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- Banking and Economic Growth in India
- This paper discusses the attempt to achieve balanced economic growth in India. The process is viewed as a transition of society from a traditional stage to one characterized by industrialization and economic growth, and which involves major economic, social and political changes. It specifically deals with the Indian banking system and its structural development since independence as a means to hasten economic growth. These changes in the banking system, through social control, and eventually nationalization of the major commercial banks in India,, illustrate the increasing role of the State in gearing the banking sector towards meeting the goals of national economic planning. The above events are related to the struggle between the moderates and those who advocate a more socialist approach to solving the economic and social problems in India.
- The Contribution of Mira Behn and Sarala Behn to Social and Environmental Transformation in the Indian State of Uttarakhand
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The influence of Mohandas K. Gandhi on social and environmental movements in post-colonial India has been widely acknowledged. Yet, the contributions of two European associates of Gandhi, Madeleine Slade and Catherine Mary Heilemann, better known in India as Mira Behn and Sarala Behn, have not received the due attention of the academic community. This dissertation is an examination of the philosophy and social activism of Mira Behn and Sarala Behn and their roles in the evolution of Gandhian philosophy of socioeconomic reconstruction and environmental conservation in the present Indian state of Uttarakhand. Instead of just being acolytes of Gandhi, I argue that these women developed ideas and practices that drew upon from an extensive intellectual terrain that cannot be limited to Gandhi’s work. I delineate the directions in which Gandhian thought and experiments in rural development work evolved through the lives, activism, and written contributions of these two women. Particularly, I examine their influence on social and environmental movements, such as the Chipko and the Anti-Tehri Dam movements, and their roles in promoting grassroots social development and environmental sustainability in the mountain communities of Uttarakhand. Mira Behn and Sarala Behn’s integrative philosophical worldviews present epistemological, sociopolitical, ethical, and metaphysical principles and practices that have local and global significance for understanding interfaith dialog, social justice, and environmental sustainability and thus constitute a useful contribution to the theory and practice of human emancipation in our times.
- Cross-Cultural Validity of the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which a non-verbal test of intelligence, the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence (TONI), may be used for assessing intellectual abilities of children in India. This investigation is considered important since current instruments used in India were developed several years ago and do not adequately reflect present standards of performance. Further, current instruments do not demonstrate adequate validity, as procedures for development and cultural transport were frequently not in adherence to recommended guidelines for such practice. Data were collected from 91 normally achieving and 18 mentally retarded Indian children, currently enrolled in elementary schools. Data from an American comparison group were procured from the authors of the TONI. Subjects were matched on age, grade, and area of residence. Subjects were also from comparative socioeconomic backgrounds. Literature review of the theoretical framework supporting cross-cultural measurement of intellectual ability, a summary of major instruments developed for cross-cultural use, non-verbal measures of intellectual ability in India, and issues in cross-cultural research are discussed, with recommended methodology for test transport. Major findings are: (a) the factor scales derived from the Indian and American normally achieving groups indicate significant differences; (b) items 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 22 are biased against the Indian group, though overall item characteristic curves are not significantly different; (c) mean raw scores on the TONI are significantly different between second and third grade Indian subjects; and (d) mean TONI Quotients are significantly different between normally achieving and mentally retarded Indian subjects. It is evident that deletion of biased items and rescaling would be necessary for the TONI to be valid in the Indian context. However, because it does discriminate between subjects at different levels of ability, adaptation for use in India is justified. It may prove to be a more current and parsimonious method of assessing intellectual abilities in Indian children than instruments presently in use.
- Impact of the Policies of the National Government on the Organization of Business and Management Styles in India
- The purpose of this investigation is to explore the policies of the government of British India and of the independent Republic of India relative to their impact on organizational structure, management practices and styles, and management education in business organizations in India. The British, who were responsible for the growth of some of the organized industries in India, also gave the country, among other things, a modern educational system. They left India, however, with a limited industrial base. There was a serious shortage of professional managers to meet the demands of growing industry. Upon independence, the national government through its policies encouraged the development of business and industries and brought awareness among business managers of the importance of management education.
