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 Degree Discipline: Physics
 Degree Level: Doctoral
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Magnetomorphic Oscillations in Zinc

Magnetomorphic Oscillations in Zinc

Date: August 1970
Creator: Waller, William Marvin
Description: In making this study it is important to search for ways to enhance and, if possible, make detection of MMO signals simpler in order that this technique for obtaining FS measurements may be extended to other materials. This attempt to improve measurement techniques has resulted in a significant discovery: the eddy-current techniques described in detail in a later section which should allow MMO to be observed and sensitively measured in many additional solids. The second major thrust of the study has been to use the newly discovered eddy-current technique in obtaining the first indisputable observation of MMO in zinc.
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Distribution of Nighttime F-region Molecular Ion Concentrations and 6300 Å Nightglow Morphology

Distribution of Nighttime F-region Molecular Ion Concentrations and 6300 Å Nightglow Morphology

Date: December 1970
Creator: Brasher, William Ernest, 1939-
Description: The purpose of this study is two-fold. The first is to determine the dependence of the molecular ion profiles on the various ionospheric and atmospheric parameters that affect their distributions. The second is to demonstrate the correlation of specific ionospheric parameters with 6300 Å nightglow intensity during periods of magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions.
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Steady-state and Dynamic Probe Characteristics in a Low-density Plasma

Steady-state and Dynamic Probe Characteristics in a Low-density Plasma

Date: December 1970
Creator: Bunting, William David
Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of determining the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of the admittance of a metallic probe immersed in a laboratory plasma which has the low electron densities and low electron temperatures characteristic of the ionospheric plasma. The problem is separated into three related topics: the design and production of the laboratory plasma, the measurement of the steady-state properties of dc and very low frequency probe admittance, and the study of transient ion sheath effects on radio frequency probe admittance.
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Anisotropic Relaxation Time for Solids with Ellipsoidal Fermi Surfaces

Anisotropic Relaxation Time for Solids with Ellipsoidal Fermi Surfaces

Date: May 1971
Creator: Fuchser, Troy Denrich
Description: Many solids have Fermi surfaces which are approximated as ellipsoids. A comprehensive solution for the magnetoconductivity of an ellipsoid is obtained which proves the existence of a relaxation time tensor which can be anisotropic and which is a function of energy only.
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A Study of Solar Cosmic Ray Flare Effects

A Study of Solar Cosmic Ray Flare Effects

Date: May 1971
Creator: Keath, Edwin P. (Edwin Paul), 1938-
Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of the solar cosmic ray flux. This report describes the design and construction of a cosmic ray detector system used in this study and describes the analysis of the data obtained from these systems.
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Investigation of the Uniaxial Stress Dependence of the Effective Mass in N-Type InSb Using the Magnetophonon Effect

Investigation of the Uniaxial Stress Dependence of the Effective Mass in N-Type InSb Using the Magnetophonon Effect

Date: December 1971
Creator: Alsup, Dale Lynn
Description: The magnetophonon effect was used to investigate the uniaxial stress dependence of the effective mass in n-type InSb (indium antimonide).
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A Study of Minority Atomic Ion Recombination in the Helium Afterglow

A Study of Minority Atomic Ion Recombination in the Helium Afterglow

Date: August 1972
Creator: Wells, William E.
Description: Electron-ion recombination has been under study for many years, but comparisons between theory and experiment have been very difficult, especially for conditions where the ion under evaluation was a minority in concentration. This study describes a direct measurement of the recombination-rate coefficient for the recombination of minority as well as majority ions in the afterglow.
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Electron Density and Collision Frequency Studies Using a Resonant Microwave Cavity as a Probe

Electron Density and Collision Frequency Studies Using a Resonant Microwave Cavity as a Probe

Date: May 1973
Creator: Freeman, Ronald Harold
Description: Electron densities and collision frequencies were obtained on a number of gases in a dc discharge at low pressures (0.70-2mm of Hg). These measurements were performed by microwave probing of a filament of the dc discharge placed coaxially in a resonant cavity operating in a TM₀₁₀ mode. The equipment and techniques for making the microwave measurements employing the resonant cavity are described. One of the main features of this investigation is the technique of differentiating the resonance signal of the loaded cavity in order to make accurate measurements of the resonant frequency and half-power point frequencies.
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Nonlinear Absorption Techniques and Measurements in Semiconductors

