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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Psychology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Leadership, Ascendancy, and Gender

Leadership, Ascendancy, and Gender

Date: August 2001
Creator: Hale, John P.
Description: By the year 2000 women will constitute more than 50 percent of the workforce in the United States, yet their representation in top management and executive-level positions continues to hover in the single digits. This “glass ceiling,” which is conceptualized as limiting women's advancement into these roles, has been the subject of much debate and research over the last fifteen years. As both an equal rights and key competitive issue, the topic of women and leadership is gaining ever-increasing emphasis and momentum in American corporations. Although leadership skills have been advocated as a key human capital/person-centered variable leading to managerial ascendancy for women, the empirical research directly investigating this link is virtually non-existent. This longitudinal study proposed to measure the strength of this relationship using a matched sample of male and female managers. Eighty-five subjects, from the same U.S. based health-care products corporation, had previously participated in a multirater assessment process where seven different facets of their leadership skills were evaluated. Time two data were collected on four objective measures of ascendancy: percent change in salary, number of promotions (job moves) either offered or accepted, change in number of direct reports, and change in number of indirect reports. Multivariate analysis ...
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Leadership Effectiveness: Investigating the Influences of Leader Sex, Gender, and Behaviors on Self and Other Perceptions

Leadership Effectiveness: Investigating the Influences of Leader Sex, Gender, and Behaviors on Self and Other Perceptions

Date: December 2005
Creator: York, Christina D.
Description: Though increasing numbers of women are entering the workforce, a disproportionate number of women are placed into upper level management positions. Social role and role congruity theory both posit that women in leadership positions are likely to face more negative criticism than men in leadership positions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of gender roles on leader behaviors as well as leaders' self perceived effectiveness. The study also examined third party raters' views of female and male leaders. Videotapes of forty-seven mixed sex groups with randomly appointed male and female leaders were used to examine leader behaviors as well as raters' effectiveness ratings. Leaders' self perceived effectiveness ratings were also used. Gender roles of the leaders were assessed using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results of a MANOVA indicated that leader gender roles did not lead to differences in leader behaviors exhibited among those in feminine, masculine, and androgynous groups. For female leaders, femininity was not related to feminine behaviors. Unexpectedly, for male leaders, masculinity was inversely related to masculine behaviors. With regard to raters' effectiveness ratings of the leaders, no differences were found in ratings based on leader gender. Further, for female leaders, ...
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Levels of Psychological Health Related to the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Test

Levels of Psychological Health Related to the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Test

Date: June 1964
Creator: Bonney, Lewis A.
Description: The purpose of the present study is to develop an operationally defined standard of psychological health which will be proposed as: 1) one of the goals of psychotherapy; 2) a device for aiding in the evaluation of psychotherapy, and 3) a tool for screening those individuals in the general population who are in need of counseling in order to maintain their mental health.
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Longitudinal Study of Loneliness and Depression as Predictors of Health in Mid- to Later Life

Longitudinal Study of Loneliness and Depression as Predictors of Health in Mid- to Later Life

Date: May 2008
Creator: Chlipala, M. Linda
Description: The longitudinal relationship between loneliness and depression as predictors of chronic health conditions in middle-aged to older adults was investigated utilizing data collected by the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a national representative longitudinal study of health, retirement, and aging, conducted by the Institute for Social Research (ISR) Survey Research Center (SRC) at the University of Michigan, funded by the National Institute on Aging and the Social Security Administration. The correlation between these loneliness and depression was moderate (r = .32 to r = 51). The single-item subjective self-report of loneliness was found to be an adequate measure of loneliness. A cross-lagged panel correlation and regression design was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between loneliness, depression, and chronic health conditions. A temporal precedence was indicated implying a causal relationship with depression leading to subsequent loneliness. The relationship between recurring loneliness and chronic health conditions was weak (r = .13).
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A Longitudinal Study of Rape Attitude Correlates among College Men

A Longitudinal Study of Rape Attitude Correlates among College Men

Date: May 2006
Creator: Howe-Martin, Laura S.
Description: Research has linked rape victim-blaming attitudes (VBAs) with gender role stereotyping, negative peer attitudes towards women, and acceptance of interpersonal violence. The current study analyzed longitudinal questionnaire data of college men (n=166) from White and Smith's (2001) study of college student victimization. Results indicate that VBAs can be conceptualized as either overt or covert, and that the covert VBA was more strongly correlated with alcohol use, sexualized peer attitudes, traditional gender stereotypes, need for sexual dominance, and perpetration of dating aggression. The covert VBA was also correlated with rape proclivity one year later, and partially mediated relationships between earlier variables and later rape proclivity. Additionally, endorsement of chivalry moderated the relationship between traditional gender stereotypes and the covert VBA, casting new perspective on the role of chivalry. Overall, results demonstrate the importance of targeting subtle expressions of VBAs in educational programs, and the need for longitudinal studies on rape attitude development.
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Male-female Perceptions of Male and Female High and Low Achievement Using the Semantic Differential

