to buy back their own souls and the soul of their nation in the eyes of God in order to regain their own salvation lost in the slave trade. But ironically, they had to appear to be saving others to save themselves. So white abolitionists used the black narratives to persuade their overwhelmingly white audience that slavery was as bad for them as it was for the African slave. And in the process, a corpus of black writing was produced that gives current readers two glimpses of one world.
- An Analysis of the Ability of an Instrument to Measure Quality of Library Service and Library Success
- This study consisted of an examination of how service quality should be measured within libraries and how library service quality relates to library success. A modified version of the SERVQUAL instrument was evaluated to determine how effectively it measures library service quality. Instruments designed to measure information center success and information system success were evaluated to determine how effectively they measure library success and how they relate to SERVQUAL. A model of library success was developed to examine how library service quality relates to other variables associated with library success. Responses from 385 end users at two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers libraries were obtained through a mail survey. Results indicate that library service quality is best measured with a performance-based version of SERVQUAL, and that measuring importance may be as critical as measuring expectations for management purposes. Results also indicate that library service quality is an important factor in library success and that library success is best measured with a combination of SERVQUAL and library success instruments. The findings have implications for the development of new instruments to more effectively measure library service quality and library success as well as for the development of new models of library service quality and library success.
- Analyzing the financial condition of higher education institutions using financial ratio analysis.
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The problem concerned the financial indicators used to evaluate the financial condition of the six sister higher education institutions under the authority of the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges. The purposes were to determine the financial ratios that best indicate financial condition; to calculate those financial ratios for the six designated Oklahoma higher education institutions; and to evaluate and compare the financial condition of the six institutions. This study attempted to further the use of financial ratio analysis as an objective addition to subjective studies that examine an institution's definition of its mission, objectives, and goals and its own assessment of the degree to which its resources allow it to attain those goals. The data were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; the financial reports were audited by independent certified public accountants and presented to the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges; and John Minter Associates, Inc., provided the national norms. The set of financial ratios identified provides a means to study a single higher education institution through trend analysis and in comparison to national norms. It also works well with a sample of homogeneous institutions with interinstitutional comparison. The techniques are intended to provide a general profile of an institutions financial health. Cause-and-effect ratio analysis has been proposed as another technique to aid administrators in determining changes in their financial statements and what may have caused them. The study identified a set of financial ratios that summarize the financial condition of a higher education institution. The ratios helped to analyze the financial solvency and viability of the six Oklahoma higher education institutions and focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any stakeholder to acquire a basic comprehension of the most critical financial policies of institutions and their financial condition.
- Animals-as-Trope in the Selected Fiction of Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, and Toni Morrison
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In this dissertation, I show how 20th century African-American women writers such as Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, and Toni Morrison utilize animals-as-trope in order to illustrate the writers' humanity and literary vision. In the texts that I have selected, I have found that animals-as-trope functions in two important ways: the first function of animal as trope is a pragmatic one, which serves to express the humanity of African Americans; and the second function of animal tropes in African-American women's fiction is relational and expresses these writers' "ethic of caring" that stems from their folk and womanist world view. Found primarily in slave narratives and in domestic fiction of the 19th and early 20th centuries, pragmatic animal metaphors and/or similes provide direct analogies between the treatment of African-Americans and animals. Here, these writers often engage in rhetoric that challenges pro-slavery apologists, who attempted to disprove the humanity of African-Americans by portraying them as animals fit to be enslaved. Animals, therefore, become the metaphor of both the abolitionist and the slavery apologist for all that is not human. The second function of animals-as-trope in the fiction of African-American women writers goes beyond the pragmatic goal of proving African-Americans's common humanity, even though one could argue that this goal is still present in contemporary African-American fiction. Animals-as-trope also functions to express the African-American woman writer's understanding that 1) all oppressions stem from the same source; 2) that the division between nature/culture is a false onethat a universal connection exists between all living creatures; and 3) that an ethic of caring, or relational epistemology, can be extended to include non-human animals. Twentieth-century African-American writers such as Hurston, Walker, and Morrison participate in what anthropologists term, "neototemism," which is the contemporary view that humankind is part of nature, or a vision that Morrison would most likely attribute to the "folk." This perspective places their celebration of the continuous relations between humans and animals within a spiritual, indeed, tribal, cosmological construction. What makes these particular writers primarily different from their literary mothers, however, is a stronger sense that they are reclaiming the past, both an African and African-American history. What I hope to contribute with this dissertation is a new perspective of African-American women writers' literary tradition via their usage of animals as an expression of their "ethic of caring" and their awareness that all oppression stems from a single source.
- Asleep in the Arms of God
- A work of creative fiction in the form of a short novel, Asleep in the Arms of God is a limited-omniscient and omniscient narrative describing the experiences of a man named Wafer Roberts, born in Jack County, Texas, in 1900. The novel spans the years from 1900 to 1925, and moves from the Keechi Valley of North Texas, to Fort Worth and then France during World War One, and back again to the Keechi Valley. The dissertation opens with a preface, which examines the form of the novel, and regional and other aspects of this particular work, especially as they relate to the postmodern concern with fragmentation and conditional identity. Wafer confronts in the novel aspects of his own questionable history, which echo the larger concern with exploitative practices including racism, patriarchy, overplanting and overgrazing, and pollution, which contribute to and climax in the postmodern fragmentation. The novel attempts to make a critique of the exploitative rage of Western civilization.
- An Assessment of the Use of Seeding, Mowing, and Burning in the Restoration of an Oldfield to Tallgrass Prairie in Lewisville, Texas
- An examination of the effectiveness of seeding, burning, and mowing in the reestablishment of tallgrass prairie species on overgrazed and abandoned pastureland. The study site is a 20 acre tract on U.S. Corps of Engineers land below Lake Lewisville in Denton County, Texas. The site was partitioned into thirty-nine 40 by 40 meter plots with seeding (carried out in 1996) and management treatment (burning, mowing, and no maintenance carried out in 1998) randomly applied following a two level design. For each plot, nine stratified-random 0.1 m2 subplots were examined and shoot counts for each species recorded. The effects of the treatments on individual species and species richness were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA followed by a SNK multiple range test, both on ranked data. Community level analysis was conducted with both a MANOVA on ranked data and a Canonical Correspondence Analysis on raw data. Results indicate that seeding positively affected species richness, particularly when combined with either burning or mowing in the early spring. Mowing also significantly increased species richness in areas that were not seeded, while burning negatively affected species richness on unseeded plots. Treatments significantly affected community composition with treatments having the most clear effect on spring and summer forbs.
- Attribution to deviant and nondeviant social roles.
- A questionnaire was used to study causal attribution to social roles as influenced by perceived deviance of the role, instructions to identify with the role, and participant gender. The perceived deviance or nondeviance of the roles was determined by a pilot study. The roles were varied randomly through 12 hypothetical events, and identification or nonidentification instructions randomly assigned. The participants were 194 male and female university students. Participants gave the cause of each event and rated the cause on five dimensions: internality, externality, stability, globality, and controllability. Causal attribution to deviant social roles was found to result in a significantly higher across-scales score and to be more internal, less external, and more global than attribution to nondeviant roles. Participant gender showed an interaction with deviance overall and on the dimensions of stability and globality due to significantly higher ratings by women participants than those by men. Identification instructions did not produce a significant effect.