Nonlinear Absorption Techniques and Measurements in Semiconductors

Date: August 1985
Creator: Woodall, Milton Andrew
Description: We have conducted a detailed experimental and theoretical study of nonlinear absorption in semiconductors. Experimental measurements were made on a variety of materials at wavelengths of 1.06 and 0.53 microns using a picosecond Nd:YAG laser. Both two- and three-photon processes were investigated. Values of nonlinear absorption coefficients extracted from these measurements show excellent agreement with recent theory and scaling rules. Our theoretical investigation has been carried out for two-, three-,and n-photon absorption, for both continuous and pulsed sources. Expressions are obtained for the transmission of the sample in terms of the incident irradiance for each case. The physical interpretation of these results is discussed. We have also considered the effects of the photogenerated carriers on the measurements. Equations are developed that include linear absorption by these carriers. We have observed severe distortions on the transmitted beam, caused by changes in the refractive index of the material, due to the presence of these carriers. We present a model that accurately describes these effects in terms of the photogenerated carrier density. We have developed several novel techniques for monitoring nonlinear absorption. In particular, we have adapted the photoacoustic technique to the measurement of nonlinear absorption in semiconductors. We have also developed a ...
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The Rotational Spectra of Propyne in the Ground, V₁₀=1, V₁₀=2, and V₉=1 Vibrational States

The Rotational Spectra of Propyne in the Ground, V₁₀=1, V₁₀=2, and V₉=1 Vibrational States

Date: August 1985
Creator: Ware, John Matthew
Description: The problem of a vibrating-rotating polyatomic molecule is treated, with emphasis given to the case of molecules with C_3v symmetry. It is shown that several of the gross features of the rotational spectra of polyatomic molecules in excited vibrational states can be predicted by group theoretical considerations. Expressions for the rotational transition frequencies of molecules of C_3v symmetry in the ground vibrational state, singly excited degenerate vibrational states, and doubly excited degenerate vibrational states are given. The derivation of these expressions by fourth order perturbation theory as given by Amat, Nielsen, and Tarrago is discussed. The ground and V_10=1 rotational spectra of propyne have been investigated in the 17 to 70 GHz, and 17 to 53 GHz regions, respectively, and compared with predictions based on higher frequency measurements. The V_9=1 and V_10=2 rotational spectra of propyne have been investigated and assigned for the first time. A perturbation of the V_9=1 rotational spectra for K=-l has been discovered and discussed.
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Electron-Ion Time-of-Flight Coincidence Measurements of K-K Electron Capture, Cross Sections for Nitrogen, Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Carbon Dioxide and Argon (L-K) Targets

Electron-Ion Time-of-Flight Coincidence Measurements of K-K Electron Capture, Cross Sections for Nitrogen, Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Carbon Dioxide and Argon (L-K) Targets

Date: May 1986
Creator: Toten, Arvel D.
Description: Protons with energies ranging from 0.4 to 2.0 MeV were used to measure K-shell vacancy production cross sections (oVK) for N_2, CH_4, C_2H_4, C_2H_6, and CO_2 gas targets under single collision conditions. An electron-ion time-of-flight coincidence technique was used to determind the ration of the K-K electron capture cross section, OECK, to the K-vacancy production cross section, oVK. These ratios were then combined with the measured values of oVK to extract the K-K electron capture cross sections. Measurements were also made for protons of the same energy range but with regard to L-shell vacancy production and L-K electron capture for Ar targets. In addition, K-K electron capture cross sections were measured for 1.0 to 2.0 Mev 42He^_ ions on CH_4.
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Carbon K-Shell X-Ray and Auger-Electron Cross Sections and Fluorescence Yields for Selected Molecular Gases by 0.6 To 2 .0 MeV Proton Impact

Carbon K-Shell X-Ray and Auger-Electron Cross Sections and Fluorescence Yields for Selected Molecular Gases by 0.6 To 2 .0 MeV Proton Impact