Male-female Perceptions of Male and Female High and Low Achievement Using the Semantic Differential

Date: August 1973
Creator: Edwards, C. Malinowski
Description: The purpose of the present study was to examine 1) the effect of achievement information on evaluations of males and females, 2) male and female expectations of discrepancies between their opposite sex and themselves in evaluating achievement.
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Males' Support Toward Females After Sexual Assault

Males' Support Toward Females After Sexual Assault

Date: May 2007
Creator: Reck, Jennifer K.
Description: The current study explored the relations among rape myths, attitudes toward rape victims, perceived social support, sex role, and social reactions in a male undergraduate sample (N = 205). Males who have provided support to a sexual assault victim were compared to those who have not provided support to a sexual assault victim on several measures. Social reactions of those who have provided support to a sexual assault victim were compared to hypothetical reactions provided by individuals who have not previously provided support. Results indicated that rape related attitudes and beliefs did not differ between those who have and have not provided support to a sexual assault victim. In addition, individuals who were responding to a hypothetical situation reported that they would provide more positive social support than individuals who were responding to an actual situation. Implications for clinical work and future research in this area are discussed.
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Managing HIV: Self-Efficacy, Mindfulness, Optimism, and Meaning

Managing HIV: Self-Efficacy, Mindfulness, Optimism, and Meaning

Date: August 2011
Creator: Miller, James M.
Description: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the extent to which mindfulness (observing and describing), dispositional optimism and personal meaning are associated with self-efficacy for managing a chronic disease (SEMCD) among 57 people living with HIV in the DFW Metroplex. Several statistical analyses, including a hierarchical linear regression analysis, were conducted. Results indicate, after controlling for age and gender, the overall model accounted for a significant proportion of the variance (adjusted R2 = .39) in self-efficacy for managing chronic disease, F (6, 50) = 5.80, p < .01. Both subscales of mindfulness were significantly related to self-efficacy. However, observing was negatively, associated with SEMCD (β = -0.44, p < .05), and describing was positively associated with self-efficacy (β = 0.60, p < .01). As a result, incorporating these mindfulness skills into self-efficacy based self-management programs may greatly improve self-management, thus positively influencing psychological and physiological health outcomes that are essential to the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS. Future research should investigate methods of manipulating observing and describing, and determine what proficiency in these skills is most beneficial to improve self-efficacy.
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Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Psychological Well- Being: A Comparative Study of Heterosexual and Gay Men

Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Psychological Well- Being: A Comparative Study of Heterosexual and Gay Men

Date: August 2001
Creator: Shepard, William D.
Description: Masculine gender role conflict (MGRC) occurs when externally-imposed male gender role expectations have a negative impact on and consequences for men. The purpose of this study was to examine how men in a homogeneous setting (i.e., a college campus) compare on MGRC and psychological well-being, based on their self-identified sexual orientation. Utilizing canonical correlation analysis, 96 heterosexual men and 102 gay men were compared on four factors of MGRC (conflict between work and family, restrictive emotionality, restrictive affectionate behavior between men, and success, power, and competition) and five factors of psychological well-being (anger, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and attitudes toward seeking psychological help). Findings for the heterosexual men were highly consistent with previous studies on MGRC and psychological well-being in a college-age population. Findings for the gay men indicated they had more problems with MGRC and psychological well-being than college-age and older gay men surveyed in the one published study on gay men and MGRC. Gay men who were single also reported more problems with restrictive emotionality, anger, anxiety, and depression, and had lower self-esteem, than gay men who were in a relationship. Between group differences were few, with gay men reporting significantly less restrictive affectionate behavior between men than heterosexual ...
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Massed Group Desensitization in the Reduction of Anxiety

Massed Group Desensitization in the Reduction of Anxiety

Date: August 1972
Creator: Dawley, Harold H., 1940-
Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the effectiveness of massed group desensitization in the reduction of anxiety. Thirty test-anxious nursing students who scored in the upper quartile on the Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ) served as the subjects. The subjects were assigned by the use of a randomized block procedure to one of the following three groups matched on the basis of their pre-test TAQ scores: (1) desensitization, (2) placebo, and (3) control.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries