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**Partner:**UNT Libraries

**Degree Discipline:**Physics

**Degree Level:**Doctoral

**Collection:**UNT Theses and Dissertations

### Charge Collection Studies on Integrated Circuit Test Structures using Heavy-Ion Microbeams and MEDICI Simulation Calculations

**Date:**May 2000

**Creator:**Guo, Baonian

**Description:**Ion induced charge collection dynamics within Integrated Circuits (ICs) is important due to the presence of ionizing radiation in the IC environment. As the charge signals defining data states are reduced by voltage and area scaling, the semiconductor device will naturally have a higher susceptibility to ionizing radiation induced effects. The ionizing radiation can lead to the undesired generation and migration of charge within an IC. This can alter, for example, the memory state of a bit, and thereby produce what is called a "soft" error, or Single Event Upset (SEU). Therefore, the response of ICs to natural radiation is of great concern for the reliability of future devices. Immunity to soft errors is listed as a requirement in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors prepared by the Semiconductor Industry Association in the United States. To design more robust devices, it is essential to create and test accurate models of induced charge collection and transport in semiconductor devices. A heavy ion microbeam produced by an accelerator is an ideal tool to study charge collection processes in ICs and to locate the weak nodes and structures for improvement through hardening design. In this dissertation, the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection ...

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2469/

### Charge State Dependence of L-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu, ₃₀Zn, ₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge by Energetic Oxygen Ions

**Date:**August 1996

**Creator:**Azordegan, Amir R. (Amir Reza)

**Description:**Charge state dependence of L-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for 4-14 MeV ¹⁶O^q (q=3⁺-8⁺) ions incident on ultra-clean, ultra-thin copper, and for 12 MeV ¹⁶O^q (q=3⁺-8⁺) on nickel, zinc, gallium and germanium solid foils. L-shell x-ray production cross section were measured using target foils of thickness ≤0.6 μg/cm² evaporated onto 5 μg/cm² carbon backings. Oxygen ions at MeV energies and charge state q were produced using a 3MV 9SDH-2 National Electrostatics Corporation tandem Pelletron accelerator. Different charge states, with and without K-vacancies, were produced using a post acceleration nitrogen striping gas cell or ¹²C stripping foils. L-shell x-rays from ultra-thin ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu,₃₀Zn,₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge targets were measured using a Si(Li) x-ray detector with a FWHM resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV. The scattered projectiles were detected simultaneously by means of silicon surface barrier detectors at angle of 45° and 169° with respect to the beam direction. The electron capture (EC) as well as direct ionization (DI) contributions were determined from the projectile charge state dependence of the target x-ray production cross sections under single collision conditions. The present work was undertaken to expand the measurements of L-shell x-ray production cross sections upon selected elements with low ...

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277981/

### Charge State Dependence of M-Shell X-Ray Production in 67Ho by 2-12 MeV Carbon Ions

**Date:**August 1994

**Creator:**Sun, Hsueh-Li

**Description:**The charge state dependence of M-shell x-ray production cross sections of 67HO bombarded by 2-12 MeV carbon ions with and without K-vacancies are reported. The experiment was performed using an NEC 9SDH-2 tandem accelerator at the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory of the University of North Texas. The high charge state carbon ions were produced by a post-accelerator stripping gas cell. Ultra-clean holmium targets were used in ion-atom collision to generate M-shell x rays at energies from 1.05 to 1.58 keV. The x-ray measurements were made with a windowless Si(Li) x-ray detector that was calibrated using radiative sources, particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE), and the atomic field bremsstrahlung (AFB) techniques.

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278725/

### Charge State Distributions in Molecular Dissociation

**Date:**December 1998

**Creator:**Renfrow, Steven N. (Steven Neal)

**Description:**The present work provides charge state fractions that may be used to generate TEAMS relative sensitivity factors for impurities in semiconductor materials.

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278340/

### Complexity as a Form of Transition From Dynamics to Thermodynamics: Application to Sociological and Biological Processes.

**Date:**May 2003

**Creator:**Ignaccolo, Massimiliano

**Description:**This dissertation addresses the delicate problem of establishing the statistical mechanical foundation of complex processes. These processes are characterized by a delicate balance of randomness and order, and a correct paradigm for them seems to be the concept of sporadic randomness. First of all, we have studied if it is possible to establish a foundation of these processes on the basis of a generalized version of thermodynamics, of non-extensive nature. A detailed account of this attempt is reported in Ignaccolo and Grigolini (2001), which shows that this approach leads to inconsistencies. It is shown that there is no need to generalize the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy by means of a non-extensive indicator, and that the anomaly of these processes does not rest on their non-extensive nature, but rather in the fact that the process of transition from dynamics to thermodynamics, this being still extensive, occurs in an exceptionally extended time scale. Even, when the invariant distribution exists, the time necessary to reach the thermodynamic scaling regime is infinite. In the case where no invariant distribution exists, the complex system lives forever in a condition intermediate between dynamics and thermodynamics. This discovery has made it possible to create a new method of analysis ...