- Benchmarks in American Higher Education: Selected Approaches for Distance Education Copyright and Intellectual Property Policies
- An evaluation of American higher education distance education programs was conducted to explore how they approach intellectual property, copyright and information sharing/antitrust policy concerns for Internet-based programs. An evaluation of the current status of distance education and Internet-based training in higher education was conducted through a pilot study that included a random sample of 223 accredited institutions. Seventy-seven institutions responded to a survey, of which there were 14 Research I&II, 17 Doctorate I&II, and 46 Master's I&II institutions included in this study. A review of institutional policy approaches for these 77 institutions was conducted via Internet Web site and bulletin review. A multiple-case study was also conducted which included 10 of the top 30 accredited distance education institutions in America. Policy approaches were examined for all institutions and differences were discussed for public and private institutions as well as the following Carnegie Class institutions- Research I&II, Doctorate I&II and Master's I&II. Ten percent of all institutions that responded to the pilot study developed a written policy addressing antitrust/information-sharing concerns. Additionally, the data indicated that 22% of institutions in these Carnegie Class ranges published copyright and intellectual property policy on their institutions' Internet Web site. Ninety percent of the institutions in the case study advised of central control for the distance education program, as well as central control for copyright and intellectual property policy.
- The Computation of Ultrapowers by Supercompactness Measures
- The results from this dissertation are a computation of ultrapowers by supercompactness measures and concepts related to such measures. The second chapter gives an overview of the basic ideas required to carry out the computations. Included are preliminary ideas connected to measures, and the supercompactness measures. Order type results are also considered in this chapter. In chapter III we give an alternate characterization of 2 using the notion of iterated ordinal measures. Basic facts related to this characterization are also considered here. The remaining chapters are devoted to finding bounds fwith arguments taking place both inside and outside the ultrapowers. Conditions related to the upper bound are given in chapter VI.
- Counselor Effectiveness and Correlations With Select Demographic Variables for Masters Level Counseling Students
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Counselor education programs are charged with the responsibility to train students to be effective counselors. Despite relative consistency in academic and clinical experiences, some students are less effective than others. It was the intent of this research to investigate possible relationships which may exist between students' background and experiences and their levels of demonstrated counselor effectiveness as measured by the Counselor Rating Form - Short Version (CRF-S) and the Supervisor Rated-Counselor Interaction Analysis (SR-CIA). It was hypothesized that counselor effectiveness would be negatively correlated with prior teaching experience and level of religious participation. Data was collected using a demographic survey from masters level counseling students participating in their practicum semester. Counseling tapes from each of the participants were collected towards the end of the semester. These tapes were then rated by doctoral students using the CRF-S and the SR-CIA. The total sample size was 28. Regression analysis was used to investigate the hypotheses. Three models were constructed. The dependent variables used were scores from the CRF-S, the SR-CIA and a third comprised of a normalized composite of CRF-S and SR-CIA termed COMPOSITE. Each model used, as the independent variables, years of teaching experience, and hours of religious participation. Results from regression analysis suggested that a negative correlation existed between counseling effectiveness and years of teaching experience and a positive correlation between counselor effectiveness and hours of religious participation. Statistically significant results were not achieved for any of the models tested. Further investigation was conducted using effect size analysis. Small to medium effect sizes were achieved, however, suggesting that the models were detecting a negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and years of teaching experience, and a positive correlation between hours of religious participation and counselor effectiveness.
- Current and Future Trends in Computer Use in Elementary School Settings
- The study examined current and future trends in computer use in elementary school settings. A survey instrument was developed and validated for distribution to a random sample of 200 technology coordinators in the public school districts in the state of Texas from whom 95 responses were received. The survey instrument was used to obtain information about five areas of computer use in elementary schools. These areas are: physical configurations, instructional uses, implementation issues, training and staff development, and Internet use. The study found that all public school districts that participated in the study have acquired computer hardware in their elementary schools. In addition, some other advanced computer technology components are starting to be found in elementary schools, such as teacher workstations, CD-ROM, interactive video, computer multimedia, LCD panels, and laser printers. Respondents reported that elementary school teachers in their districts have incorporated computers into their classrooms as an instructional tool and many changes have occurred in teachers teaching styles due to computers. However, there are some problems that hinder the effective use of computers. The major problem is lack of training. A high percentage of respondents, 81.3%, indicated that the majority of their elementary school teachers had completed less than 30 hours of technology related professional development. Another problem was lack of funding which prevents most school districts from acquiring computer hardware and software. Currently, elementary schools in 87% of districts that participated in the study are connected to the Internet and the plan is that by the year 2001 all elementary schools will be connected.
- Customer induced uncertainty and its impact on organizational design
- How firms facing environmental uncertainty should organize their activities remains an important and challenging question for today's managers and organizational researchers. Proponents of contingency theory have argued that organizations must adjust their activities to fit the level of environmental uncertainty to ensure long-term survival. Although much work has been done on contingency theory, it is clear that our understanding of uncertainty is far from complete. One important aspect of today's organizations is their focus on service, mass customization, and continuous innovation. This focus often results in the customer being brought either into the organization or at least into closer contact with it. Even though the literature provides numerous evidences of the increasing customer focus, it is yet to empirically explain how the complications of customer-organizational interactions might create uncertainty for contemporary organizations. The traditional measure of uncertainty still considers customers as an environmental factor causing demand uncertainty while ignoring the complex nature of customer and organizational encounters. Seeking to further refine the concept of uncertainty and focusing on the contemporary business phenomena, this study develops measures aspects of customer induced uncertainty and examines their relationships with three organizational design variables. Specifically, this study explains the complicated nature of customer - organizational encounters that creates organizational uncertainty. Also, this study develops three operational measurement instruments for the three aspects of customer induced uncertainty. Finally, this study shows specific relationships between aspects of customer induced uncertainty and specific organizational design variables. This study conducted a mail survey of middle level managers. With a sample size of 118 the measurement instruments were shown to have validity and reliability using factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. Regression analyses indicate the presence of specific rather than general relationship between customer induced uncertainty variables and organizational design variables. Regression results suggested that the relationships between customer induced uncertainty variable and design variables were depended on the specific combination. For example, Customer acquisitiveness was negatively related to formalization where as Customer importance was positively related to professionalism. Results also suggested a possible positive relationship between decentralization and customer induced ambiguity. Although not without limitations, this study improves our understanding of contemporary environmental uncertainty. Moreover, it provides preliminary measurement instruments of customer induced uncertainty variables for numerous future studies. Overall, this study is a preliminary step toward further understanding of the uncertainty-design contingencies of contemporary and future organizations.
- A descriptive study of students who were accepted for admission at West Texas A&M University but did not enroll
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Each year, institutions of higher education devote valuable financial and personnel resources in the hope of enhancing student recruitment and matriculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics, the factors that influenced students decisions to apply for admission to a university, their educational intentions, and their reasons for not enrolling after they had been admitted. The subjects of the study were first-time freshmen accepted for admission to a mid-size, public, southwestern university who did not enroll for the fall 1997 semester. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing no-shows and enrolled students by gender, ethnicity, age, ACT/SAT score, and distance of their hometown from the university. There were more female no-shows, and more males enrolled than females; a greater percentage of no-shows reported the distance of their hometown to be more than 200 miles; and the mean test score for no-shows was higher. Factors important in the college selection process found to be statistically significant among the groups were: a greater percentage of Minorities than Caucasians reported the importance of the financial aid award or a scholarship offer; students living within 100 miles of the campus reported the proximity of the university as important, advice received from current or former students and high school counselors was more important to those living more than 100 miles from the campus. Cost of attendance and scholarships were important to students with the higher test scores. Statistically significant reasons cited by the no-shows for not enrolling were more Minorities than Caucasians reported financial difficulties and job demands; students living farther from the campus reported attending other universities while those living within 100 miles reported attending a community college. Recommendations the university studied could pursue include: developing a program to follow-up on the no-shows, directing more energy at recruiting students living within 200 miles of the university, and increasing the availability of scholarships.
