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**Degree Discipline:**Physics

**Collection:**UNT Theses and Dissertations

### The stopping of energetic Si, P and S ions in Ni, Cu, Ge and GaAs targets.

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**Date:**December 2001

**Creator:**Nigam, Mohit

**Description:**Accurate knowledge of stopping powers is essential for these for quantitative analysis and surface characterization of thin films using ion beam analysis (IBA). These values are also of interest in radiobiology and radiotherapy, and in ion- implantation technology where shrinking feature sizes puts high demands on the accuracy of range calculations. A theory that predicts stopping powers and ranges for all projectile-target combinations is needed. The most important database used to report the stopping powers is the SRIM/TRIM program developed by Ziegler and coworkers. However, other researchers report that at times, these values differ significantly from experimental values. In this study the stopping powers of Si, P and S ions have been measured in Ni, Cu, Ge and GaAs absorbers in the energy range ~ 2-10 MeV. For elemental films of Ni, Cu and Ge, the stopping of heavy ions was measured using a novel ERD (Elastic Recoil Detection) based technique. In which an elastically recoiled lighter atom is used to indirectly measure the energy of the incoming heavy ion using a surface barrier detector. In this way it was possible to reduce the damage and to improve the FWHM of the detector. The results were compared to SRIM-2000 predictions ...

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### Microwave Cavity Test for Superconductivity

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**Date:**December 2001

**Creator:**Tang, Shan

**Description:**The first part of this paper describes the Meissner effect in superconductors which serves as the most definitive evidence for superconductivity. It is shown that the microwave perturbation technique may be used to demonstrate this effect. By measuring the changes of resonant frequency and inverse quality factor Q of a microwave cavity with a small volume of sample loading, the Meissner effect can be shown by using the Slater perturbation equation. The experimental system is described with details and the basic principle of each component discussed. The second part of this work describes the technique employed to do the actual measurements. The experiments were conducted on samples of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) to look for the possible high temperature superconductivity properties. Results of these experiments are presented and discussed. Conclusion and suggestions to future exploration are made.

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### A Statistical Study of Hard X-Ray Solar Flares

**Date:**December 2001

**Creator:**Leddon, Deborah L.

**Description:**The results of a statistical study of hard x-ray solar flares are presented in this dissertation. Two methods of analysis were used, the Diffusion Entropy (DE) method coupled with an analysis of the data distributions and the Rescaled Range (R/S) Method, sometimes referred to as "Hurst's method". Chapter one provides an introduction to hard x-ray flares within the context of the solar environment and a summary of the statistical paradigms solar astronomers currently work under. Chapter two presents the theory behind the DE and R/S methods. Chapter three presents the results of the two analysis methodologies: most notably important evidence of the conflicting results of the R/S and DE methods, evidence of a Levy statistical signature for the underlying dynamics of the hard x-ray flaring process and a possible separate memory signature for the waiting times. In addition, the stationary and nonstationary characteristics of the waiting times and peak intensities, are revealed. Chapter four provides a concise summary and discussion of the results.

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### An entropic approach to the analysis of time series.

**Date:**December 2001

**Creator:**Scafetta, Nicola

**Description:**Statistical analysis of time series. With compelling arguments we show that the Diffusion Entropy Analysis (DEA) is the only method of the literature of the Science of Complexity that correctly determines the scaling hidden within a time series reflecting a Complex Process. The time series is thought of as a source of fluctuations, and the DEA is based on the Shannon entropy of the diffusion process generated by these fluctuations. All traditional methods of scaling analysis, instead, are based on the variance of this diffusion process. The variance methods detect the real scaling only if the Gaussian assumption holds true. We call H the scaling exponent detected by the variance methods and d the real scaling exponent. If the time series is characterized by Fractional Brownian Motion, we have H¹d and the scaling can be safely determined, in this case, by using the variance methods. If, on the contrary, the time series is characterized, for example, by Lévy statistics, H ¹ d and the variance methods cannot be used to detect the true scaling. Lévy walk yields the relation d=1/(3-2H). In the case of Lévy flights, the variance diverges and the exponent H cannot be determined, whereas the scaling d ...

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3033/

### The Effect of Average Grain Size on Polycrystalline Diamond Films

**Date:**May 2002

**Creator:**Abbott, Patrick Roland

**Description:**The work function of hydrogen-terminated, polycrystalline diamond was studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited onto molybdenum substrates by electrophoresis for grain sizes ranging from 0.3 to 108 microns. The work function and electron affinity were measured using 21.2 eV photons from a helium plasma source. The films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine elemental composition and the sp2/sp3 carbon fraction. The percentage of (111) diamond was determined by x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine average grain size. The measured work function has a maximum of 5.1 eV at 0.3 microns, and decreases to 3.2 eV at approximately 4 microns. Then the work function increases with increasing grain size to 4.0 eV at 15 microns and then asymptotically approaches the 4.8 eV work function of single crystal diamond at 108 microns. These results are consistent with a 3-component model in which the work function is controlled by single-crystal (111) diamond at larger grain sizes, graphitic carbon at smaller grain sizes, and by the electron affinity for the intervening grain sizes.

