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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Language: English
 Degree Discipline: Music Education
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Aesthetic Justifications for Music Education: a Theoretical Examination of Their Usefulness

Aesthetic Justifications for Music Education: a Theoretical Examination of Their Usefulness

Date: December 1988
Creator: Paul, Stephen John
Description: Justifications for music education have been studied only by examining historical trends in statements of aesthetic versus utilitarian values, and not from the perspective of evaluating the justifications' usefulness. A number of prominent writers in the music education field, while supporting aesthetic values as important for music education, have expressed doubts about the effectiveness of aesthetic justifications when used for convincing outsiders of the importance of music in the public school curriculum. These doubts, along with a preponderance of aesthetic justifications in the recent music education literature, led to the present study, which conducted a theoretical examination of the usefulness of aesthetic justifications for music education. The study addressed three research problems, namely: (1) the attitudes of the clientele groups of the public schools in terms of their values toward music as a subject in the schools; (2) the attitudes of the groups within the music education profession in terms of their values for music in the public schools and for the profession itself; and 3) the likelihood that justifications based upon "aesthetics" as a system of values would be accepted by the groups both inside arid outside the music education profession. A philosophical-sociological perspective was chosen for the theoretical ...
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American Indian Music in Elementary School Music Programs of Oklahoma : Repertoire, Authenticity and Instruction

American Indian Music in Elementary School Music Programs of Oklahoma : Repertoire, Authenticity and Instruction

Date: December 1998
Creator: Damm, Robert J., 1964-
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the instructional methods of Oklahoma's elementary school music educators with respect to the inclusion of an authentic repertoire of American Indian music in the curriculum. The research was conducted through two methods. First, an analysis and review of adopted textbook series and pertinent supplemental resources on American Indian music was made. Second, a survey of K-6 grade elementary music specialists in Oklahoma during the 1997-1998 school year was conducted.
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The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

The Application of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model to Perceptions Community Music School Faculty Have Towards Their Job

Date: August 2001
Creator: Lawrence, Robert M.
Description: Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristic Model was applied to study of perceptions community music school faculty hold towards their job. The research questions addressed core job characteristics of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback, critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results); personal and work outcomes of satisfaction and motivation; need for professional growth. The results were compared to the national norms for nine different job families provided by Oldham, Hackman, and Stepina. Thirty-three schools, all members of the National Guild of Community Schools of the Arts, located in every geographical region of the United States, yielded 437 faculty responses (64% return rate). Of the core job characteristics, dealing with others and autonomy received the highest ratings; feedback and task significance received the lowest ratings. Of the psychological states, experienced responsibility yielded the highest rating and experienced meaningfulness yielded the lowest ratings. Of the personal/work outcomes, personal development and colleague relations received the highest ratings; pay satisfaction and overall general satisfaction received the lowest ratings. A comparison to the professional job family norms, using a one-sample ttest, found significant differences in 16 out of the 18 variables measured by the Job Characteristic Model. Strong ...
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An Attitude Assessment of Amateur Musicians in Adult Community Bands

An Attitude Assessment of Amateur Musicians in Adult Community Bands

Date: December 1996
Creator: Spencer, William David, 1952-
Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain certain factors which lead adults to participate in community band activity. This study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors of rewards for community band participants based on the responses of a selected sample to validated attitude statements? 2. What are the relationships that might exist between certain demographic characteristics of the sample such as age, gender, education, occupation, musical training, geographic region (independent variables) and factors of participation (dependent variables) determined by principal components analysis? 3. What are the relationships that might exist between the findings of this study using member generated attitude statements and the findings of other attitude studies using researcher generated attitude statements? A 179-item survey was developed from an initital pool of 839 attitude statements after two pilot studies and an expert review. A randomly selected, stratified cluster sample of 74 organizational members of the Association of Concert Bands participated in the study. The average number of band members present during the survey process was 35. The average number of surveys returned per band was 23.66 for a return rate of 65.9% One thousand seven hundred twenty five individuals participated in the study. ...
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Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