- Developing Criteria for Extracting Principal Components and Assessing Multiple Significance Tests in Knowledge Discovery Applications
- With advances in computer technology, organizations are able to store large amounts of data in data warehouses. There are two fundamental issues researchers must address: the dimensionality of data and the interpretation of multiple statistical tests. The first issue addressed by this research is the determination of the number of components to retain in principal components analysis. This research establishes regression, asymptotic theory, and neural network approaches for estimating mean and 95th percentile eigenvalues for implementing Horn's parallel analysis procedure for retaining components. Certain methods perform better for specific combinations of sample size and numbers of variables. The adjusted normal order statistic estimator (ANOSE), an asymptotic procedure, performs the best overall. Future research is warranted on combining methods to increase accuracy. The second issue involves interpreting multiple statistical tests. This study uses simulation to show that Parker and Rothenberg's technique using a density function with a mixture of betas to model p-values is viable for p-values from central and non-central t distributions. The simulation study shows that final estimates obtained in the proposed mixture approach reliably estimate the true proportion of the distributions associated with the null and nonnull hypotheses. Modeling the density of p-values allows for better control of the true experimentwise error rate and is used to provide insight into grouping hypothesis tests for clustering purposes. Future research will expand the simulation to include p-values generated from additional distributions. The techniques presented are applied to data from Lake Texoma where the size of the database and the number of hypotheses of interest call for nontraditional data mining techniques. The issue is to determine if information technology can be used to monitor the chlorophyll levels in the lake as chloride is removed upstream. A relationship established between chlorophyll and the energy reflectance, which can be measured by satellites, enables more comprehensive and frequent monitoring. The results have both economic and political ramifications.
- Development of Cardiovascular Regulation in Embryos of the Domestic Fowl (Gallus Gallus), with a Partial Comparison to Embryos of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii)
- In adult vertebrates, cardiovascular regulation is accomplished by numerous systems with neural, hormonal and local components responsible for the majority of regulation. These regulatory components work in concert to maintain the essential function of blood perfusion to adult tissues. Given the essential nature of this function it is therefore surprising that the development of cardiovascular regulation during gestation is poorly understood. The majority of what is known is based on a single vertebrate model, the fetal lamb. The fetal lamb has been used in multiple studies due to the clear clinical applications and has been pivotal in understanding the onset of regulation in developing vertebrates. However, study on the fetal lamb is limited to the latter 40% of gestation and has the added complication of an in-utero developmental strategy. Therefore the primary focus of this dissertation was to characterize basic cardiovascular regulation in the chicken embryo to provided the needed information for it's use an alternative to the fetal lamb. Developing chicken embryos rely on both alpha and beta adrenergic tones to maintain normal heart rate and arterial blood pressure during incubation. However, on day 21, just prior to hatch, these animals lose both tones on arterial pressure suggesting the onset of adult regulation. Cholinergic tone, however, was absent throughout chicken development indicating that it must mature during the neonatal life. Adult cardiovascular reflexes become apparent late in chicken development with a clear baroreflex specifically operating initially on day. However, an adult response to changes in ambient gas tension was absent during incubation suggesting embryos possess unique regulatory systems that are absent in adult chickens. This mechanism is comprised entirely of adrenergic systems with no cholinergic action during change in ambient gas tension. Similar developmental patterns were determined in embryos of the desert tortoise suggesting fundamental differences between in-utero and ex-utero developing vertebrates.
- A Different Drummer: A Chamber Opera
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A Different Drummer is a chamber opera adaptation of Donald Davis's story "A Different Drummer" from his collection Listening for the Crack of Dawn, published by August House. The opera lasts about seventy minutes, and calls for a cast of three and an orchestra of sixteen players. It contains a prologue, epilogue and four scenes in a single act. The score is prefaced by a paper describing the musical strategies employed in setting the story as an opera. Three chapters describe the adaptation from short story to opera, the essential musical elements, and details of the application of the musical elements in each scene of the opera. The libretto is presented in the fourth chapter.
- A Discrimination of Software Implementation Success Criteria
- Software implementation projects struggle with the delicate balance of low cost, on-time delivery and quality. The methodologies and processes used to create and maintain a quality software system are expensive to deploy and result in long development cycle-time. However, without their deployment into the software implementation life-cycle, a software system will be undependable, unsuccessful. The purpose of this research is to identify a succinct set of software implementation success criteria and assess the key independent constructs, activities, carried out to ensure a successful implementation project. The research will assess the success of a software implementation project as the dependent construct of interest and use the software process model (methodology) as the independent construct. This field research involved three phases: (1) criteria development, (2) data collection, and (3) testing of hypotheses and discriminant analysis. The first phase resulted in the development of the measurement instruments for the independent and dependent constructs. The measurement instrument for the independent construct was representative of the criteria from highly regarded software implementation process models and methodologies, e.g., ISO9000, Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (SEI CMM). The dependent construct was developed from the categories and criteria from the Delone and McLean (1992) MIS List of Success Measures. The data collection and assessment phase employed a field survey research strategy to 80 companies involved in internal software implementation. Both successful and unsuccessful software implementation projects (identified by the Delone/McLean model) participated. Results from 165 projects were collected, 28 unsuccessful and 137 successful. The third phase used ANOVA to test the first 11 hypotheses and employed discriminant analysis for the 12th hypothesis to identify the "best set" of variables, criteria, that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful software implementation projects. Twelve discriminating variables out of 67 were identified and supported as significant discriminators between successful and unsuccessful projects. Three of the 11 constructs were found not to be significant investments for the successful projects.
- Ecological Enhancement of Timber Growth: Applying Compost to Loblolly Pine Plantations
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This study explored the application of compost onto a small loblolly pine tree forest in northeast Texas. Its purpose was to determine if the application of various amounts of compost would provide for accelerated rates of growth for the trees. Soil parameters were also monitored. A total of 270 trees were planted and studied in a northeast Texas forest ecosystem. Compost rates of 5, 25, and 50 tons per acre with either soil or compost backfill were utilized and compared to a control without compost. Nonparametric and parametric ANOVA and Chi-Square tests were utilized. The results indicated that greater application rates retained greater moisture and higher pH levels in the soil. Compost applications also yielded a greater survival rate as well as larger tree height and diameter when compared to the control. The 25 ton/acre application backfilled in native soil achieved the greatest average in height and diameter when compared to the averages for the control plot. Greater growth differences for the 25S application can be attributed to additional nutrients coupled with a stable pH consistent with native soil acidity.
- The Effect of Increased Collaboration Among the Library Media Specialist and School Personnel on Perceptions of the Roles and Responsibilities of the Library Media Specialist
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This study measured and explored changes in perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of the library media specialist when the level of collaboration increased. Seven library media specialists targeted four members of their educational communities with whom to increase collaborative activities. Before and after the collaboration began, the library media specialists, the teachers with whom they chose to collaborate, other members from the same educational community, and a control group that did not participate in increased collaboration were given a roles and responsibilities rank-order form. This form was used to measure changes in perceptions regarding the importance of the three roles and selected responsibilities related to the three roles before and after the collaborative experience. The library media specialists and the targeted teachers also kept reflection logs to record factors that enhanced collaboration, factors that inhibited collaboration, and any changes in their teaching style as a result of the collaborative experience. Results indicate that the participating library media specialists themselves experienced the most change. Role identification remains a problem as library media specialists seek to become teaching partners with classroom teachers yet still must keep the library media center aligned with school and district goals and move toward making it an information center that provides information resources for all members of the educational community in an effective, efficient and timely manner. Major enhancers to increased collaboration included flexible scheduling of the library, sharing ideas and resources, partnership in teaching, and student achievement. Major inhibitors included time, wanting to keep things the way they were, and lack of resources. Changes in teaching practice included working with another professional instead of in isolation, integrating many resources into the lesson to provide for the learning needs of all students, the incorporation of technology into the lesson, and an awareness of the roles of both library media specialists and teachers.