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### Theoretical Study of Second Harmonic Generation of a Blue Laser at 486 nm Using a BBO Crystal in a Standing Wave Buildup Cavity

**Date:**May 2002

**Creator:**Khademian, Ali

**Description:**For a spectroscopy purpose, we are interested in producing continuous wave (CW) UV laser light at 243 nm with at least 2 mW power. The theory of nonlinear optics suggests that we should be able to produce a desired 2.9 mW of 243 nm light by second harmonic generation (SHG) from a 50 mW blue laser at 486 nm using a BBO crystal in a build up cavity. The most important physical parameters are calculated. A 10 mm Brewster cut BBO crystal can provide phase matching conditions for coupling two ordinary photons at 486 nm and make a secondary beam at 243 nm. The single pass conversion efficiency is calculated not to be enough to generate 2.9 mW of SH light. My investigation shows that a standing wave build up cavity can provide a buildup factor of 94 and an overall conversion efficiency of 5.9% if one use an input coupler mirror with 1.1% transmission at 486 nm.

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3132/

### The Effects of Cesium Deposition and Gas Exposure on the Field Emission Properties of Single Wall and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

**Date:**May 2002

**Creator:**Wadhawan, Atul

**Description:**The effects of Cs deposition on the field emission (FE) properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles were studied. In addition, a comparative study was made on the effects of O2, Ar and H2 gases on the field emission properties of SWNT bundles and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). We observed that Cs deposition decreases the turn-on field for FE by a factor of 2.1 - 2.9 and increases the FE current by 6 orders of magnitude. After Cs deposition, the FE current versus voltage (I-V) curves showed non-Fowler-Nordheim behavior at large currents consistent with tunneling from adsorbate states. At lower currents, the ratio of the slope of the FE I-V curves before and after Cs deposition was approximately 2.1. Exposure to N2 does not decrease the FE current, while exposure to O2 decreases the FE current. Our results show that cesiated SWNT bundles have great potential as economical and reliable vacuum electron sources. We find that H2 and Ar gases do not significantly affect the FE properties of SWNTs or MWNTs. O2 temporarily reduces the FE current and increases the turn-on voltage of SWNTs. Full recovery of these properties occurred after operation in UHV. The higher operating voltages in an ...

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### Approach to Quantum Information starting from Bell's Inequality (Part I) and Statistical Analysis of Time Series Corresponding to Complex Processes (Part II)

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**Date:**May 2002

**Creator:**Failla, Roberto

**Description:**I: Quantum information obeys laws that subtly extend those governing classical information, making possible novel effect such as cryptography and quantum computation. Quantum computations are extremely sensitive to disruption by interaction of the computer with its environment, but this problem can be overcome by recently developed quantum versions of classical error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant circuits. Based on these ideas, the purpose of this paper is to provide an approach to quantum information by analyzing and demonstrating Bell's inequality and by discussing the problems related to decoherence and error-correcting. II: The growing need for a better understanding of complex processes has stimulated the development of new and more advanced data analysis techniques. The purpose of this research was to investigate some of the already existing techniques (Hurst's rescaled range and relative dispersion analysis), to develop a software able to process time series with these techniques, and to get familiar with the theory of diffusion processes.

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### Application of the Finite Element Method to Some Simple Systems in One and Two Dimensions.

**Date:**May 2002

**Creator:**Hunnell, Jason C.

**Description:**The finite element method (FEM) is reviewed and applied to the one-dimensional eigensystems of the isotropic harmonic oscillator, finite well, infinite well and radial hydrogen atom, and the two-dimensional eigensystems of the isotropic harmonic oscillator and the propagational modes of sound in a rectangular cavity. Computer codes that I developed were introduced and utilized to find accurate results for the FEM eigensolutions. One of the computer codes was modified and applied to the one-dimensional unbound quantum mechanical system of a square barrier potential and also provided accurate results.

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### Monte Carlo simulation and experimental studies of the production of neutron-rich medical isotopes using a particle accelerator.

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**Date:**May 2002

**Creator:**Rosencranz, Daniela Necsoiu

**Description:**The developments of nuclear medicine lead to an increasing demand for the production of radioisotopes with suitable nuclear and chemical properties. Furthermore, from the literature it is evident that the production of radioisotopes using charged-particle accelerators instead of nuclear reactors is gaining increasing popularity. The main advantages of producing medical isotopes with accelerators are carrier free radionuclides of short lived isotopes, improved handling, reduction of the radioactive waste, and lower cost of isotope fabrication. Proton-rich isotopes are the result of nuclear interactions between enriched stable isotopes and energetic protons. An interesting observation is that during the production of proton-rich isotopes, fast and intermediately fast neutrons from nuclear reactions such as (p,xn) are also produced as a by-product in the nuclear reactions. This observation suggests that it is perhaps possible to use these neutrons to activate secondary targets for the production of neutron-rich isotopes. The study of secondary radioisotope production with fast neutrons from (p,xn) reactions using a particle accelerator is the main goal of the research in this thesis.

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