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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Physical Education
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
An Analysis of Perceived Exertion of a Graded Isometric Muscle Contraction of the Forearm Flexors Under Conditions of Magnitude Production and Magnitude Estimation
This study analyzed an individual's ability to perceive levels of exertion of an isometric contraction. Two samples of college students were tested under magnitude production or magnitude estimation. A significant F was obtained for the magnitude production condition. An insignificant F was obtained for the magnitude estimation condition. This study concludes that subjects tested under magnitude production will perceive the 100 percent level with the least amount of error and that error will increase as the percentages descend from the 100 percent level. Subjects tested under magnitude estimation will be equally in error when perceiving percentages of a maximum contraction of the forearm flexors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663135/
An Analysis of the Boys' Physical Education Programs in the Approved Junior High Schools of Texas and a Comparison of the Findings with the Standards Recommended by the Texas State Department of Education in Bulletin 444
The investigator established the following purposes for the study: 1. To analyze the program of activities for boys' physical education in the approved junior high schools of Texas. 2. To make a survey of the equipment and facilities provided cor the boys' physical education programs. 3. To determine the status of the teaching personnel for the boys' physical education programs in regard to qualifications, professional preparation, duties, and experience. 4. To compare the findings of the study with the standards recommended in Bulletin 444. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83699/
An Analysis of the Hobbies of Sixth Grade Girls of Twelve Elementary Schools of Dallas, Texas
The purpose of this study was to determine the number of girls enrolled in the sixth grade in twelve elementary schools of Dallas, Texas, who had hobbies; what types of hobbies had been selected; what factors had influenced their choice of hobbies; and the duration of the hobbies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc75509/
An Analysis of the Hobbies of the Fifth Grade Boys of Twelve Elementary Schools of Dallas, Texas
"The purpose of this study was to determine the percent of boys who had hobbies; what influenced their choice of hobbies; what types of hobbies were selected; what were their recreational, educational, and vocational values; and what were their environmental influences...One hundred and ninety-eight questionnaires were filed out in the schools that were in the high economic districts, one hundred ninety-one in the medium districts, and one hundred ninety-seven in the low districts. This made a total of five hundred and sixty-five questionnaires used in the analysis... Comparisons and analyses of all the groups were made by means of numbers, percentages, and averages. "-- leaves 3,7 digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc699569/
An Analytical Study of Basketball Goal Shooting in Fifteen Girls' Commercial Basketball Games of the Major City and Industrial Leagues of Fort Worth, Texas, during the Season of 1951-1952
The investigator became interested in the status of basketball goal shooting in modern girls' basketball as compared to that of boys' goal shooting. Types of shots, their frequency and accuracy, and the zones on the court from which they were taken, were all considered as components of the status of basketball goal shooting. It was on the basis of this interest that the present study was undertaken. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107968/
An Analytical Study of Characteristics of Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Boys who were Non-Participants in Playground Activities of the Trinity Heights Elementary School, Dallas, Texas, with Implications for the Modification of the Playground Program to Meet the Needs of Such Boys
The investigator undertook to make an analytical study of boys in the sixth and seventh grades in the Trinity Heights Elementary School of Dallas, Texas, who tend to be non-participants in playground activities and, on the basis of the study, to draw implications for the future guidance of such boys in group participation in such activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83756/
An Analytical Study of Conditioning Programs for Interscholastic Girls' Championship Basketball Teams
An analytical study was made concerning conditioning programs conducted by coaches of Conference AA and Conference AAA Texas senior high school girls' basketball teams which progressed to district championships in University Interscholastic League competition during the 1957-1958 season. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc108087/
An Analytical Study of the Administration of Athletic Trips for Boys in Selected Texas Public High Schools
This is an analytical study of the administration of trips for athletic competition for boys in selected Texas public high schools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130797/
An Analytical Study of the Instructional Procedures Utilized by the Coaching Staff at the Grand Prairie High School, Grand Prairie, Texas, in the Teaching of the T-Wing Football Formation
The purposes of this study may be stated as follows: 1. To analyze the instructional procedures utilized by the coaching staff in the development of the T-wing football formation at the Grand Prairie High School, Grand Prairie, Texas. 2. To gain a better understanding of the functions of the T-wing football formation as it is taught at the Grand Prairie High School. 3. To make recommendations and to propose further developments for the instructional procedures used in coaching the T-wing football formation at the Grand Prairie High School. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107855/
An Analytical Study of the Physical Education Program for Junior and Senior High School Girls in Fort Worth, Texas with Recommendations for Future Cooperative Program Development in Physical Education in the Two School Levels
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the girls' physical education programs in the junior and senior high schools in the Fort Worth Public Schools and to determine to what extent these programs insure the complete development of the girl, physically, mentally and socially in the two school levels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96912/