- The Effects of Age, Sex, and Class Stratification and the Use of Health Care Services among Older Adults in the United Kingdom
- As the population ages, providing health services for the growing number of older people will become an increasingly difficult problem. In countries where the health services are provided by the government, these problems are involved with complicated issues of finance and ethics. This is the case of the National Health Service, the government institution providing health care for the citizens of the United Kingdom. Knowing what social factors influence health care usage can be a link to match usage and funding. Literature has shown that health care utilization can be predicted by social factors, as well as the medical model, and from this orientation social variables were drawn from the 1994 General Household Survey. Social factors were analyzed to determine relationships that exist between certain types of health care use and these factors. Age, sex, and class, the three main factors shown in literature to affect usage, were then analyzed to determine if services are allocated on the basis of these factors or the basis of need from illness and disability. Results of the study show that of the predisposing variables, age, sex, and class, are associated with most types of health care use. From the enabling variables, both source of income and visits from friends and relatives are associated with most types of health care. Of the illness determinants, disability, limiting illness, restricted activity days and eyesight difficulty were all related to health care use. When intervening control variables were introduced, the intervening control variables of difficulty with activities of daily living and difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living had an explanatory effect on the use of home help, district nursing, consultations with a general practitioner at home, consultations with a general practitioner at a surgery or health clinic, and inpatient stays. These services were offered more according to need than the factors of age, sex, and class.
- The Effects of Task-Based Documentation Versus Online Help Menu Documentation on the Acceptance of Information Technology
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The objectives of this study were (1) to identify and describe task-based documentation; (2) to identify and describe any purported changes in users attitudes when IT migration was preceded by task-based documentation; (3) to suggest implications of task-based documentation on users attitude toward IT acceptance. Questionnaires were given to 150 university students. Of these, all 150 students participated in this study. The study determined the following: (1) if favorable pre-implementation attitudes toward a new e-mail system increase, as a result of training, if users expect it to be easy to learn and use; (2) if user acceptance of an e-mail program increase as expected perceived usefulness increase as delineated by task-based documentation; (3) if task-based documentation is more effective than standard help menus while learning a new application program; and (4) if training that requires active student participation increase the acceptance of a new e-mail system. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Positive pre-implementation attitudes toward a new e-mail system are not affected by training even if the users expect it to be easy to learn and use. (2) User acceptance of an e-mail program does not increase as perceived usefulness increase when aided by task-based documentation. (3) Task-based documentation is not more effective than standard help menus when learning a new application program. (4) Training that requires active student participation does not increase the acceptance of a new e-mail system.
- Everything and Nothing at the Same Time
- This paradoxically titled collection of poems explores what the blues and blindness has come to mean to the author.
- An Examination of David Maslanka's Marimba Concerti: Arcadia II for Marimba and Percussion Ensemble and Concerto for Marimba and Band, A Lecture Recital, Together With Three Recitals of Selected Works of K.Abe, M. Burritt, J. Serry, and Others
- Although David Maslanka is not a percussionist, his writing for marimba shows a solid appreciation of the idiomatic possibilities developed by recent innovations for the instrument. The marimba is included in at least eighteen of his major compositions, and in most of those it is featured prominently. Both Arcadia II: Concerto for Marimba and Percussion Ensemble and Concerto for Marimba and Band display the techniques and influences that have become characteristic of his compositional style. However, they express radically different approaches to composition due primarily to Maslanka's growth as a composer. Maslanka's traditional musical training, the clear influence of diverse composers, and his sensitivity to extra-musical influences such as geographic location have resulted in a very distinct musical style. His exemplary attention to detail and sound timbres give his works an individualized stamp. The evolution of motivic gestures is the most distinctive characteristic of Maslanka's compositional process. Maslanka freely incorporates forms and structural principles of the baroque and classical periods, but these principles are not applied in a strict sense. These factors combine to produce two works that are both unique and significant in the literature for marimba. They exhibit a sensitivity to sound timbres while maintaining a mature approach to melody, harmony, and rhythm acknowledging the traditions of earlier eras. This study examines compositional techniques, aspects of formal structure, tonality, melodic content, and marimba technique found in David Maslanka's Arcadia II: Concerto for Marimba and Percussion Ensemble (1982), and Concerto for Marimba and Band (1990). Transcripts of personal interviews provide valuable insights into Maslanka's approach to composition and other issues pertinent to the study of his compositions for marimba. Biographical information and an overview of his works that include marimba will serve as background material.
- Examining the nature of interactions which facilitate learning and impact reading achievement during a reading apprenticeship: A case study of at-risk adolescent readers
- The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the interactions that take place during a reading apprenticeship which facilitate the learning of reading strategies by adolescent students who are at the middle school level and are still at-risk for reading failure and to investigate how a reading apprenticeship affects reading achievement in the areas of fluency, vocabulary development, comprehension, and the self-perception of the reader. The case study was descriptive and interpretive in nature, and examined two students, each of whom was part of a one-to-one reading apprenticeship. The researcher served as participant observer in both cases and was the teacher in each of the one-to-one reading apprenticeships. The primary data set was qualitative in nature, and elements of quantitative data were also considered. Sessions included pretesting and posttesting using the Classroom Assessment of Reading Processes (Swearingen & Allen, 1997), reading from narrative or expository books, working with words, writing, and dialoguing about the reading. Reading strategies were directly taught, modeled, and reinforced by the teacher/researcher with the goal of the students internalizing the strategies and improving their reading in the areas of fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension, as well as improving their attitudes toward reading and their self-perception about their reading ability. This study described a reading apprenticeship which positively impacted reading achievement for two students in the areas of fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary development, as well as influencing their motivation for reading and their self-perceptions as readers. The environment of the reading apprenticeship, the dialogue that occurred throughout the reading apprenticeship, and strategy instruction, modeling, and reinforcement were found to be factors and interactions which facilitated learning during this intervention.
- Explorations with polycarbocyclic cage compounds
- A variety of novel cage-functionalized pyridyl containing crown ethers have been prepared for use in selective alkali metal complexation studies. A highly preorganized, cage-functionalized cryptand also has been designed and has been synthesized for use as a selective Li+ complexant. The alkali metal picrate extraction profiles of these cage-functionalized crown ethers also have been studied. Novel cage-functionalized diazacrown ethers have been prepared for selective alkali metal complexation studies. Alkali metal picrate extraction experiments have been performed by using this new class of synthetic ionophores to investigate the effects of cage-annulation and the influence of N-pivot lariat sidearms upon their resulting complexation properties. Novel pyridyl containing calixarene receptors were prepared. Analysis of their respective 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra suggests that calixarene moieties in the ligand occupy the cone conformation. The complexation properties of these host molecules were estimated by performing a series of alkali metal picrate extraction experiments. An optically active cage-functionalized crown ether which contains a binaphthyl moiety as the chiral unit was prepared. The ability of the resulting optically active crown ether to distinguish between enantiomers of guest ammonium ions (i.e., phenylethylamonium and phenylglycinate salts) in transport experiments was investigated. Hexacyclo[11.2.1.02,12.05,10.05,15.010,14]hexadeca-6,8-diene-4,11-dione was prepared from hexacyclo[7.4.2.01,9.03,7.04,14.06,15] pentadeca-10,12-diene-2,8-dione. Unanticipated but remarkable acid and base promoted rearrangements of this new cage dione to novel polycyclic systems were observed and subsequently were investigated. The structures of the new systems thereby obtained were determined unequivocally by application of X-ray crystallographic methods. It is noteworthy that the reactions reported herein each provide the corresponding rearranged product in high yield in a single synthetic step. Pi-facial and regioselectivity in the thermal Diels-Alder cycloaddition between hexacyclo[11.2.1.02,12.05,10.05,15.010,14]hexadeca-6,8-diene- 4,11-dione and ethyl propiolate have been explored. This reaction proceeds via stereospecific approach of the dienophile toward the syn face of the diene p -system. However, [4+2]cycloaddition proceeds with only modest proximal/distal regioselectivity. The structure of the minor reaction product was established unequivocally via application of X-ray crystallographic techniques.