Date: May 2009
Creator: Choi, Jin Ho
Description: Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education institutions and to determine their attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education institutions, the results indicated that the professor's reputation, scholarships, and the program's reputation were perceived as the most influential factors impacting the program choice; a good relationship with professors, good feedback from professors, and emotional stability were perceived as the most influential factors impacting academic success; and the professor's teaching, the professor's expertise, and the improvement of musical skills were perceived as the most influential factors impacting students' satisfaction level. The most problematic issues reported were the language barrier and the cultural differences between their host and own countries. In addition, many of the East international music students in this study noted financial difficulties.
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The Beginning Piano Class at the College Level

The Beginning Piano Class at the College Level

Date: August 1976
Creator: LeCroy, Jacquelyn Aken
Description: The problem was to investigate current thoughts concerning the beginning piano class at the college level, Data were collected from published and unpublished materials from 1964 to 1976. It was found that class piano instruction usually occurs in a three- to four-semester sequence, with classes meeting from two to five periods per week, containing from four to twenty-five students. Classification of students is by interview, placement test, and/or audition. Varying room arrangements are used with either conventional or electronic pianos, plus a variety of audio-visual equipment, Course content, with varying emphases, includes sight-reading, functional skills, technique, and repertoire. Teaching techniques used are numerous and varying. Recommendations were submitted for administrators, teachers, and researchers.
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The Beginnings of Music in the Boston Public Schools: Decisions of the Boston School Committee in 1837 and 1845 in Light of Religious and Moral Concerns of the Time

The Beginnings of Music in the Boston Public Schools: Decisions of the Boston School Committee in 1837 and 1845 in Light of Religious and Moral Concerns of the Time

Date: August 1989
Creator: Miller, David Michael, 1951-
Description: The research problems of this dissertation were: 1) A description of the perceived value of music in light of political undercurrents in Boston prior to and during the years under investigation, and 2) the profile of the constituency of the Boston School Committee and Committee on Music in 1837 and 1845. Questions addressed the effect of religious and moral concerns of the day on the decision by the School Committee in 1837 to try music in the curriculum, and the possible effect of religious politics on Lowell Mason's dismissal from the schools in 1845. In the minds of mid-nineteenth century Bostonians, religious and moral values were intrinsic to the very nature of music. Key members on the School Committee portrayed music as being spiritual yet nonsectarian in its influence. Therefore, the findings suggest that music was believed to provide common ground between opposing and diverse religious sects. Reasons given for Mason's dismissal by John Sargent, a member of the Committee on Music, showed parallels to H. W. Day's accusations in the press a year earlier that Mason had managed his position in a sectarian manner. Sargent's background supports the theory that religious politics were at work in Mason's dismissal. Although ...
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The Benefits of Adult Piano Study as Self-Reported by Selected Adult Piano Students.

The Benefits of Adult Piano Study as Self-Reported by Selected Adult Piano Students.

Date: May 2003
Creator: Jutras, Peter J.
Description: The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits that selected adult piano students reported receiving from their study. Adult piano students (N = 711) from 24 states representing all geographic regions of the U.S. each completed a questionnaire containing 31 individual benefit items. These benefits were organized into 3 categories: Personal, Skill, and Social/Cultural. The demographic characteristics of the study population were consistent with the findings of other adult music research. Students indicated the existence (yes or no) of each benefit and rated the importance of existing benefits on a scale of 1-10. The category of Skill Benefits was the most agreed upon and highest rated category in the study, with over 90% agreement for each of the 7 Skill Benefits. The 14 Personal Benefits were also rated highly, particularly benefits related to self-actualization and fun. Self-related Personal Benefits were rated moderately, while more introverted Personal Benefits such as Imagination/Creativity, Spirituality, and Aesthetic Appreciation were lower rated benefits. The 10 Social/Cultural benefits were the lowest rated and least important benefits in the study. The most agreed upon benefits were Skill Improvement, Musical Knowledge, Musicianship, Accomplishment, Skill Refinement, Technique, Play/Fun, Escape from Routine, and Music Listening. The highest rated ...
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A Case Study of Characteristics and Means of Person-to-Person Influence in American Kodály Music Education: Katinka Scipiades Dániel

A Case Study of Characteristics and Means of Person-to-Person Influence in American Kodály Music Education: Katinka Scipiades Dániel