An Analytical Study of the Practices in the Administration and Conduct of Women's Fencing Programs in Colleges in Texas with the Development of a Manual on Fencing for College Women
The purpose of this study was to determine the number of colleges within the State of Texas which offer fencing in their Women's Physical Education Programs. An attempt was made, by mailing questionnaires to sixty-two colleges in the State, to discover the number of colleges which offer fencing, and the present practices in the teaching of fencing. Since most publications on fencing are written by the "professionals and the fencing masters," an effort has also been made to develop a fencing manual to be used by the individuals who have had the fundamentals of fencing, and as a guide to the beginning fencers in order to equip them with the necessary material for teaching and learning fencing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83492/
An Analytical Study of the Training and Conditioning Programs for Football in Selected Colleges and Universities of Texas
The purpose of this study was to determine what practices and policies were being used in the training and conditioning programs for football, the similarities and differences of the training and conditioning programs for football, and to recommend a training and conditioning program for football in colleges based upon the present practices of colleges and universities of Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83601/
Attitudes of Junior High School Female Athletes and Non-Athletes toward Physical Education
This investigation is concerned with the problem of determining whether or not a significant difference exists between attitudes of junior high school female athletes and non-athletes toward physical education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131562/
Chronic Alterations in Joint Flexibility Associated with Aerobic Dance Instruction of College Age Females
The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if three selected aerobic dance related conditions would result in chronic alterations of flexibility of college women and (2) to compare flexibility measures of college age females during a semester of aerobic dance instruction. Subjects were sixty-three college women enrolled in aerobic dance, bowling, and archery classes. Eight flexibility measures were obtained during the third and eleventh weeks of the experimental period. Data were analyzed by a factor analysis the Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and eight oneway analyses of covariance. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) a program of aerobic dance alone is not sufficient to promote flexibility, and (2) supplemental flexibility activities of ten minutes duration used with aerobic dance training are beneficial in increasing hip flexion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504501/
A Cinematographic Comparison of Two Long-Hang Kip Techniques on the Horizontal Bar
This study used cinematography to determine differences in velocity, acceleration, moments of force, and body centers of gravity in four different positions of two techniques of the long-hang kip. Three female gymnasts performed five attempts of each technique: the traditional method, with an arch in the lower back at the end of the forward swing, and approximate shoulder angle of 180 degrees or more; and the newer method, with no arch in the lower back and approximate shoulder angle of 90 degrees or less. Three. USGF-rated judges scored the kips, and due to inability to distinguish between the two techniques, two subjects were eliminated. Major differences occurred in the swing extension, with the newer technique producing more velocity and a higher center of gravity throughout the movement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504509/
A Comparative Study of Class A and Class AA Football Coaches of Districts One through Sixteen of the University Interscholastic League
The purpose of this study is to present comparative analyses relating to personal and professional differences and similarities among football coaches in Class A and Class AA high schools of Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83496/
A Comparative Study of Fifty Undergraduate Men Majors in Physical Education and Fifty Undergraduate Men Majors in Other Fields at North Texas State College with Respect to Selected Personal Traits
"To determine the general characteristics of the undergraduate men majors in the field of physical education and men majors in other fields...if the undergraduate men majors in physical education could be distinguished from the men majors in other fields"--4. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc699663/
A Comparative Study of Recreation in State and Federal Mental Institutions in Texas
The purpose of this study is to make a comparative survey of recreational programs in both federal and state mental institutions in Texas. The objective, in general, is to determine which of the two types of mental institutions makes available to patients the most well-rounded program of recreation, and to determine wherein recreational facilities and opportunities in both types of institutions may be improved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83395/
A Comparative Study of the 1939-40 Living Conditions of Dormitory and Non-Dormitory Men Attending North Texas State Teachers College, Denton, Texas
"The purpose of the study is two-fold: (1) to compare the 1939-40 living conditions that prevailed in the men's college dormitory with living conditions that existed in sixteen college-supervised residences for men; (2) to compare the living conditions that existed in 1939-40 in both the men's dormitory and the college-supervised residences for men with standards set up by authorities in the field of college student housing."--1. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc699699/
A Comparative Study of the Administration and Conduct of an Equitation Program in Private Summer Camps of Texas and of Northern and Northeastern States
Because of the lack in the research field, the investigator undertook a comparative study of the administration and conduct of an equitation program in girls' private summer camps of northern and northeastern states and of Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130214/