- Factors Influencing How Students Value Asynchronous Web Based Courses
- This dissertation discovered the factors influencing how students value asynchronous Web-based courses through the use of qualitative methods. Data was collected through surveys, observations, interviews, email correspondence, chat room and bulletin board transcripts. Instruments were tested in pilot studies of previous semesters. Factors were identified for two class formats. The asynchronous CD/Internet class format and the synchronous online Web based class format. Also, factors were uncovered for two of the instructional tools used in the course: the WebCT forum and WebCT testing. Factors were grouped accordingly as advantages or disadvantages under major categories. For the asynchronous CD/Internet class format the advantages were Convenience, Flexibility, Learning Enhancement, and Psychology. The disadvantages included Isolation, Learning Environment, and Technology. For the synchronous online Web based class format the advantages were Convenience, Flexibility, Human Interaction, Learning Enhancement and Psychology, whereas the disadvantages included Isolation, Learning Environment and Technology. Concurrently, the study revealed the following factors as advantages of the WebCT Forum: Help Each Other, Interaction, Socialization, Classroom News, and Time Independent. The disadvantages uncovered were Complaints, Technical Problems and Isolation. Finally, advantages specified for the WebCT testing tool were Convenience, Flexibility and Innovations, and its disadvantages were Surroundings Not Conducive to Learning, and Technical Problems. Results indicate that not only classroom preference, learning style and personality type influence how students value a Web based course, but, most importantly, a student's lifestyle (number of personal commitments, how far they live, and life's priorities). The WebCT forum or bulletin board, and the WebCT testing or computerized testing were seen mostly by students, as good tools for encouraging classroom communication and testing because of the convenience and flexibility offered. Still, further research is needed both quantitatively and qualitatively to ascertain the true weight of the factors discovered in this study.
- Fractional Integration and Political Modeling
- This dissertation investigates the consequences of fractional dynamics for political modeling. Using Monte Carlo analyses, Chapters II and III investigate the threats to statistical inference posed by including fractionally integrated variables in bivariate and multivariate regressions. Fractional differencing is the most appropriate tool to guard against spurious regressions and other threats to inference. Using fractional differencing, multivariate models of British politics are developed in Chapter IV to compare competing theories regarding which subjective measure of economic evaluations best predicts support levels for the governing party; egocentric measures outperform sociotropic measures. The concept of fractional cointegration is discussed and the value of fractionally integrated error correction mechanisms are both discussed and demonstrated in models of Conservative party support. In Chapter V models of presidential approval in the United States are reconfigured in light of the possibilities of fractionally integrated variables. In both the British and American case accounting for the fractional character of all variables allows the development of more accurate multivariate models.
- From Theory to Practice: A First Look at Success for Life - A Brain Research-Based Early Childhood Program
- Success For Life (SFL) is a brain research-based program for children, birth through age six. This research examined the development and implementation of SFL in 13 early childhood settings. Participants were 24 female early childhood teachers and 146 (73 male) children. Teachers included seven infant, four toddler, nine preschool and four kindergarten teachers. Children included infants(n=29), toddlers(n=27), and prek/kindergartners (n=90). A Request for Proposals was disseminated to identify possible implementation sites. After participation was confirmed, teachers attended a full day's training which included a description of brain development/function, the latest brain research, how to implement SFL and other logistics of the study. Program implementation occurred over approximately four months. A field site coordinator visited each site bimonthly to provide on-going technical assistance. This was an intervention project with a pre and post implementation design. Four instruments were used: a teacher questionnaire, a classroom environment measure, a child measure and teacher journals. Results suggested that teachers became more knowledgeable about brain development research and about how children grow and learn. Teachers were better able to make connections between brain research findings and how to apply these findings to their programs and daily activities. Likewise, the environment measure indicated that teachers were better able to arrange environments for learning. They reported that children showed significant increases in skills development and performance in the following areas: physical mastery, social relations/interactions, cognitive development, and language/communications. Additionally, teachers reported improvements in emotional expression and well-being among infants and toddlers. Toddlers and preschoolers showed significant increases in creative/ artistic expression. Finally, teachers indicated that preschoolers showed increases in initiative, use of logic/mathematics skills, and musical coordination and movement. Research findings suggest that Success For Life is able to bridge the gap between theory and practice and benefits children, teachers and programs.
- Hearing History: Musical Borrowing in the Percussion Ensemble Works, Duo Chopinesque and Chameleon Music
- Duo Chopinesque by Michael Hennagin and Chameleon Music by Dan Welcher represent two of the most significant percussion ensemble compositions written in the last twenty years. Both works are written for the mostly mallet type of percussion ensemble wherein the keyboard instruments predominate. However, the most unique aspect of these two pieces is their use of musical quotation. Duo Chopinesque borrows Chopin's Prelude in E minor in its entirety, while Chameleon Music borrows portions from four Mozart Sonatas. This paper places each work within the history of the percussion ensemble, and in the larger history of musical quotation in the twentieth century. In addition, the compositional characteristics of both works are examined with particular emphasis on each composer's use of borrowed material from the music of Mozart and Chopin. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between quoted material and newly composed rhythmic motives.
- Information Seeking in a Virtual Learning Environment
- Duplicating a time series study done by Kuhlthau and associates in 1989, this study examines the applicability of the Information Search Process (ISP) Model in the context of a virtual learning environment. This study confirms that students given an information seeking task in a virtual learning environment do exhibit the stages indicated by the ISP Model. The six-phase ISP Model is shown to be valid for describing the different stages of cognitive, affective, and physical tasks individuals progress through when facing a situation where they must search for information to complete an academic task in a virtual learning environment. The findings in this study further indicate there is no relationship between the amount of computer experience subjects possess and demonstrating the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions described by the ISP Model. The study demonstrates the ISP Model to be independent of the original physical library environments where the model was developed. An attempt is made to represent the ISP model in a slightly different manner that provides more of the sense of motion and interaction among the components of thoughts, feelings, and action than is currently provided for in the model. The study suggests that the development of non-self-reporting data collection techniques would be useful in complementing and furthering research to enhance and refine the representation of the ISP Model. Additionally, expanding the research to include the examination of group interaction is called for to enhance the ISP Model and develop further applications that could potentially aid educational delivery in all types of learning environments.
- An Investigation of the Efficacy of Play Therapy with Young Children
- This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of play therapy as a method of intervention for children with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Specifically, the study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of play therapy in: (a) improving self-concepts of children with adjustment difficulties; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression; (c) reducing externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression and delinquent behaviors; (d) reducing overall behavior problems, social problems, thought problems, and attention problems of children with adjustment difficulties; and (e) reducing parenting stress of parents of children who were experiencing adjustment difficulties.The experimental group consisted of 15 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and received play therapy once per week for 7 to 10 weeks. The control group consisted of 14 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and who were on a waiting list to receive intervention, and therefore, did not receive any treatment during the time of data collection. Experimental and control group children were administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test and parents of all participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Parenting Stress Index at pretest and posttest data collection times. A gain scores analysis revealed that children in the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement on internalizing behavior problems. Also, a reduction in externalizing behavior problems and parenting stress was observed. No improvement in self-concept was demonstrated. This study provides evidence that play therapy is a viable intervention for treating a variety of emotional and behavioral difficulties in young children, particularly children who are experiencing internalizing behavior problems.