- India's Nonalignment Policy and the American Response, 1947-1960
- India's nonalignment policy attracted the attention of many newly independent countries for it provided an alternative to the existing American and Russian views of the world. This dissertation is an examination of both India's nonalignment policy and the official American reaction to it during the Truman-Eisenhower years. Indian nonalignment should be defined as a policy of noncommitment towards rival power blocs adopted with a view of retaining freedom of action in international affairs and thereby influencing the issue of war and peace to India's advantage. India maintained that the Cold War was essentially a European problem. Adherence to military allliances , it believed, would increase domestic tensions and add to chances of involvement in international war, thus destroying hopes of socio-economic reconstruction of India. The official American reaction was not consistent. It varied from president to president, from issue to issue, and from time to time. India's stand on various issues of international import and interest to the United States such as recognition of the People's Republic of China, the Korean War, the Japanese peace treaty of 1951, and the Hungarian revolt of 1956, increased American concern about and dislike of nonalignment. Many Americans in high places regraded India's nonalignment policy as pro-Communist and as one that sought to undermine Western collective security measures. Consequently, during the Truman and Eisenhower presidencies the United States took a series of diplomatic, military, and economic measures to counter India's neutralism. America refused to treat India as a major power and attempted to contain its influence on the international plane by excluding it from international conferences and from assuming international responsibilities. The Russian efforts to woo India and other nonaligned countries with trade and aid softened America's open resistance to India's nonalignment. As a result, although tactical, a new trend in America's dealings with India was visible during the closing years of Eisenhower's presidency. Therefore, America sought to keep nonaligned India at least nonaligned by extending economic aid.
- Indo-Soviet Relations: The Implications of Soviet-United States Rivalry in the Indian Ocean, 1968-1976
- This study presents an overview of Indo-Soviet relations in light of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. competition for a favorable position in relations with India. Both superpowers consider better relations with India to be crucial to the furtherance of their interests in the Indian Ocean region. The study provides background information on Indo-Soviet diplomacy, with emphasis on the period 1968-1976m during which the Soviets gained their greatest influence in the region. This period also represents the nadir of Indo-American relations, although India formally maintained a policy of non-alignment with either of the two superpowers. Conclusions are drawn about India's role as a non-aligned nation, its relations with the superpowers, and its quest for regional influence.
- Institutionalization of Ethics: a Cross-Cultural Perspective
- Business ethics is a much debated issue in contemporary America. As many ethical improprieties gained widespread attention, organizations tried to control the damage by institutionalizing ethics through a variety of structures, policies, and procedures. Although the institutionalization of ethics has become popular in corporate America, there is a lack of research in this area. The relationship between the cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity and the perceptions of managers regarding the institutionalization of ethics is investigated in this study. This research also examined whether managers' level of cognitive moral development and locus of control influenced their perceptions. Data collection was performed through a mail survey of managers in the U.S. and India. Out of the 174 managers of American multinationals who responded to the survey, 86 were Americans and 88 were Indians. Results revealed that managers' perceptions were influenced by the four cultural dimensions. Managerial perceptions regarding the effectiveness of codes of ethics and the influence of referent groups varied according to their nationality. But, managers from both countries found implicit forms of institutionalizing ethics, such as organizational systems, culture, and leadership to be more effective in raising the ethical climate of organizations than explicit forms such as codes of ethics, ethics officers, and ethics ombudspeople. The results did not support the influence of moral reasoning level and locus of control type on managerial perceptions. The results suggested that in order for ethics institutionalization efforts to be successful, there must be a fit or compatibility between the implicit and explicit forms of institutionalizing ethics. The significance of this study rests on the fact that it enriched our understanding of how national culture affects managerial perceptions regarding the institutionalization of ethics. This is the first comparative study between U.S. managers and Indian managers that examines the variables, both explicit and implicit, which influence how ethical values are cultivated and perpetuated in organizations.