Date: May 2003
Creator: Ferrell, Janice René
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and means of Katinka Dániel's interpersonal influences through the perceptions of 20 selected students, protégés, and colleagues, and to study the behavioral and attitudinal changes they attributed to her influence. A case study design and structured interview questionnaire were used to study four variables coming from the social sciences' literature on influence: legitimate authority, attractiveness, expert authority, and trustworthiness. Responses were qualitatively analyzed to determine the role those variables played in Dániel's interpersonal influence. All interviewees were music teachers who used the Kodály method in their teaching and have studied or worked with Dániel. Two images of Dániel emerged from the interviews. The first, a business-like image, emanated from Dániel's work in the classroom, and the second, a maternal image, came from personal relationships with her students and associates. Attractiveness (defined as a willingness to respond positively to the requests of an influential person because one respects that individual and wants to obtain that person's approval) proved to be the principal characteristic of influence, followed by legitimate authority, then expertise. Trustworthiness played a lesser role. The greatest effect of Dániel's influence was on the interviewees' teaching. Among the factors interviewees ...
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A Case Study of Interpersonal Influences in a Band Music Setting: Bohumil Makovsky (1878-1950) and His Association with Selected Individuals Involved in Instrumental Music in the State of Oklahoma

A Case Study of Interpersonal Influences in a Band Music Setting: Bohumil Makovsky (1878-1950) and His Association with Selected Individuals Involved in Instrumental Music in the State of Oklahoma

Date: May 1992
Creator: Dugger, Richard Charles
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interpersonal influences which Bohumil Makovsky, Director of Bands and Chairman of the Music Department at Oklahoma A&M College from 1915 to 1943, had on his students and peers, as confirmed through the perceptions of selected individuals, and to determine what personal characteristics and means he drew upon to induce changes in his students and peers.
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The Centralized Higher Education System in Turkey and the National Music Teacher Training Program Since 1998: An Analysis.

The Centralized Higher Education System in Turkey and the National Music Teacher Training Program Since 1998: An Analysis.

Date: August 2006
Creator: Karakelle, Sibel
Description: The purpose was to analyze Turkey's current music teacher training curriculum as situated in the centralized educational system, focusing on the extent to which the written document (1) reflects the core elements of the overall centralized educational system; (2) prescribes the nature of teaching materials and methods, assessment tools and other forms of evaluating and monitoring performance as teachers and musicians; and (3) acknowledges cultural diversity by addressing repertoire, musical activities and concepts according to geographic and cultural regions. Qualitative-descriptive and quantitative content analysis, including the methods of (a) Inverse document frequency and (b) relevance feedback model, were the analytic tools. Of the required 147 credit hours, 138 are the core. The music core consists of 87 (63%) and the non-music core of 51 credit hours (37%). On paper, there is a conceptual overlap in wording between the music core, the general core, and the teacher training core, suggesting curricular cohesion and consistency. Noticeably less cohesion exists between the document and three major policy papers on teacher competencies. By word count, preparing teachers for instruction in Turkish folk music and multicultural issues appears to hold a low priority in the curriculum. However, course descriptions, where they exist, speak to skills ...
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The Characteristics of Teacher-Directed Modeling Evidenced in the Practices of Three Experienced High School Choral Directors.

The Characteristics of Teacher-Directed Modeling Evidenced in the Practices of Three Experienced High School Choral Directors.

Date: December 2001
Creator: Grimland, Fredna H.
Description: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of teacher directed modeling evidenced in the practices of three experienced high school choral directors. Research questions were: 1. What modeling activities were exhibited in each teacher's rehearsals? 2. When viewing a 45-minute composite tape of each teacher's instructional activities representative of all rehearsals, what instructional behaviors did each choral director recognize and identify as modeling? 3. What instructional episodes on the composite tape not identified by the teachers contained elements of modeling? 4. What other episodes from the remainder of each choral director's rehearsal practice contributed to an understanding of modeling? Videotapes of three high school choral directors were recorded over the course of one semester. Excerpts from rehearsals were combined to form a 45-minute composite tape of each choral director. A text transcription was made of the composite tape. Participant directors viewed their tape and identified instructional episodes that they recognized as examples of modeling. Identifications were analyzed, and descriptive categories of modeling behaviors were established. Modeling was found to be a teacher generated or delegated act of demonstration. Demonstrations were musical or non-musical and belonging to either of three distinct categories: audible, visible, or process modeling. Subdivisions ...
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A Comparative Study of Two Choral Conductors: B. R. Henson and Lloyd Pfautsch