- John Buchan (1875-1940) and the First World War: A Scot's Career in Imperial Britain
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This dissertation examines the political career of Scottish-born John Buchan (1875-1940) who, through the avenue of the British Empire, formed political alliances that enabled him to enter into the power circles of the British government. Buchan's involvement in governmental service is illustrative of the political and financial advantages Scots sought in Imperial service. Sources include Buchan's published works, collections of correspondence, personal papers, and diaries in the holdings of the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. Letters and other documents pertaining to Buchan's life and career are also available in the Beaverbrook papers, Lloyd George papers, and Strachey papers at the House of Lords Record Office, London, and in the Liddle Hart Collection at King's College, London. Documents concerning Buchan's association with the War Cabinet, the Foreign Office, and the Department of Information are among those preserved at the Public Record Office, London. References to Buchan's association with the British Expeditionary Force in France are included in the holdings of the Intelligence Corps Museum, Ashford, Kent. The study is arranged chronologically, and discusses Buchan's Scottish heritage, his education, his assignment on Lord Alfred Milner's staff in South Africa, and his appointment as Director of the Department of Information during World War I. The study devotes particular attention to Buchan's leadership of the Department of Information, a propaganda arm of the British government during the First World War. Buchan consolidated independent branches of propaganda production and distribution, and coordinated the integration of information provided by the British Foreign Office, War Office, and the Department of Information's Intelligence Bureau to forward Britain's propaganda effort. The study also considers his literary contributions, his Parliamentary service, and, when raised to the peerage as Lord Tweedsmuir of Elsfield, his royal commission as Governor-General of Canada. This dissertation concludes that, while pursuing an imperial career, John Buchan established a relationship with a powerful clique that enabled him to become part of the machinery of state.
- Korean studies in North America 1977-1996: A bibliometric study
- This research is a descriptive bibliometric study of the literature of the field of Korean studies. Its goal is to quantitatively describe the literature and serve as a model for such research in other area studies fields. This study analyzed 193 source articles and 7,166 citations in the articles in four representative Korean and Asian studies journals published in North America from 1977 to 1996. The journals included in this study were Korean Studies (KS), the Journal of Korean Studies (JKS), the Journal of Asian Studies (JAS), and the Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (HJAS). Subject matters and author characteristics of the source articles were examined, along with various characteristics such as the form, date, language, country of origin, subject, key authors, and key titles of the literature cited in the source articles. Research in Korean studies falls within fourteen broad disciplines, but concentrated in a few disciplines. Americans have been the most active authors in Korean studies, followed closely by authors of Korean ethnicity. Monographic literature was used most. The mean age of publications cited was 20.87 and the median age of publications cited was 12. The Price Index of Korean studies as a whole is 21.9 percent. Sources written in English were most cited (47.1%) and references to Korean language sources amounted to only 34.9% of all sources. In general, authors preferred sources published in their own countries. Sources on history were cited most by other disciplines. No significant core authors were identified. No significant core literature were identified either. This study indicates that Korean studies is still evolving. Some ways of promoting research in less studied disciplines and of facilitating formal communication between Korean scholars in Korea and Koreanists in North America need to be sought in order to promote well-balanced development in the field. This study suggests that as many and as great a variety of titles in all formats as possible need to be collected to support research in Korean studies.
- The law and human rights: is the law a mere parchment barrier to human rights abuse?
- This study is the first systematic global analysis of the impact of law on human rights, analyzing the impact of twenty-three constitution provisions and an international covenant on three measures of human rights behavior, over the period of 1976-1996. Three sets of constitutional provisions are analyzed, including 1) ten provisions for individual freedoms and due process rights, 2) nine provisions for elements of judicial independence and 3) four provisions that outline procedures for states of emergency. Additionally, the impact of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on actual human rights behavior is analyzed. Each of these areas of law are evaluated individually, in multiple models in which different elements vary. For example, some models control for democracy with different measures, others divide the data into the Cold War and post-Cold War eras, and some test constitutional indices. Finally, all provisions are simultaneously analyzed in integrated models. Provisions for fair and public trials are consistently shown to decrease the probability of abuse. An index of four freedoms (speech, religion, association, and assembly) decreases the probability of abuse somewhat consistently. Three of the provisions for judicial independence are most consistent in reducing the probability of abuse: the provisions for exclusive judicial authority, for the finality of judges' decisions, and banning exceptional courts. Two of four states of emergency provisions decrease abuse as international lawyers have argued: the provisions for legislative declaration of the emergency and the ban against dissolving the legislature during an emergency. However, two of the provisions are shown to hurt human rights practices: the duration and the derogation provisions. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights does not demonstrate a statistically significant impact. While the performance of the constitutional provisions is less than legal scholars would hope, their combined impact over time are shown to be quite large, relative to the impacts of other factors shown to affect human rights abuse.
- Measuring change in university counseling center students: Using symptom reduction and satisfaction with services to propose a model for effective outcome research
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Abstract This study proposes a model for meeting increasingly mandated outcome research objectives in a university counseling center setting. It is proposed that counseling centers utilize their existing intake forms, along with an annual satisfaction survey to determine the effectiveness of counseling services. Effectiveness is defined as improvement and measured by the reduction of the symptoms or presenting concerns with which the client initially presented. It also introduces the Relative-Change Index (R-Chi) as an objective way to quantify intra-individual change occurring as a result of therapy. This new mathematical procedure allows for a more meaningful assessment of the client's degree of improvement, relative to their potential for improvement. By re-administering the problem checklist, routinely included as part of the initial paperwork for each client at intake, again post-therapy, it is possible to quantify improvement by measuring the difference in distressing concerns. Additionally, including a subjective, retrospective survey question asking the client to indicate their perceived rate if improvement at follow-up provides construct validity and allows for correlational comparisons with R-Chi. Results suggest that student/client ratings of the degree to which the services they received satisfactorily addressed their presenting concerns were significantly rated to their R-Chi score. This model suggests that the framework guiding client outcome research should include measures of the client's level of distress, improvement in reducing the distress, and satisfaction with services.
- Media effects on the body shape ideal and bulimic symptomatology in males
- This study investigates the impact of sociocultural mediators in relation to eating disorders among male undergraduates. Literature on eating disorders has demonstrated that a thin body shape ideal depicted in the media directly contributes to eating pathology among females, but little research has investigated the direct effects of ideal body shape images among men. The focus of the present investigation was to assess the direct effects of exposure to the ideal male body shape on mens affect, self esteem, body satisfaction, and endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. In addition, the relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. Modeling a study conducted on women (Stice & Shaw, 1994), male undergraduates between the ages of 18 to 25 participated in premeasure (N = 169) and post measure (N = 95) conditions. Participants in the post measure were randomly exposed to pictures from magazines containing either male models depicting the ideal body shape, an average body or pictures of clothing without models. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated that exposure to the ideal body shape condition did not demonstrate significant negative changes in mens affect, self esteem, body satisfaction or endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. Indirect support for the sociocultural theory of eating disorders was provided by multiple regression analyses which demonstrated that increased body mass, self esteem, stress and anxiety predicted bulimic symptomatology in men. Future research should direct itself toward investigating possible sociocultural influences of eating disorders on certain male subenvironments, such as athletes or homosexual males that place a greater emphasis on maintaining lower body mass and an ideal body shape.