- Microcredit, Women, and Empowerment: Evidence From India
- Microfinance programs, by providing financial services to economically disadvantaged individuals, generally women, are intended to help poor self-employ and become financially independent. Earlier research in India has documented both positive and negative consequences of microfinance programs on women, from financial independence to domestic abuse. However, most of the research has been geographically limited to the southern states of the country, with a matured microfinance industry, and has given little attention to how variations in cultural practices across different regions of the country may influence the impact of microfinance programs on its members. To fill the gap in the existing literature, three related studies of Indian women were conducted. The first study was a qualitative study of 35 women engaged in microfinance programs in the northern region of India. The study found that women engaged in microfinance programs reported having increased social networks, higher confidence and increased social awareness. The second and third studies used nationally representative data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-2006. Controlling for a variety of other individual-level and community-level characteristics, the second study examined if getting a microloan affected women’s access to public spaces, and the third examined if getting such a loan influenced married women’s participation in household decision-making. Both studies further investigated if the microloan effect on these dimensions of women’s empowerment varied by the normative context of woman’s respective communities. The results indicated that, all else equal, women who had ever taken a microloan were more likely to go alone to places outside their home such as market, health clinics and places outside the community compared to women who had never taken such a loan. Getting a microloan also had a positive effect on women’s participation in decisions about large household purchases and husband’s earnings. The hypothesized moderating effect of the normative context of women’s respective communities was found only for women’s participation in decisions about large household purchases. Getting a microloan had a stronger positive effect on women’s participation in these decisions if they lived in communities with restrictive gender norms.
- The Origin and Development of the Caste System in India
- This thesis presents a study of the origin and development of the caste system in India.
- The Sino-Indian Border Confrontation of 1962
- This thesis presents a brief history of the Sino-Indian relations, and describes the issues leading up to the border dispute between China and India in 1962.
- Study of the Programs of Professional Preparation in Physical Education Colleges in India; Comparison of the Programs with the Recommendations Made by a National Conference on Professional Preparation in Health Education, Physical Education and Recreation Education, Washington, D. C., 1962
- Data were obtained through the syllabi and the questionnaires returned by the head of physical education institutes in India. From a total of thirty-seven questionnaires sent, sixteen were returned representing fourteen different institutions. The programs in India showed some diversity among the institutions regarding the length of time required to complete the courses and minimum qualifications prescribed for admission to the program. The programs did not meet the recommendations of the conference either in length or content. The newer programs more nearly met the recommendations.
- Tribhuvan University and its Educational Activities in Nepal
- The purpose of this study was to discuss the role of Tribhuvan University in the development of higher education in Nepal by examining the university's historical development and educational activities. Despite negligence and opposition to public higher education by the rulers of Nepal before 1951, Nepalese higher education began with the establishment of Trichandra College in 1918. From 1951 until the establishment of Tribhuvan University in 1959, several public as well as private colleges were also established. The establishment of the university in 1959 marked the beginning of the government-controlled system of higher education in Nepal. As the first and only national institution of higher education, Tribhuvan University has played a significant role in developing a system of higher education in the country. During its first ten years, Tribhuvan University did not operate as a comprehensive institute of higher education. The Tribhuvan University Act of 1971, however, altered the structure, organization, and functions of the university and gave it additional roles and responsibilitites. By the mid-1980s, Tribhuvan University had increased its number of colleges from 49 (1970) to more than 128. Moreover, these colleges have expanded their programs and levels of education. This dissertation's six chapters describe the demographic, cultural, and historical setting of Nepal, the educational activities of Nepal before the establishment of Tribhuvan University, and the university's educational activities from its establishment in 1959 through the mid-1980s. The study shows that the university, in a 26-year period, had expanded it activities significantly and had proven its role as an important factor in the development of higher education in Nepal. The study also indicates that various governmental and non-governmental agencies have been actively involved in determining the educational activities of Tribhuvan University in Nepal.