A Comparative Study of Two Choral Conductors: B. R. Henson and Lloyd Pfautsch

Date: December 1972
Creator: Bogle, Gary W.
Description: Although much has been written on the subject of conducting, it is generally recognized that a great deal can be learned through discussion with and observation of successful conductors. Direct contact with master conductors is an excellent learning tool, but seldom do high school or college choral conductors have the opportunity for direct individual study of the experts in their normal situations. This study provided the opportunity for one practitioner to work with two expert choral conductors. The report was written with the hope that other practitioners might also benefit from the results of the investigation. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare preparations and experiences, philosophies of music, and observable choral concepts which may have contributed to the superior choral achievements of B. R. Henson and Lloyd Pfautsch.
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A Comparison of Aural and Visual Instructional Methodologies Designed to Improve the Intonation Accuracy of Seventh Grade Violin and Viola Instrumentalists.

A Comparison of Aural and Visual Instructional Methodologies Designed to Improve the Intonation Accuracy of Seventh Grade Violin and Viola Instrumentalists.

Date: May 2002
Creator: Núñez, Mario Leoncio
Description: The purpose of the study was to compare two instructional methodologies designed to improve the intonation accuracy of seventh grade violin and viola instrumentalists. The collection of data was in regard to (1) instructional methodology: aural and aural/visual, (2) performance tasks: A, B, and C; (3) individual pitches (seven from each of the music tasks), and (4) differences between instrument groups: violin and viola. Sixty-eight seventh grade string students from three string classes of two middle schools were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: (a) aural and (b) aural/visual. The instructional period was implemented daily in ten-minute sessions during twenty days by the orchestra instructors of each school. A pretest-posttest format was used to determine if there were any changes in the subjects' intonation accuracy from prior to after the instructional phase was implemented, and if these changes could be attributed to any of the methodologies. The testing material used on both testing sessions included three performance tasks composed of seven notes each. Subjects were recorded on both testing occasions. The data were the scores of absolute pitch deviation, measured in cents from equal temperament, from the pre- and postest; these were treated with analysis of variance. The ANOVA on ...
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A Comparison of Major Theories of Laryngeal Vibration

A Comparison of Major Theories of Laryngeal Vibration

Date: December 1972
Creator: Smith, Sue Ellen
Description: The purpose of this study was to compare major theories of laryngeal vibration. The basic hypothesis of the study was that the differences and similarities between the major theories of laryngeal vibration could be made evident and clear through a comparative study. It was assumed that there are two or more theories of laryngeal vibration and that all the major theories of laryngeal vibration from 1945 to the present have been described in written form in English.
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Compositions Designed to Improve Sight Singing in Junior High School

Compositions Designed to Improve Sight Singing in Junior High School

Date: December 1974
Creator: Thomas, Barbara A.
Description: The purpose of this study was to identify certain aspects related to sight singing which tend to cause difficulty in teaching junior high school students and to suggest exercises that might be used to aid in overcoming these difficulties, Data included a questionnaire to junior high school teachers in three states. Subjects researched and discussed were the physical, intellectual, and emotional development of the adolescent; the changing voice and the range and vocal limitations of junior high singers; and rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and other aspects of sight singing. Included were vocal procedures to be used with young voices, suggestions for choosing and/or arranging appropriate music, and original compositions designed to meet the needs and interests of junior high school students.
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Constructions of Choir Identity in a High School

Constructions of Choir Identity in a High School

Date: December 2014
Creator: Brimhall, Jennifer Pierce
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate constructions of choir identity among high school choir students in the United States public school classroom setting. The research questions were (a) what are the processes involved in construction of choir identity and (b) how are the processes related to the group identity of the choir. The data were collected through participant observations in one selected choir classroom and semi-structured interviews with students from the choir class. The results included six processes of identity construction as well as identification of the ways in which each process was related to the choir group’s identity. The processes and their links to the overall choir group identity provided further insight into the ways in which high school choir students construct their identities, and they also supported methods of teaching commonly used in high school choir settings.
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Dialogic Interactionism: the Construction of Self in the Secondary Choral Classroom.