- Mentoring in Nursing Doctoral Education: Processes, Perceptions, Problems and Prospects
- This study described the mentoring relationship between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Twenty-two public university doctoral programs responded to a request for names and addresses of their doctoral candidates. The Major Professor Mentoring Scale was used to measure the mentoring relationship. The survey also included demographic and open-ended questions regarding the student-committee chair relationship. Surveys were mailed to 269 doctoral students with an 86% return rate. A principal components analysis was performed to identify the structure underpinning the relationship. The typical doctoral student in this sample was found to be a 44 year old Caucasian female, married with children, working full or part time while pursuing a PhD degree. Students traveled an average of 85 miles each way to campus and nearly half had selected their program based on its location. The typical committee chair was a Caucasian, tenured, associate or full professor between 46 and 69 years of age. The majority of chairs were married and had funded research projects. The students in the study reported knowing their chairs for an average of five years. The study revealed that mentoring is occurring in the majority of relationships between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Students identified many strengths and weaknesses in their relationships with their chairs although the relationship appears to be largely positive. The mentoring relationship is composed of four principal components, the largest of which is psychosocial support. Dissertation support, role modeling and scholarly collaboration comprise the other three components. The factor receiving the most positive rating was role modeling, suggesting that students see their chairs as intelligent and hard-working. Students also report positive feelings about both the psychosocial and dissertation support they have received from their chairs. Students reported more neutral feelings about scholarly collaboration suggesting that this is not a frequent occurrence in the relationship. Demographic variables including age, sex, race, geographic distance and family status were not predictors for mentoring scores.
- Night of no Exile
- Night of no Exile is a collection of poems preceded by a critical article entitled "‘Exile seems both a blessing and a curse': A Blissful Reading of Li-Young Lee's Poetry." That article discusses Lee's quest to achieve communication, truth, and transcendence through poetic language and concludes that he finally reaches his goal through a leap from narrative poetry to lyricism. The "exile" alluded to in the title of the article is not only geographic, but also interioran exile due to the natural limitations of all languages, and which can be bridged only in linguistic ways. Lee's solution to that problem (lyricism) turns his poetry into what Roland Barthes would call "a text of bliss," a text that manages to deeply destabilize language, while simultaneously achieving a new kind of meaning. In the main body of the manuscript, the first section contains short love lyrics. The second section, "Night of no Exile," is an attempt at the demanding genre of the longer lyric poem. The third section uses short lyrics to explore various topics, such as discovering one's identity, friendship and solidarity between women, family history, and childhood memories. Finally, the last section includes poems, four of them longer, attempting to combine narrative and lyric impulses in a way not unlike Li-Young Lee's experimentation with those two genres.
- Nucleotide Inhibition of Glyoxalase II
- The glyoxalase system mediates the conversion of methylglyoxal, a toxic ketoaldehyde, to D-lactic acid. The system is composed of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (Glo-I) and glyoxalase II (Glo-II), and exhibits an absolute requirement for a catalytic quantity of glutathione (GSH). Glo-I catalyzes the isomerization of a hemithioacetal, formed non-enzymatically from methylglyoxal and GSH, to the corresponding a -D-hydroxyacid thioester, s-D-lactoylglutathione (SLG). Glo-II catalyzes the irreversible breakdown of SLG to D-lactate and GSH. We have observed that ATP or GTP significantly inhibits the Glo-II activity of tissue homogenates from various sources. We have developed a rapid, one step chromatography procedure to purify Glo-II such that the purified enzyme remains "sensitive" to inhibition by ATP or GTP (Glo-II-s). Studies indicate that inhibition of Glo-II-s by nucleotides is restricted to ATP, GTP, ADP, and GDP, with ATP appearing most effective. Kinetics studies have shown that ATP acts as a partial non-competitive inhibitor of Glo-II-s activity, and further suggest that two kinetically distinguishable forms of the enzyme exist. The sensitivity of pure Glo-II-s to nucleotide inhibition is slowly lost on storage even at -80° C. This loss is accelerated at higher temperatures or in the presence of ATP. Kinetics studies on the resultant "insensitive" enzyme (Glo-II-i) show that a significant reduction of the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate, SLG, occurs and further suggest that only one form of the enzyme is kinetically distinguishable after "de-sensitization". Tryptophan fluorescence studies of the two enzyme preparations suggest that a subtle conformational change in the enzyme has occurred during de-sensitization. We have also observed that Glo-II-i is "resensitized" to nucleotide inhibition after incubation in the presence of a reagent that reduces disulfide bonds. The resensitized enzyme exhibits an increased KM value similar to that of the original Glo-II-s. Kinetics studies show that ATP or GTP again act as partial non-competitive inhibitors of the resensitized enzyme and suggest that only one form of the enzyme is present. The physiological significance of the two enzyme forms is discussed.
- On the Cohomology of the Complement of a Toral Arrangement
- The dissertation uses a number of mathematical formula including de Rham cohomology with complex coefficients to state and prove extension of Brieskorn's Lemma theorem.
- Peer Education: Building Community Through Playback Theatre Action Methods
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The primary purpose of this study was to use some of the action methods of playback theatre to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge through the experience of building community. The impact of action methods on group dynamics and the relationship among methods, individual perceptions, and the acquisition of knowledge were analyzed. The researcher suggested that playback theatre action methods provided a climate in which groups can improve the quality of their interactions. The Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM) formed the basis for the study's analysis of interactions. Since the researcher concluded there were significantly more interactions coded in the "power quadrant" after training, the researcher assumed that playback theatre action methods are a catalyst for keeping the focus on persons in the group, encouraging risk-taking behaviors, and producing constructive feedback between members. Based on session summaries, individual interviews, and an analysis of the Group Environment Scale (GES), the training group became more cohesive, became more expressive, promoted independence, encouraged self-discovery, and adapted in innovative ways. The experience of an interconnected community created a space where positive growth could occur. The researcher concluded that the process of community building is intricately connected with a person's ability to make meaning out of experiences. Participants in the study noted several processes by which they acquired new knowledge: (a) knowledge through internal processes, (b) knowledge through modeling, (c) knowledge through experiences, (d) knowledge through acknowledgment and application. Acknowledging and applying knowledge were behaviors identified as risk-taking, communication and active listening, acceptance of diverse cultures and opinions, and building community relations. The study suggested further research in the effects of these methods compared to other learning methods, the effects of these methods on other types of groups, the effects of the leader's relationship to the group, and the long-term effects on group dynamics.
- A Personal Documenation System for Scholars: A Tool for Thinking
- This exploratory research focused on a problem stated years ago by Vannevar Bush: "The problem is how creative men think, and what can be done to help them think." The study explored the scholarly work process and the use of computer tools to augment thinking. Based on a review of several related literatures, a framework of 7 major categories and 28 subcategories of scholarly thinking was proposed. The literature was used to predict problems scholars have in organizing their information, potential solutions, and specific computer tool features to augment scholarly thinking. Info Select, a personal information manager with most of these features (text and outline processing, sophisticated searching and organizing), was chosen as a potential tool for thinking. The study looked at how six scholars (faculty and doctoral students in social science fields at three universities) organized information using Info Select as a personal documentation system for scholarly work. These multiple case studies involved four in-depth, focused interviews, written evaluations, direct observation, and analysis of computer logs and files collected over a 3- to 6-month period. A content analysis of interviews and journals supported the proposed AfFORD-W taxonomy: Scholarly work activities consisted of Adding, Filing, Finding, Organizing, Reminding, and Displaying information to produce a Written product. Very few activities fell outside this framework, and activities were distributed evenly across all categories. Problems, needs, and likes mentioned by scholars, however, clustered mainly in the filing, finding, and organizing categories. All problems were related to human memory. Both predictions and research findings imply a need for tools that support information storage and retrieval in personal documentation systems, for references and notes, with fast and easy input of source material. A computer tool for thinking should support categorizing and organizing, reorganizing and transporting information. It should provide a simple search engine and support rapid scanning. The research implies the need for tools that provide better affordances for scholarly thinking activities.
- Personality characteristics of Counselor Education graduate students as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Bem Sex Role Inventory
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This study was designed to investigate the correlation of the variables of gender, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality preferences, and androgyny as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) in Counselor Education graduate students. Instruments were administered to Counselor Education graduate students at nine institutions in five national regions. A total of 172 participants (18 males and 154 females) who were enrolled in Master's level theories courses or practicum courses completed a student information sheet, informed consent, MBTI, and BSRI. Instruments were hand scored and chi-square test was used to determine significance of the hypotheses; the saturated model of log linear analysis was the statistic used for the research question. As predicted, of the sixteen MBTI types, the most common for Counselor Education graduate students emerged as ENFP: extraversion, intuition, feeling, and perception. Additionally, this MBTI type was found to be significantly more common among the population of Counselor Education graduate students than is found among the general population. The expectation that more male Counselor Education graduate students would score higher on the androgyny scale of the BSRI was unsupported; low sample size for male Counselor Education graduate students prevented use of chi-square; however, it was apparent through the use of the statistic of raw frequencies that males clustered around every other category except androgyny. The hypothesis that more female Counselor Education graduate students would score higher on the feminine scale was also unsupported, as equal distribution of the females occurred within all four categories of the BSRI. It was hypothesized that males with a sensing and thinking preference on the MBTI would tend toward the masculine dimension of the BSRI more than males with an intuitive and feeling preference. This was unsupported as well. Female Counselor Education graduate students with an intuitive and feeling preference did, however, demonstrate a greater tendency toward the feminine classification on the BSRI than did females with a sensing and thinking preference, so that this hypothesis was retained. No significant relationship was found between the variables of MBTI type, BSRI classification, and gender.
- Picosecond Dynamics of Free-Carrier Populations, Space-Charge Fields, and Photorefractive Nonlinearities in Zincblende Semiconductors
- Generally, nonlinear optics studies investigate optically-induced changes in refraction or absorption, and their application to spectroscopy or device fabrication. The photorefractive effect is a nonlinear optical effect that occurs in solids, where transport of an optically-induced free-carrier population results in an internal space-charge field, which produces an index change via the linear electrooptic effect. The photorefractive effect has been widely studied for a variety of materials and device applications, mainly because it allows large index changes to be generated with laser beams having only a few milliwatts of average power.Compound semiconductors are important photorefractive materials because they offer a near-infrared optical response, and because their carrier transport properties allow the index change to be generated quickly and efficiently. While many researchers have attempted to measure the fundamental temporal dynamics of the photorefractive effect in semiconductors using continuous-wave, nanosecond- and picosecond-pulsed laser beams, these investigations have been unsuccessful. However, studies with this goal are of clear relevance because they provide information about the fundamental physical processes that produce this effect, as well as the material's speed and efficiency limitations for device applications.In this dissertation, for the first time, we time-resolve the temporal dynamics of the photorefractive nonlinearities in two zincblende semiconductors, semi-insulating GaAs and undoped CdTe. While CdTe offers a lattice-match to the infrared material HgxCd1-xTe, semi-insulating GaAs has been widely used in optoelectronic and high-speed electronic applications. We use a novel transient-grating experimental method that allows picosecond temporal resolution and high sensitivity. Our results provide a clear and detailed picture of the picosecond photorefractive response of both materials, showing nonlinearities due to hot-carrier transport and the Dember space-charge field, and a long-lived nonlinearity that is due to the EL2 midgap species in GaAs. We numerically model our experimental results using a general set of equations that describe nonlinear diffraction and carrier transport, and obtain excellent agreement with the experimental results in both materials, for a wide variety of experimental conditions.
- Profile of the youth self-report among south Texas adolescents and the potential relationship to pesticide exposure
- The potential for human exposure to pesticides exists particularly for agricultural workers (i.e. migrant workers) and individuals within close proximity to pesticide-sprayed crops (i.e. those living on or near agricultural farms). Children, through biology and behavior, may be more susceptible and vulnerable to exposure to pesticides than adults. The purpose of this study was to examine young populations particularly at-risk for occupational or accidental exposure to pesticides and determine associated behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms. A total of 444 students from two South Texas school districts completed questionnaires assessing level of risk of exposure to pesticides and were categorized into at-risk and low risk categories. Physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms were obtained using the Youth Self-Report. Children who were at-risk demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) in the areas of anxious/depressed, attention problems, social problems, somatic complaints, thought problems, withdrawal, internalizing behaviors, and total problem behaviors than children who were at lower risk of pesticide exposure. Odds ratios were obtained and suggested that children in the at-risk category were more five times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Attention Problems subscale, and three times more likely to score in the clinically significant range on the Internalizing behavior composite. These findings suggest that children who may be at higher risk for pesticide exposure may also be at higher risk for physical, behavioral, and emotional problems compared to children who are at lower risk. This information is intended to benefit schools and health care professionals who work with rural or migrant populations involved in the agricultural trade. Future research will be needed to assess through biomarkers the degree of measurable pesticide exposure in comparison to parent reports, teacher reports, school achievement, neuropsychological testing, and medical records.
- Progress or Decline: International Political Economy and Basic Human Rights
- This dissertation is a cross-national, empirical study of human rights conditions in a dynamic international political economy. The scope of the examination covers 176 developed and developing countries from 1980 through 1993. Through evaluating the numerous theoretical aspects of human rights conceptualization, I draw upon Shue's framework and consider whether there are indeed "basic rights" and which rights should fit into this category. Further, I address the debate between those who claim that these rights are truly universal (applying to all nations and individuals) and those who argue that the validity of a moral right is relative to indigenous cultures. In a similar vein, I empirically investigate whether various human rights are interdependent and indivisible, as some scholars argue, or whether there are inherent trade-offs between various rights provisions. In going beyond the fixation on a single aspect of human rights, I broadly investigate subsistence rights, security rights and political and economic freedom. While these have previously been addressed separately, there are virtually no studies that consider them together and the subsequent linkages between them. Ultimately, a pooled time-series cross-section model is developed that moves beyond the traditional concentration on security rights (also know as integrity of the person rights) and focuses on the more controversial subsistence rights (also known as basic human needs). By addressing both subsistence and security rights, I consider whether certain aspects of the changing international political economy affect these two groups of rights in different ways. A further delineation is made between OECD and non-OECD countries. The primary international focus is on the effects of global integration and the end of the Cold War. Domestic explanations that are connected with globalization include economic freedom, income inequality and democratization. These variables are subjected to bivariate and multivariate hypothesis testing including bivariate correlations, analysis of variance, and multiple OLS regression with robust standard errors.
- A qualitative study of the use and value of financial performance indicators in selected community colleges in the state of Texas as perceived by their chief executive officers
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Throughout the United States, colleges and universities are faced with an increasing need for financial funding, while at the same time resources continue to diminish. With the limitations of available funds, community colleges must exhibit efficiencies in the operations of their institutions. External interests, such as governing boards and legislatures, require demonstration of efficient financial management. This evidence is then used to make decisions concerning future financial support for the community college. This study determined if community college chief executive officers use financial performance indicators as provided by the State Auditor's Office and if the chief executive officers of the community colleges value the compilation and the distribution of the financial performance indicators. In the selected colleges, many of the chief executive officers depend on their chief financial officer for understanding and application of financial performance indicators. The performance indicators distributed by the Auditor's Office captured only a snapshot of the college's performance, and failed to fully describe the whole college performance or specific financial events captured by the indicators. Though the indicators had flaws, either through incorrect data or lack of explanation, the CEOs did value their compilation because they provided a means for ‘getting the community college story' to decision makers external to the college.The State Auditor's performance indicators were developed using a university model. Because of the distinct difference in mission between the community college and the university, several of the indicators were not applicable to the community colleges. The CEOs suggested that another set of indicators be developed, using community college input, that would better capture the financial performance of the colleges. The new set of indicators should be simplified and measure only those areas, such as revenues and expenditures, that are truly comparable from one institution to another.