A Comparative Study of the Boys' Physical Education Programs in the Senior High Schools of Rusk County, Texas, and an Evaluation of These Programs on the Basis of Standards Set Up by Bulletin No. 444 of theTexas State Department of Education
The underlying purpose of this study is to determine to what extent the senior high schools of Rusk County, Texas, are meeting state standards as outlined in the Texas State Department of Education Bulletin no. 444, and consequently to point out shortcomings in the program of physical education for boys in these schools in the light of actual conditions compared with recommended standards. Then, of course, recommendations will be made for the improvement of the phys' physical education program in the senior high schools of Rusk County, Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83466/
A Comparative Study of the Expansion of Recreation Facilities, Equipment, and Activities of the Dallas Park and Recreation Departments with the Increase in the Population of Dallas, Texas from 1940 to 1950
The investigator had the following purposes in mind: 1. To determine the expansion of the recreational facilities equipment, and activities of the Dallas Park and Recreation Departments from 1940 to 1950. 2. To determine the increase in population of Dallas, Texas from 1940 to 1950. 3. To determine the sections of Dallas where population has shown an increase from 1940 to 1950. 4. To determine the sections of Dallas where recreational activities have increased from 1940 to 1950. 5. To determine the sections of Dallas where the need for the expansion of facilities is indicated by the growth of the population and by the existing offerings of the Recreation department. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663536/
A Comparative Study of the Relation of Food, Rest, and Recreation to the Height and Weight of the Children in the Fifth Grade of Winnetka School, Dallas, Texas
This thesis is a record of the results of a study made to obtain information about the relation of food, rest, and recreation to the height and the weight of the children in the fifth grade of Winnetka School, Dallas, Texas. The purpose of the work was three-fold: (1) to gain a better understanding of the nutritive value of foods and thereby put this understanding into practice; (2) to recognize the three essentials of good health: namely, diet, rest, knowledge of health rules; (3) and to create a desire to practice them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc75610/
A Comparative Study of the Stipulated, Assigned, and Acquired Duties of the Head and Assistant Football Coaches of the Class AA High Schools Within a Radius of 115 Miles of Grand Prairie, Texas
The purposes of this study are (1) to make a comparison of the stipulated, assigned, and acquired duties of the head football coaches of Class AA high schools within a radius of 115 miles of Grand Prairie, Texas; and (2) to make a comparison of the stipulated, assigned, and acquired duties of the assistant football coaches of Class AA high schools within a radius of 115 miles of Grand Prairie, Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96875/
A Comparison of Attitudes of Parents of Sixth Grade Children Toward Elementary Physical Education and Elementary Athletic Competition
This study was designed to determine and compare the attitudes toward elementary physical and elementary athletic competition of parents of sixth grade students enrolled in five elementary schools in Arlington, Texas, during the 1970-1971 school year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131401/
A Comparison of Perceived Exertion Ratings of Aerobic Dance and Treadmill Performances Among College Age Males and Females
The purposes of the study were to compare ratings of perceived exertion of aerobic dance and treadmill performances under equal work loads and to compare ratings of perceived exertion by males and females in aerobic dance and treadmill work. Subjects were twenty-six college men and women in co-educational conditioning classes. Heart rates were monitored after work bouts and perceived exertion was determined using Borg's RPE scale. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Conclusions of the investigation were: (1) aerobic dance is perceived as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal work loads, and (2) males and females perceive aerobic dance as less strenuous than the treadmill under equal energy bouts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504445/
A Comparison of Selected Coachability Traits as Ranked by Male and Female Coaches
The purpose of the study was to investigate the differences and relationships in male and female coaches assessment of coachability traits. Subjects were twenty-five male and twenty-five female coaches, The testing included a paired comparison of ten coachability traits, Data were analyzed by a Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation and analysis of variance. The conclusion of this study was that the two groups of subjects are very similar in the selection of coachability traits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504621/
A Comparison of Self Concepts Among "Starter" and "Substitute" Female College Athletes in Selected Varsity Sports
The purposes of the study were (1) to determine if differences exist between the self concepts of female intercollegiate starting and substitute athletes and between members of team and individual sports and (2) to determine if a significant relationship exists between coaches' ratings of an athlete and the athletes' self concepts. Subjects were forty-five college women who met the established criteria. The testing instrument was the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance method and the Spearman Rank Order Correlation. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that (1) the self concepts of athletes in basketball, softball, volleyball, tennis, and badminton are not significantly different, and (2) the coaches' ratings of athletes and athletes' self concept ratings are not significantly related. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663306/
A Comparison of Strength Gains from Two Weight Training Programs for Fifteen Weeks of Active Exercise
Two different weight training programs were compared to determine which was most effective in improving strength. The experiment was conducted with the bench press, leg press, and sitting press for a period of fifteen weeks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131633/