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4209/

### Complexity as Aging Non-Poisson Renewal Processes

**Date:**May 2007

**Creator:**Bianco, Simone

**Description:**The search for a satisfactory model for complexity, meant as an intermediate condition between total order and total disorder, is still subject of debate in the scientific community. In this dissertation the emergence of non-Poisson renewal processes in several complex systems is investigated. After reviewing the basics of renewal theory, another popular approach to complexity, called modulation, is introduced. I show how these two different approaches, given a suitable choice of the parameter involved, can generate the same macroscopic outcome, namely an inverse power law distribution density of events occurrence. To solve this ambiguity, a numerical instrument, based on the theoretical analysis of the aging properties of renewal systems, is introduced. The application of this method, called renewal aging experiment, allows us to distinguish if a time series has been generated by a renewal or a modulation process. This method of analysis is then applied to several physical systems, from blinking quantum dots, to the human brain activity, to seismic fluctuations. Theoretical conclusions about the underlying nature of the considered complex systems are drawn.

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3706/

### The Concept of Collision Strength and Its Applications

**Date:**May 2004

**Creator:**Chang, Yongbin

**Description:**Collision strength, the measure of strength for a binary collision, hasn't been defined clearly. In practice, many physical arguments have been employed for the purpose and taken for granted. A scattering angle has been widely and intensively used as a measure of collision strength in plasma physics for years. The result of this is complication and unnecessary approximation in deriving some of the basic kinetic equations and in calculating some of the basic physical terms. The Boltzmann equation has a five-fold integral collision term that is complicated. Chandrasekhar and Spitzer's approaches to the linear Fokker-Planck coefficients have several approximations. An effective variable-change technique has been developed in this dissertation as an alternative to scattering angle as the measure of collision strength. By introducing the square of the reduced impulse or its equivalencies as a collision strength variable, many plasma calculations have been simplified. The five-fold linear Boltzmann collision integral and linearized Boltzmann collision integral are simplified to three-fold integrals. The arbitrary order linear Fokker-Planck coefficients are calculated and expressed in a uniform expression. The new theory provides a simple and exact method for describing the equilibrium plasma collision rate, and a precise calculation of the equilibrium relaxation time. It generalizes ...

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4530/

### Cooperation-induced Criticality in Neural Networks

**Date:**August 2013

**Creator:**Zare, Marzieh

**Description:**The human brain is considered to be the most complex and powerful information-processing device in the known universe. The fundamental concepts behind the physics of complex systems motivate scientists to investigate the human brain as a collective property emerging from the interaction of thousand agents. In this dissertation, I investigate the emergence of cooperation-induced properties in a system of interacting units. I demonstrate that the neural network of my research generates a series of properties such as avalanche distribution in size and duration coinciding with the experimental results on neural networks both in vivo and in vitro. Focusing attention on temporal complexity and fractal index of the system, I discuss how to define an order parameter and phase transition. Criticality is assumed to correspond to the emergence of temporal complexity, interpreted as a manifestation of non-Poisson renewal dynamics. In addition, I study the transmission of information between two networks to confirm the criticality and discuss how the network topology changes over time in the light of Hebbian learning.

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283813/

### Criticality in Cooperative Systems

**Date:**May 2012

**Creator:**Vanni, Fabio

**Description:**Cooperative behavior arises from the interactions of single units that globally produce a complex dynamics in which the system acts as a whole. As an archetype I refer to a flock of birds. As a result of cooperation the whole flock gets special abilities that the single individuals would not have if they were alone. This research work led to the discovery that the function of a flock, and more in general, that of cooperative systems, surprisingly rests on the occurrence of organizational collapses. In this study, I used cooperative systems based on self-propelled particle models (the flock models) which have been proved to be virtually equivalent to sociological network models mimicking the decision making processes (the decision making model). The critical region is an intermediate condition between a highly disordered state and a strong ordered one. At criticality the waiting times distribution density between two consecutive collapses shows an inverse power law form with an anomalous statistical behavior. The scientific evidences are based on measures of information theory, correlation in time and space, and fluctuation statistical analysis. In order to prove the benefit for a system to live at criticality, I made a flock system interact with another similar ...

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271910/

### Decoherence, Master Equation for Open Quantum Systems, and the Subordination Theory

**Date:**August 2005

**Creator:**Giraldi, Filippo

**Description:**This thesis addresses the problem of a form of anomalous decoherence that sheds light into the spectroscopy of blinking quantum dots. The system studied is a two-state system, interacting with an external environment that has the effect of establishing an interaction between the two states, via a coherence generating coupling, called inphasing. The collisions with the environment produce also decoherence, named dephasing. Decoherence is interpreted as the entanglement of the coherent superposition of these two states with the environment. The joint action of inphasing and dephasing generates a Markov master equation statistically equivalent to a random walker jumping from one state to the other. This model can be used to describe intermittent fluorescence, as a sequence of "light on" and "light off" states. The experiments on blinking quantum dots indicate that the sojourn times are distributed with an inverse power law. Thus, a proposal to turn the model for Poisson fluorescence intermittency into a model for non-Poisson fluorescence intermittency is made. The collision-like interaction of the two-state system with the environment is assumed to takes place at random times rather than at regular times. The time distance between one collision and the next is given by a distribution, called the ...

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**Permallink:**digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4812/