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 Department: Department of Materials Science and Engineering
 Degree Level: Master's
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Interspecimen Study of Bone to Relate Macromechanical, Nanomechanical and Compositional Changes Across the Femoral Cortex of Bone

Interspecimen Study of Bone to Relate Macromechanical, Nanomechanical and Compositional Changes Across the Femoral Cortex of Bone

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Date: May 2013
Creator: Nar, Mangesh
Description: Mechanics of bone is widely studied and researched, mainly for the study of fracture. This has been done mostly on a macro scale. In this work hierarchical nature of bone has been explored to investigate bone mechanics in more detail. Flexural test were done to classify the bones according to their strength and deflection. Raman spectroscopy analysis was done to map the mineralization, collagen crosslinking changes across the thickness of the bone. Nanoindentation was done to map indentation hardness and indentation modulus across femoral cortex of the bone. The results indicate that the composition of the bone changes across the thickness of the femoral cortex. The hypothesis is confirmed as increase in mineralization, carbonate to phosphate ratio and collagen crosslinking shows the effect as increased indentation hardness and modulus and decreased deflection.
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Effect of Retting on Surface Chemistry and Mechanical Performance Interactions in Natural Fibers for High Performance Polymer Composites

Effect of Retting on Surface Chemistry and Mechanical Performance Interactions in Natural Fibers for High Performance Polymer Composites

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Date: May 2013
Creator: Ramesh, Dinesh
Description: Sustainability through replacement of non-renewable fibers with renewable fibers is an ecological need. Impact of transportation costs from South-east Asia on the life cycle analysis of the composite is detrimental. Kenaf is an easily grown crop in America. Farm based processing involves placing the harvested crop in rivers and ponds, where retting of the fibers from the plant (separation into fibers) can take 2 weeks or more. The objective of this thesis is to analyze industrially viable processes for generating fibers and examine their synergistic impact on mechanical performance, surface topography and chemistry for functional composites. Comparison has been made with commercial and conventional retting process, including alkali retting, enzymatic retting, retting in river and pond water (retting occurs by natural microbial population) with controlled microbial retting. The resulting kenaf fibers were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), polarized optical microscopy (POM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) optical fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and carbohydrate analysis. DMA results showed that pectinase and microbe treated fibers have superior viscoelastic properties compared to alkali retting. XPS, Raman, FT-IR and biochemical analysis indicated that the controlled microbial and pectinase retting was ...
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Piezoresistive Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Carbon Filled Nanocomposites

Piezoresistive Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Carbon Filled Nanocomposites

Date: May 2011
Creator: Vidhate, Shailesh
Description: This thesis examines the value of using dispersed conductive fillers as a stress/strain sensing material. The effect of the intrinsic conductivity of the filler on the ability to be effective and the influence of filler concentration on the conductivity are also examined. To meet these objectives, nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by melt-blending using a twin screw extruder. Since PVDF has a potential to be piezoresistive based on the type of crystalline phase, the effect of CNFs on PVDF crystallinity, crystalline phase, quasi static and dynamic mechanical property was studied concurrently with piezoresponse. Three time dependencies were examined for PVDF/CNTs nanocomposites: quasi-static, transient and cyclic fatigue. The transient response of the strain with time showed viscoelastic behavior and was modeled by the 4-element Burger model. Under quasi-static loading the resistance showed negative pressure coefficient below yield but changed to a positive pressure coefficient after yield. Under cyclic load, the stress-time and resistance-time were synchronous but the resistance peak value decreased with increasing cycles, which was attributed to charge storage in the nanocomposite. The outcomes of this thesis indicate that a new piezoresponsive system based on filled polymers is a viable ...
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Bioresorbable Polymer Blend Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

Bioresorbable Polymer Blend Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

Date: May 2011
Creator: Manandhar, Sandeep
Description: Tissue engineering merges the disciplines of study like cell biology, materials science, engineering and surgery to enable growth of new living tissues on scaffolding constructed from implanted polymeric materials. One of the most important aspects of tissue engineering related to material science is design of the polymer scaffolds. The polymer scaffolds needs to have some specific mechanical strength over certain period of time. In this work bioresorbable aliphatic polymers (PCL and PLLA) were blended using extrusion and solution methods. These blends were then extruded and electrospun into fibers. The fibers were then subjected to FDA standard in vitro immersion degradation tests where its mechanical strength, water absorption, weight loss were observed during the eight weeks. The results indicate that the mechanical strength and rate of degradation can be tailored by changing the ratio of PCL and PLLA in the blend. Processing influences these parameters, with the loss of mechanical strength and rate of degradation being higher in electrospun fibers compared to those extruded. A second effort in this thesis addressed the potential separation of the scaffold from the tissue (loss of apposition) due to the differences in their low strain responses. This hypothesis that using knit with low tension will ...
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Laser Modified Alumina: a Computational and Experimental Analysis

Laser Modified Alumina: a Computational and Experimental Analysis

Date: December 2012
Creator: Moncayo, Marco Antonio
Description: Laser surface modification involves rapid melting and solidification is an elegant technique used for locally tailoring the surface morphology of alumina in order to enhance its abrasive characteristics. COMSOL Multiphysics® based heat transfer modeling and experimental approaches were designed and used in this study for single and multiple laser tracks to achieve densely-packed multi-facet grains via temperature history, cooling rate, solidification, scanning electron micrographs, and wear rate. Multi-facet grains were produced at the center of laser track with primary dendrites extending toward the edge of single laser track. The multiple laser tracks study indicates the grain/dendrite size increases as the laser energy density increases resulting in multiplying the abrasive edges which in turn enhance the abrasive qualities.
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Orientation, Microstructure and Pile-Up Effects on Nanoindentation Measurements of FCC and BCC Metals

Orientation, Microstructure and Pile-Up Effects on Nanoindentation Measurements of FCC and BCC Metals

Date: May 2008
Creator: Srivastava, Ashish Kumar
Description: This study deals with crystal orientation effect along with the effects of microstructure on the pile-ups which affect the nanoindentation measurements. Two metal classes, face centered cubic (FCC) and body centered cubic (BCC, are dealt with in the present study. The objective of this study was to find out the degree of inaccuracy induced in nanoindentation measurements by the inherent pile-ups and sink-ins. Also, it was the intention to find out how the formation of pile-ups is dependant upon the crystal structure and orientation of the plane of indentation. