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 Degree Discipline: Clinical Psychology
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Comparing Quality of Life: American and Portuguese Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancies

Comparing Quality of Life: American and Portuguese Cancer Patients with Hematological Malignancies

Date: December 1997
Creator: Forjaz, Maria João
Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences and similarities of quality of life (QoL) in American and Portuguese cancer patients with hematological malignancies as well as the robustness of the measures cross-culturally. Portuguese participants were 98 patients and 49 accompanying persons and the American participants were 55 patients and 22 accompanying persons. Fifty (Portuguese sample) to 40% (American sample) of the patients came with an accompanying person who answered the questionnaire concerning the patient's QoL. The two cultural groups were characterized in terms of QoL (measured by the SF-36 and the FLIC), social support (Social Support Scale), socio-demographic and clinical variables. Portuguese patients reported a higher QoL. However, this result could be attributable to the fact that the two cultural samples differ in socio-economic status. The measures seem to be comparable for the Portuguese and American samples, at least in what concerns reliability and concurrent validity.
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Comparing Stress Buffering and Main Effects Models of Social Support for Married and Widowed Older Women

Comparing Stress Buffering and Main Effects Models of Social Support for Married and Widowed Older Women

Date: August 1994
Creator: Murdock, Melissa E. (Melissa Erleene)
Description: Social support has been shown to lessen the negative effects of life stress on psychological and physical health. The stress buffering model and the main effects model of social support were compared using two samples of women over the age of 50 who were either married or recently widowed. These two groups represent low and high uncontrollable major life stress respectively. Other life stress events were also taken into account. Measures assessed current level of life stress, perceived social support, satisfaction with social support, and psychological symptomatology. Results using overall psychological health as the dependent variable support the main effects model.
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Comparing the Personal Lives of Psychotherapists and Research Psychologists

Comparing the Personal Lives of Psychotherapists and Research Psychologists

Date: December 1997
Creator: Radeke, JoAnn Taylor
Description: Although the personal life of the therapist has been a topic of interest for nearly sixty years there is still a paucity of research in this area. There is also a lack of research into the personal lives of researcher psychologists. In this study 282 psychologists (151 researchers and 131 therapists) who attended regional meetings and seminars sponsored by professional psychological associations in Texas were sampled. Job stressors, personal problems and health concerns, relaxation techniques, life satisfaction, and work impact on personal life were some of the areas examined. The most important stressors associated with research were excessive teaching responsibilities, pressures associated with funding and lack of time for a personal life. For therapists the most important stressors associated with work were suicide attempts by clients, clients showing resistance, and clients being angry. Therapists reported more concerns related to anxiety, depression, and family problems than researchers. Both groups chose exercise/sports and movies/television as their most common methods for relaxation. Therapists were three times more likely to have been in therapy than researchers and once in therapy reported six times the number of hours. Researchers reported less childhood abuse than therapists. However, therapists were more satisfied with their current life, indicating ...
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A Comparison of the Child-Rearing Attitudes of Disadvantaged Chicano and Black Mothers

A Comparison of the Child-Rearing Attitudes of Disadvantaged Chicano and Black Mothers

Date: August 1973
Creator: Bond, Rebekah B.
Description: Hypothesized in this study are the following: (1) that there are significant general differences between the childrearing attitudes of disadvantaged Chicano and Black mothers, (2) that their respective attitudes significantly vary on particular subtests of maternal attitude, and (3) that demographic variables, such as age, number of marriages, nativemigrant status, and level of education will affect significant differences in response on a number of specified attitudinal subtests.
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A Comparison of the Validity and Reliability of Kincannon's and Hugo's MMPI Short Forms in a Clinical Population

A Comparison of the Validity and Reliability of Kincannon's and Hugo's MMPI Short Forms in a Clinical Population

Date: May 1973
Creator: Holmes, Robert Eugene
Description: To meet the need of making clinical evaluations in the most efficient way, many scales and short forms of the MMPI have been developed. A review of the literature indicated that the Mini-Mult devised by Kincannon (1967) and the Short Form by Hugo (1971a) were the best short forms of the MMPI which have been constructed. The purpose of this study was to determine which of these short forms would most accurately predict the standard MMPI in a clinical population.
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A Comparison of Two Instruments for Diagnosing Marital Difficulties

A Comparison of Two Instruments for Diagnosing Marital Difficulties

Date: August 1971
Creator: Williams, Cynthia A.
Description: An attempt was made to further establish the validity of the Polyfactor Test of Marital Difficulties, a relatively new, yet potentially valuable sentence completion, self-rating marital difficulties test. . Another test, the Marital Adjustment Inventory was also used for comparison purposes.
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Compassion and Person Perception: An Experiment

Compassion and Person Perception: An Experiment

Date: August 2006
Creator: Raina, Karina Christina
Description: Compassion is one of the fundamental experiences which signify human existence. Person perception is the constructive process with which we form an opinion or judgment of another person. Two experiments (N =277) were conducted in this study. Experiment 1 examined the effects of a mindfulness meditation on compassion in a large sample of young adults. Participants (n =76) were randomly assigned to three groups. Participants in group 1 received the mindfulness meditation, group 2 received an alternate version of the mindfulness meditation (self-focus only), and participants in group 3 were asked to complete an attention task and read a geological text. It was hypothesized that mindfulness meditation is significantly associated with the experience of compassion. Results showed that participants in the experimental group 1 experienced significantly higher levels of compassion compared to participants in the control group 3. The participants in group 2 were not different from experimental group 1 or from control group 3. Gender differences in the effects of meditation on compassion were explored. Different measures yielded conflicting evidence for gender differences in experienced compassion. For the second experiment a Solomon four-group experimental design was employed to examine the possible effects of compassion on person perception. Participants (n ...
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Complex Ptsd As a Less Pejorative Label: Is the Proposed Diagnosis Less Stigmatizing Than Bpd?

Complex Ptsd As a Less Pejorative Label: Is the Proposed Diagnosis Less Stigmatizing Than Bpd?

Date: August 2014
Creator: Miller, Susannah
Description: Clinicians’ attitudes and behaviors toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are affected by the label’s stigma. Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) was proposed as a comprehensive and less stigmatizing diagnostic category for clients with BPD and a history of complex trauma. Given considerable similarities across both disorders’ diagnostic criteria, the CPTSD framework holds promise as a means to improve therapists’ attitudes towards clients with BPD and a history of complex trauma. However, this quality of CPTSD had not yet been examined empirically. Using vignettes in a between-subjects experimental design, this study investigated whether CPTSD is a less stigmatizing label than BPD for trauma survivors. Participants were 322 practicing psychotherapists. Evidence of BPD stigma was found, as was an affinity for CPTSD. Results generally supported CPTSD as a less stigmatizing label than BPD; therapists presented with a CPTSD-labeled vignette were somewhat less likely to blame the client for her symptomatic behavior and expected slightly stronger working alliance with the client than therapists presented with the BPD-labeled vignette. However, therapists’ agreement with the BPD diagnosis and theoretical orientation were found to be more salient than diagnostic label in affecting concepts related to the stigmatization of BPD clients. Additionally, familiarity with CPTSD ...
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Conceptualizing Quality of College Life

Conceptualizing Quality of College Life

Date: August 2014
Creator: Cardona, Laura A.
Description: The objectives of this study were to mathematically model the quality of college life (QCL) concept and to study the associations between attachment style, emotion regulation abilities, psychological needs fulfillment and QCL via structural equation modeling. Data was collected from 507 undergraduate students (men = 178, women = 329; age M = 21.78 years, SD = 4.37). This data was used to provide evidence for the validity of the College Adjustment Scales (CAS) as a measure of quality of college life. The CAS demonstrated good convergent validity with the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL), Subjective Well-being and Psychological Well-being Scales. Results: Students who were insecurely attached were as likely to feel adequate in their academic and professional endeavors as securely attached students. However, insecurely attached students had lower QCL levels, lower fulfillment of psychological needs and more emotion regulation difficulties than securely attached students. The results also indicated that Anxious Attachment and Avoidant Attachment were positively and strongly associated. Nonetheless, Anxious Attachment and Avoidant Attachment affected QCL through different mechanism. Emotion regulation mediated the path between Anxious Attachment and QCL while the fulfillment of psychological needs mediated the path between Avoidant Attachment and QCL. The fulfillment of ...
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Contextualized Risk Assessment in Clinical Practice: Utility of Actuarial, Clinical, and Structured Clinical Approaches to Predictions of Violence.

Contextualized Risk Assessment in Clinical Practice: Utility of Actuarial, Clinical, and Structured Clinical Approaches to Predictions of Violence.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Jackson, Rebecca L.
Description: Assessing offenders' risk of future violent behavior continues to be an important yet controversial role of forensic psychologists. A key debate is the relative effectiveness of assessment methods. Specifically, actuarial methods (see Quinsey et al., 1998 for a review) have been compared and contrasted to clinical and structured clinical methods (see e.g. Hart, 1998; Webster et al., 1997). Proponents of each approach argue for its superiority, yet validity studies have made few formal comparisons. In advancing the available research, the present study examines systematically the type of forensic case (i.e., sexual violence versus nonsexual violence) and type of assessment method (i.e., actuarial, structured clinical, and unstructured clinical). As observed by Borum, Otto, and Golding (1993), forensic decision making can also be influenced by the presence of certain extraneous clinical data. To address these issues, psychologists and doctoral students attending the American Psychology Law Society conference were asked to make several ratings regarding the likelihood of future sexual and nonsexual violence based on data derived from actual defendants with known outcomes. Using a mixed factorial design, each of these assessment methods were investigated for its influence on decision-makers regarding likelihood of future violence and sexually violent predator commitments. Finally, the potentially ...
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