A Comparison of the Objectives of Physical Education at North Texas State University
"The purpose of this study is to investigate the priority of objectives of physical education as determined by various groups of people involved in the physical education program at north Texas State University,"--[1]. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663176/
Comparison of the Personalities of Non-Injured and Injured Female Athletes in Intercollegiate Competition
This study was designed to determine if differences exist between the personalities of injured and non-injured athletes, injured and non-injured athletes in individual sports, and injured and non-injured athletes in team sports. Subjects were forty-three female athletes selected from six intercollegiate teams. The test instrument was the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of the investigation were that the personality of injured athletes does not differ from the personality of non-injured athletes, that non-injured athletes in individual sports are more self-assured than non-injured athletes in team sports, and that the personality of athletes in team sports does not differ from the personality of athletes in individual sports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504333/
A Comparison of the Physical Development, Motor Capacity, and Strength of Anglo-American and Spanish-American Boys in El Paso High School, El Paso, Texas
The problem of the present investigation may be briefly stated as follows: To make a comparison of the physical development, motor capacities, and strength of the Spanish-American and Anglo-American boys of the El Paso High School, El Paso, Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc107820/
A Comparison of Three Selected Exercises in Building Abdominal Strength and Endurance in Upper Elementary School Girls
This study compares the effectiveness of three selected exercises (curl-up, conventional hook sit-up and modified hook sit-up) in building abdominal strength and endurance in upper elementary school girls. Ninety-nine subjects were randomly divided into four groups. The study was designed to determine (1) whether an eight week exercise program can increase abdominal strength and endurance; (2) the most effective exercise; (3) if muscle action intensity affects the results. A cable tensiometer measured abdominal strength and a timed sit-up measured abdominal endurance. An analysis of covariance determined significance. Significant gains in abdominal strength and endurance were shown by the conventional hook sit-up. Further study on the relationship between muscle development and maturation in young children is recommended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504168/
A Comparison of Two Methods of Prophylactic Hand Care for Junior High Girls Performing Uneven Bar Skills
The performance of Uneven Parallel Bar skills by junior high girls is hindered by blister formation on the hands. The problem was to investigate certain measures relative to their value in blister prevention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131320/
A Compilation of the Legal Duties and Liabilities of the Texas Athletic Coach for School Injuries
The purpose of this study is to compile a concise and non-technical report of the Texas statutes and court decisions concerning school injuries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83671/
A Critical Study of Financial Status, Enrollment and Team Records of the Teams from Ten Class "A" Football Districts in Texas from 1946 though 1948
The investigator made a critical study to determine the relationship of the success of football teams from ten class "A" football districts of the University Interscholastic League with the financial status and enrollment from 1946 through 1948. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130239/
A Critical Study of the Auditorium Activities of the White Elementary Schools of Dallas, Texas, to Determine the Educational Value of such Procedures in a Platoon System of Public Schools
The purpose of this survey was to make a critical study of (a) educational philosophies, (b) the place of auditorium activities, (c) the purpose of auditorium activities, and (d) the value of auditorium activities in the whole scheme of educational procedures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc70278/
A Critical Study of the Programs of Boys' Clubs Sponsored by Organizations in McKinney, Denton, and Dallas, Texas to Determine their Significance in an Over All Guidance Program
The eightfold purpose of this study was: 1. to evaluate the programs of boys' clubs sponsored by organizations in McKinney, Denton, and Dallas, Texas; 2. to obtain and study the aims and objectives of the programs of each club; 3. to obtain and study the aims and objectives of the active membership of the clubs; 4. to evaluate the programs in the light of an over-all guidance program; 5. to determine the different activities and their significance of mental, physical, emotional, economical, social, and moral phases of life; 6. to determine the social and economic status of the membership of the clubs; 7. to discover in which clubs there is a definite need for future professional preparation of adult leaders; 8. to discover the carry-over value of adolescent training through clubs into adult life. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83542/
A Critical Study of the Qualifications and Duties of Counselors at a Selected Number of Girls' Private Summer Camps in Texas, New Mexico and Colorado
The problem of this study was to make a critical evaluation of the qualifications and duties of counselors in girls' selected private summer camps in Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado for the following purposes: 1. To determine the duties and qualifications of camp counselors; 2. To determine criteria for qualifications and duties of camp counselors; 3. To determine the opinions of camp directors regarding the duties and qualifications of counselors; 4. To determine the extent to which counselors available for these areas meet the qualifications outlined by camp directors; 5. To determine the needs of the camps for counselors from the viewpoint of the directors of camps; 6. To determine the duties and needs indicated by the directors as far as training is concerned; 7. To determine recommendations for pre-service training in physical education departments for future counselors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83541/