Date: August 1986
Creator: Bhalla, Raj P. (Raj Pal), 1948
Description: Absolute K-shell x-ray cross sections and Auger-electron cross sections are measured for carbon for 0.6 to 2.0 MeV proton incident on CH₄, n-C₄H₁₀ (n-Butane), i-C₄H₁₀ (isobutane), C₆H₆ (Benzene), C₂H₂ (Acetylene), CO and CO₂. Carbon K-shell fluorescence yields are calculated from the measurements of x-ray and Auger-electron cross sections. X-ray cross sections are measured using a variable geometry end window proportional counter. An alternate method is described for the measurement of the transmission of the proportional counter window. Auger electrons are detected by using a constant transmission energy Π/4 parallel pi ate electrostatic analyzer. Absolute carbon K-shell x-ray cross sections for CH₄ are compared to the known results of Khan et al. (1965). Auger-electron cross sections for proton impact on CH₄ are compared to the known experimental values of RΦdbro et al. (1979), and to the theoretical predictions of the first Born and ECPSSR. The data is in good agreement with both the first Born and ECPSSR, and within our experimental uncertainties with the measurements of RΦdbro et al. The x-ray cross sections, Auger-electron cross sections and fluorescence yields are plotted as a function of the Pauling charge, and show significant variations. These changes in the x-ray cross sections are compared ...
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A Comprehensive Model for the Rotational Spectra of Propyne CH₃CCH in the Ground and V₁₀=1,2,3,4,5 Vibrational States

A Comprehensive Model for the Rotational Spectra of Propyne CH₃CCH in the Ground and V₁₀=1,2,3,4,5 Vibrational States

Date: December 1986
Creator: Rhee, Won Myung
Description: The energy states of C₃ᵥ symmetric top polyatomic molecules were studied. Both classical and quantum mechanical methods have been used to introduce the energy states of polyatomic molecules. Also, it is shown that the vibration-rotation spectra of polyatomic molecules in the ground and excited vibrational states can be predicted by group theory. A comprehensive model for predicting rotational frequency components in various v₁₀ vibrational levels of propyne was developed by using perturbation theory and those results were compared with other formulas for C₃ᵥ symmetric top molecules. The v₁₀=1,2,3 and ground rotational spectra of propyne in the frequency range 17-70 GHz have been reassigned by using the derived comprehensive model. The v₁₀=3 and v₁₀=4 rotational spectra of propyne have been investigated in the 70 GHz, and 17 to 52 GHz regions, respectively, and these spectral components assigned using the comprehensive model. Molecular constants for these vibrationally excited states have been determined from more than 100 observed rotational transitions. From these experimentally observed components and a model based upon first principles for C₃ᵥ symmetry molecules, rotational constants have been expressed in a form which enables one to predict rotational components for vibrational levels for propyne up to v₁₀=5. This comprehensive model also ...
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K-, L-, and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections for Beryllium, Aluminum and Argon Ions Incident Upon Selected Elements

K-, L-, and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections for Beryllium, Aluminum and Argon Ions Incident Upon Selected Elements

Date: December 1986
Creator: Price, Jack Lewis
Description: Incident 0.5 to 2.5 MeV charged particle beams were used to ionize the inner-shells of selected targets and study their subsequent emission of characteristic x-rays. ⁹Be⁺ ions were used to examine K-shell x-ray production from thin F, Na, Al, Si, P, Cl, and K targets, L-shell x-ray production from thin Cu, An, Ge, Br, Zr and Ag targets, and M-shell x-ray production from thin Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy, Ho, Hf, W, Au, Pb and Bi targets. L-shell x-ray production cross sections were also measured for ²⁷Al⁺ ions incident upon Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Zr, and Pd targets. M-shell x-ray production cross sections were measure for ²⁷Al⁺ and ⁴⁰Ar⁺ ions incident upon Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy, Lu, Hf, Au, Pb, Bi, and U targets. These measurements were performed using the 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at North Texas State University. The x-rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector whose efficiency was determined by fitting a theoretical photon absorption curve to experimentally measure values. The x-ray yields were normalized to the simultaneously measured Rutherford backscattered (RBS) yields which resulted in an x-ray production cross section per incident ion. The RBS spectrum was obtained using a standard surface barrier detector calibrated for ...
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Dispersion of the Nonlinear Refractive Index of CS₂ in the Spectral Range of 9-11 μm