Dialogic Interactionism: the Construction of Self in the Secondary Choral Classroom.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Younse, Stuart
Description: Examined in this hermeneutic phenomenological study is a transformation in the researcher's choral music teaching in which students' abilities to construct self emerged organically from interactions, or dialogues, that took place among and between the students, the teacher, and the music being studied. To allow for such interaction to emerge organically and meaningfully, students and teacher both shared in the power needed to construct a classroom environment in which the localized issues of the classroom and the specific contexts of students' lived histories were maintained and encouraged. This process of interaction, based upon dialogue among and between equal agents in the classroom, is described in the study as dialogic interactionism. In order to examine the concept of dialogic interactionism, three constructs upon which dialogic interactionism is based were developed and philosophically analyzed. They include the construction of self through the construction of self-knowledge; the localized reference system of the classroom, and the issue of power. Each construct is considered within the context of extant writings both in general education and music education philosophy. Following the analysis, a theoretical description of the dialogic interactive choral classroom is given as well a description of how such ideas might be realized in practice. ...
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The Effect of Ethnicity on the Age-of-onset of the Male Voice Change.

The Effect of Ethnicity on the Age-of-onset of the Male Voice Change.

Date: December 2008
Creator: Fisher, Ryan Austin
Description: The purposes of this study were to describe the characteristics of the changing male voice in 4th, 5th and 6th grade students using Cooksey's maturation stages and, to compare the age-of-onset of the male voice change in African American, White, and Hispanic male students. Participants included volunteer 4th (n = 61), 5th (n = 73), and 6th grade male students (n = 63) from 2 urban elementary schools, 5 suburban elementary schools, 1 suburban middle school and 1 urban middle school in the North Texas region. The three ethnic groups represented in this study were: African American (n = 62), White (n = 58), and Hispanic (n = 77). Results indicated that approximately 46% of 4th grade participants, 62% of 5th grade participants, and 67% of 6th grade participants were classified as changing voices. A descriptively larger percentage of African American participants were classified as changing voices than Hispanic and White participants. Also, a larger percentage of African American and Hispanic participants were descriptively classified in the more advanced stages of the voice change than White participants. Urban African American, White, and Hispanic participants had a larger percentage of males classified as changing voices than suburban African American, White, and ...
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The Effect of Individual Versus Collective Creative Problem Solving Experiences on Fourth- and Fifth-grade Students' Compositional Products.

The Effect of Individual Versus Collective Creative Problem Solving Experiences on Fourth- and Fifth-grade Students' Compositional Products.

Date: December 2004
Creator: Aguilar, Beatriz E.
Description: The purpose of the study was to explore the effects that individual vs. collective structured creative musical problem solving tasks had on students' compositional products. Subjects in a convenience sample of 32 fourth-graders and 32 fifth-graders were randomly assigned to either the individual or collective condition. The 3 treatment sessions were characterized by an open-ended creative problem solving task, which included questions intended to guide subjects through 3 stages of the creative problem solving process: Understanding the Problem, Generating Ideas, and Planning for Action. Subjects participated in the pre- and posttest individually. Three experienced music educators assessed the compositional products in terms of pattern use, cohesiveness, and creativity. The originally intended MANCOVAs could not be carried out because the data did not meet the necessary assumptions. Pretest and posttest scores were explored with individual ANOVAs. The Bonferroni technique was used to adjust the alpha level. The statistical analyses showed that subjects exposed to the individual condition obtained higher scores than subjects exposed to the collective condition on six of the eight explored subtests, but these differences were not significant. The level of interjudge reliability decreased at each of the three measurements of the study: pilot test, pretest, and posttest. The ...
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The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

The Effect of Three Compositional Structures on the Compositional and Instructional Self-efficacy of Pre-service Music Teachers