A Descriptive Study of the Professional Preparation and Teaching Experiences of Male Physical Education Graduates of North Texas State University for the College Sessions From 1965 Through 1973
The problem of this study was to obtain the professional opinion of male physical education graduates of North Texas State University with respect to appropriateness of their professional preparation in association with their teaching experiences. An opinionated questionnaire was developed and used to collect the data. Standard and Advanced First Aid and Safety Education, Teaching Physical Education in Secondary Schools and Foundations of Health were the required courses found to be most valuable to the participants in their teaching experiences. Basketball, track and field, football and volleyball were the activities most often used by the participants in their teaching activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663257/
A Determination of the Number of Trials for a Valid Measure of Two Selected Skills
A study was made to determine the number of trials required for a valid measure of skill of seventh grade girls for the softball throw for distance and for the standing broad jump at MacArthur Junior High School in Beaumont, TX. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc130614/
The Developing of a Recreation Program for the Conroe Independent School District of Conroe, Texas
The writer of this thesis, with the aid of the listed sources, has attempted to develop plans for a recreation program for the Conroe Independent School District of Conroe, Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc75696/
The Development and Growth of Sports Activities for Women in North Texas State Teachers College from 1908 to 1938
"The problem of this study is to determine the growth of sports activities for women in the North Texas State Teachers College, Denton, Texas from 1908 to 1938"--1. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc699665/
The Development of an Intramural Program for Sophomore, Junior, and Senior Boys in the Paschal High School, Fort Worth, Texas
The purpose of this study is to develop plans for an intramural program for boys in the Paschal High School, Fort Worth, Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc75462/
Dynamic Balance and Rhythm Among Elementary Pupils
This study of the relationship between dynamic balance and rhythm tests the hypothesis that a positive relationship exists between these two factors. One hundred fifty-two fifth- and sixth-graders were given the Nelson Balance Test and an adaptation of Ashton's Practical Rhythm Test. The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation was used in the analysis of the data. The reliability of the tests was very low. The relationship between dynamic balance and rhythm was . 08, an unreliable correlation from which no conclusions could be drawn. It was recommended that improved methods of measuring dynamic balance and rhythm be developed for elementary pupils. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663411/
The Educational and Recreational Value of Swimming in Texas as Revealed by the Municipal and Educational Institutions
The purpose of this study was undertaken first, to determine, in so far as possible, the extent of the growing popularity of swimming throughout Texas; second, to discover what provisions were being made to meet the new demands for more adequate facilities and instruction; third, to reveal the extent of swimming participation in the state; fourth, to reveal data showing the extent and kind of swimming facilities in the state; and fifth, to evaluate the data found. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163799/
Effect of a Six-Week Training Program on the Physical Condition of Primary Grade Girls
The purpose of the study was to examine changes in cardiovascular function and neuromuscular performance of primary grade girls after a six-week treatment program. The Kraus-Weber Tests and modified Harvard Step Test were administered to sixty-seven subjects before and after the treatment program, which consisted of exercises and running for the experimental group and sedentary games for the control group. None of the significant differences in recovery heart rate or the Kraus-Weber tests could be attributed to the treatment program. The length of training program was apparently not enough to detect change in fitness level of the subjects. A need exists for exercise tests that are more meaningful and more easily administered. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663208/
The Effect of an Eight-Week Training Program upon Leg Strength and Running Speed in Middle-School-Age Boys
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an eight-week weight training program upon leg strength and running speed of middle-school-age boys. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164009/
The Effect of Dietary Supplements of Protein and Wheat Germ Oil on Selected Physical Measurements of Junior High School Athletes
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of protein and wheat germ oil supplements upon selected measures of junior high school boys. The measures selected were for weight, arm strength, speed and endurance, and urinalyses for urea nitrogen. Thirty-six ninth grade athletes at Memorial Junior High School in Alice, Texas, were used as subjects. The subjects were placed in three groups of twelve each with one group receiving the supplements and the other two groups serving as control groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc131412/
The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers
This study investigated the effects of four different types of mental practice (free imagery, directed visual, directed reading, and directed audio) on the performance of 45 beginning and 40 intermediate college bowlers. The groups bowled six games with two sets of five minutes of mental practice prior to the first frame and the sixth frame of each game. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant differences existed between treatment groups at either the beginning or intermediate levels. Conclusions were that no one technique of mental practice was more effective than another in increasing bowling performance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc504132/
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