Dispersion of the Nonlinear Refractive Index of CS₂ in the Spectral Range of 9-11 μm

Date: May 1987
Creator: Mohebi, Mehrdad
Description: The nonlinear refractive index (n2) of room temperature liquid CS2 in the wavelength range of 9 to 11 micrometers is measured. A line tunable hybrid C02 TEA laser and amplifier system is used for the experiments. In these measurements the well known photoacoustic method is utilized to observe the onset of whole beam self-focusing. The photoacoustic signal in a CS2 cell, much longer than the confocal parameter, is monitored. The departure of the acoustic signal from linear growth marks the critical power for the onset of nonlinearity. It is experimentally verified that the phenomenon is power dependent as expected from self-focusing theory. The value of n2 is then calculated from the theoretical model of self focusing. Measurements of the on-axis irradiance transmitted through the nonlinear material as well as the measurements of beam distortion are used to verify the validity of the photoacoustic method. In all the measurements the on-axis intensity was smaller than the calculated threshold intensity for stimulated Brillouin scattering. The back reflection was monitored to make sure that stimulated Brillouin scattering was not playing a role in the phenomenon.
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Photon Exchange Between a Pair of Nonidentical Atoms with Two Forms of Interactions

Photon Exchange Between a Pair of Nonidentical Atoms with Two Forms of Interactions

Date: May 1987
Creator: Golshan, Shahram Mohammad-Mehdi
Description: A pair of nonidentical two-level atoms, separated by a fixed distance R, interact through photon exchange. The system is described by a state vector which is assumed to be a superposition of four "essential states": (1) the first atom is excited, the second one is in the ground state, and no photon is present, (2) the first atom is in its ground state, the second one is excited, and no photon is present, (3) both atoms are in their ground states and a photon is present, and (4) both atoms are excited and a photon is also present. The system is initially in state (1). The probabilities of each atom being excited are calculated for both the minimally-coupled interaction and the multipolar interaction in the electric dipole approximation. For the minimally-coupled interaction Hamiltonian, the second atom has a probability of being instantaneously excited, so the interaction is not retarded. For the multipolar interaction Hamiltonian, the second atom is not excited before the retardation time, which agrees with special relativity. For the minimally-coupled interaction the nonphysical result occurs because the unperturbed Hamiltonian is not the energy operator in the Coulomb gauge. For the multipolar Hamiltonian in the electric dipole approximation the ...
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L- and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Neodymium Gadolinium, Holmium, Ytterbium, Gold and Lead by 25-MeV Carbon and 32-MeV Oxygen Ions

L- and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Neodymium Gadolinium, Holmium, Ytterbium, Gold and Lead by 25-MeV Carbon and 32-MeV Oxygen Ions

Date: August 1987
Creator: Andrews, Mike C., 1949-
Description: L- and M-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin solid targets of neodymium, gadolinium, holmium, ytterbium, gold, and lead by 25 MeV 12/6C^q+ (q=4,5,6) and by 32 MeV 16/8O^q+ (q=5,7,8). The cross sections were determined from measurements made with thin targets (< 2.5 μg/cm2). For projectiles with one or two K-shell vacancies, the target x-ray production cross sections were found to be enhanced over those for projectiles without a K-shell vacancy. The sum of direct ionization to the continuum (DI) plus electron capture (EC) to the L, M, N... shells and EC to the K-shell of the projectile have been extracted from the data. The results are compared to the predictions of first Born theories, i.e., plane wave Born approximation for DI and Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers formula of Nikolaev for EC and to the ECPSSR approach that accounts for Energy loss and Coulomb deflection of the projectile as well as for Relativistic and Perturbed Stationary States of inner shell electrons.
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Coherent Resonant Interaction and Harmonic Generation in Atomic Vapors