Date: August 2012
Creator: Hauser, Christian Vernon
Description: The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to compare the effects of three different composition tasks with varying degrees of structure on pre-service music teachers’ creative self-efficacy as composers and their instructional self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition; and 2) to describe through pre-service music teachers’ talk perceptions of composition and their experiences completing the three composition tasks. Participants (N = 29) were music education majors from three different sized universities in the northern-central region of the United States. At the beginning of the study, the participants answered a researcher-design self-efficacy questionnaire that measured (a) their self-efficacy as composers and (b) their self-efficacy as teachers of composition. Next, they composed three compositions of various task structures (unstructured, poem, and rhythm). Immediately after completing each task they again completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. Statistically significant mean differences between the pre-task administration of the measuring instrument and all three composition tasks were found for the pre-service teachers’ compositional self-efficacy. Statistically significant mean differences were also found between the unstructured task and the rhythm task, but not between the rhythm and poem tasks or the unstructured and poem tasks. For the pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy as pedagogues of composition question, the results were also statistically ...
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The Effect of Three Different Levels of Skill Training in Musical Timbre Discrimination on Alphabet Sound Discrimination in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children

The Effect of Three Different Levels of Skill Training in Musical Timbre Discrimination on Alphabet Sound Discrimination in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children

Date: May 2000
Creator: Battle, Julia Blair
Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different levels of skill training in musical timbre discrimination on alphabet sound discrimination in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children. The findings of prior investigations indicated similarities between aural music and language perception. Psychoacoustic and neurological findings have reported the discrimination of alphabet quality and musical timbre to be similar perceptual functions and have provided, through imaging technology, physical evidence of music learning simultaneously stimulating non-musical areas of the brain. This investigator hypothesized that timbre discrimination, the process of differentiating the characteristic quality of one complex sound from another of identical pitch and loudness, may have been a common factor between music and alphabet sound discrimination. Existing studies had not explored this relationship or the effects of directly teaching for transfer on learning generalization between skills used for the discrimination of musical timbre and alphabet sounds. Variables identified as similar from the literature were the discrimination of same- different musical and alphabet sounds, visual recognition of musical and alphabet pictures as sound sources, and association of alphabet and musical sounds with matching symbols. A randomized pre-post test design with intermittent measures was used to implement the study. There were 5 ...
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The Effects of Amplification and Selected Vocal Exercises on the Perceived Vocal Health of Elementary Music Educators.

The Effects of Amplification and Selected Vocal Exercises on the Perceived Vocal Health of Elementary Music Educators.

Date: May 2008
Creator: Vincent, Lynette Susanne
Description: The main purpose of this study was to consider the effects of amplification and vocal function exercises on the perceived vocal health of elementary music educators (N = 37) from Oklahoma (n = 11) and Texas (n = 26). Participants were assigned to the use of the ChatterVoxTM amplifier or vocal function exercises based on pretest scores on the Voice Handicap Index with Music Teacher Voice Questionnaire (VHI/MVQ). Following the 4-week study period, participants completed the posttest VHI/MVQ. The results of a one-way ANCOVA that used treatment group as the independent variable, the summed posttest scores as the dependent variable, and the summed pretest scores as the covariate or control variable indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the adjusted means for the posttest scores, favoring the exercises group. The overall group and both treatment groups reported frequent loud voice use in work settings and in public places. The overall group and the amplification group reported hoarseness after prolonged talking. The exercises group did not report as great a problem with hoarseness after prolonged talking. Secondary purposes addressed demographic variables. Women perceived greater overall vocal difficulties than men; men frequently reported specific vocal complaints that were not commonly ...
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The Effects of Free Play As an Instructional Tool on the Quality of Improvisation of First, Second, and Third Grade Children

The Effects of Free Play As an Instructional Tool on the Quality of Improvisation of First, Second, and Third Grade Children

Date: December 2000
Creator: Burger, Tammie L.
Description: To look at the effect of free play on the musical improvisations of first, second and third grade children, 108 children were randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. Subjects were tested using a researcher-designed instrument to elicit an improvisatory response. The control group then received regular music instruction (120 minutes every 2 weeks) and the treatment group received regular music instruction in conjunction with musical free play (100 minutes of instruction and 20 minutes of free play every 2 weeks). The treatment lasted 14 weeks. At the end of the treatment, all students were tested with the same testing instrument used for the pre test. Videotapes of the improvisations were submitted to three independent judges to rate for quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The change in ratings between pre and post tests were analyzed with an analysis of variance to determine if there were significant differences between the control and treatment groups. The analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in the change of ratings between control and treatment groups for the group as a whole, or for any particular grade level within the total group.
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