Coherent Resonant Interaction and Harmonic Generation in Atomic Vapors

Date: August 1987
Creator: Mukherjee, Nandini
Description: This work examines the use of higher order multiphoton resonances in higher harmonic generation together with judicious exploitation of coherent interaction properties to achieve efficient harmonic generation. A detailed experimental study on third harmonic generation in two photon resonant coherent interaction and a theoretical study on four photon resonant coherent interaction have been conducted. Two photon resonant coheren propagation in lithium vapor (2S-4S and 2S-3D interaction) has been studied in detail as a function of phase and delay of the interacting pulse sequence. Under coherent lossless propagation of 90 phase shifted pulse pair, third harmonic generation is enhanced. A maximum energy conversion efficiency of 1% was measured experimentally. This experiment shows that phase correlated pulse sequence can be used to control multiphoton coherent resonant effects. A larger two photon resonant enhancement does not result in more efficient harmonic generation, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. An accurate (to at least 0.5 A°) measurement of intensity dependent Stark shift has been done with the newly developed "interferometric wavemeter." Stark shifts as big as several pulse bandwidths (of picosecond pulses) result in a poor tuning of multiphoton resonance and become a limiting factor of resonant harmonic generation. A complete theory has been ...
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Two Photon Resonant Picosecond Pulse Propagation in Lithium Vapor

Two Photon Resonant Picosecond Pulse Propagation in Lithium Vapor

Date: August 1987
Creator: Mukherjee, Anadi
Description: The work of this dissertation has been to prove that the coherence of multiphoton excitation can be studied by an appropriately phased and time delayed sequence of pulses. An application of this fundamental study of coherence has been made for the enhancement of third harmonic generation. The coherent recovery of the energy lost to the two photon absorption process enalled a larger propagation distance for the fundamental than in an interaction which is incoherent or coherent, but not using a 90 degree phase shifted pulse pair. Phase matching over this longer propagation distance gave an enhancement of third harmonic generation.
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Microwave Spectra of ¹³C Isotopic Species of Methyl Cyanide in the Ground, v₈=1 and v₈=2 Vibrational States

Microwave Spectra of ¹³C Isotopic Species of Methyl Cyanide in the Ground, v₈=1 and v₈=2 Vibrational States

Date: May 1988
Creator: Tam, Hungsze
Description: The problem of the quadrupole interaction occurring in a vibrating-rotating C₃v symmetric top molecule has been studied in detail. The quadrupole interaction has been treated as another perturbation term to a general frequency expression accounting for the vibrating-rotating interaction of the molecule so that a complete frequency formula is obtained for both interactions, and from which hyperfine spectral components are predicted and measured. The hyperfine transitions in the ground, and v₈=1 and v₈=2 excited vibrational states of the ¹³C isotopes of methyl cyanide have been investigated in the frequency range 17-72 GHz, primarily in the low J transitions (0≤J≤3). The study of the ground state of isotope i3CH3i3CN, and the v₈=1, v₈=2 excited vibrational states for all the isotopes have been conducted here for the first time. A substantial perturbation has been discovered and discussed at the ΔJ=3→4 transitions within the Kl=1 sets in the v₈=1 mode for isotopes ¹³CH₃CN and CH₃¹³CN. A total of 716 hyperfine transitions have been assigned from measurements, only 7 of which have been measured previously. A total of 84 molecular constants have been reported; 70 of these constants are derived for the first time from microwave data.
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Nonlinear Absorption Initiated Laser-Induced Damage in [Gamma]-Irradiated Fused Silica, Fluorozirconate Glass and Cubic Zirconia

Nonlinear Absorption Initiated Laser-Induced Damage in [Gamma]-Irradiated Fused Silica, Fluorozirconate Glass and Cubic Zirconia

Date: August 1988
Creator: Mansour, Nastaran
Description: The contributions of nonlinear absorption processes to laser-induced damage of three selected groups of transparent dielectrics were investigated. The studied materials were irradiated and non-irradiated fused silica, doped and undoped fluorozirconate glass and cubic zirconia stabilized with yttria. The laser-induced damage thresholds, prebreakdown transmission, and nonlinear absorption processes were studied for several specimens of each group. Experimental measurements were performed at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm using nanosecond and picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. In the irradiated fused silica and fluorozirconate glasses, we found that there is a correlation between the damage thresholds at wavelength λ and the linear absorption of the studied specimens at λ/2. In other words, the laser-induced breakdown is related to the probability of all possible two-photon transitions. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with a proposed two-photon-initiated electron avalanche breakdown model. In this model, the initial "seed" electrons for the formation of an avalanche are produced by two-photon excitations of E' centers and metallic impurity levels which are located within the bandgaps of irradiated Si02 and fluorozirconate glasses, respectively. Once the initial electrons are liberated in the conduction band, a highly absorbing plasma is formed by avalanche impact ionization. The resultant ...
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Field Dependence of Optical Properties in Quantum Well Heterostructures Within the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin Approximation

Field Dependence of Optical Properties in Quantum Well Heterostructures Within the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin Approximation

Date: August 1989
Creator: Wallace, Andrew B.
Description: This dissertation is a theoretical treatment of the electric field dependence of optical properties such as Quantum Confined Stark (QCS) shifts, Photoluminescence Quenching (PLQ), and Excitonic Mixing in quantum well heterostructures. The reduced spatial dimensionality in heterostructures greatly enhances these optical properties, more than in three dimensional semiconductors. Charge presence in the quantum well from doping causes the potential to bend and deviate from the ideal square well potential. A potential bending that varies as the square of distance measured from the heterostructure interfaces is derived self-consistently. This potential is used to solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation for bound state energies and wave functions within the framework of the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin (WKB) approximation. The theoretical results obtained from the WKB approximation are limited to wide gap semiconductors with large split off bands such as gallium arsenide-gallium aluminum arsenide and indium gallium arsenide—indium phosphide. Quantum wells with finite confinement heights give rise to an energy dependent WKB phase. External electric and magnetic fields are incorporated into the theory for two different geometries. For electric fields applied perpendicular to the heterostructure multilayers, QCS shifts and PLQ are found to be in excellent agreement with the WKB calculations. Orthogonality between electrons ...
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L-shell X-ray production cross sections of ₂₉Cu, ₃₂Ge, ₃₇Rb, ₃₈Sr, and ₃₉Y and M-shell X-ray production cross sections of ₇₉Au, ₈₂Pb, ₈₃Bi, ₉₀Th, and ₉₂U by 70-200 keV protons

L-shell X-ray production cross sections of ₂₉Cu, ₃₂Ge, ₃₇Rb, ₃₈Sr, and ₃₉Y and M-shell X-ray production cross sections of ₇₉Au, ₈₂Pb, ₈₃Bi, ₉₀Th, and ₉₂U by 70-200 keV protons

Date: August 1989
Creator: Gressett, David
Description: L-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of 29Cu, 32Ge, 37Rb, 38Sr, and 39Y. M-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of 79Au, 82Pb, 83Bi, 90Th, and 92U. All targets were irradiated with a beam of H+ ions with energies in a range from 70 to 200 keV. Experimental cross sections are compared to other measurements at higher energies and to first Born (Plane Wave Born Approximation for direct ionization and Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers-Nikolaev approximation for electron capture) and the ECPSSR (Energy loss, Coulomb deflection, Perturbed Stationary State calculations with Relativistic effects) theoretical cross sections.
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Detection of the Resonant Vibration of the Cellular Membrane Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses

Detection of the Resonant Vibration of the Cellular Membrane Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses

Date: December 1989
Creator: Jamasbi, Nooshin
Description: An optical detection technique is developed to detect and measure the resonant vibration of the cellular membrane. Biological membranes are active components of living cells and play a complex and dynamic role in life processes. They are believed to have oscillation modes of frequencies in the range of 1 to 1000 GHz. To measure such a high-frequency vibration, a linear laser cavity is designed to produce a train of femtosecond pulses of adjustable repetition rate. The method is then directly applied to liposomes, "artificial membrane", stained with a liphophilic potential sensitive dye. The spectral behavior of a selection of potential sensitive dyes in the membrane is also studied.
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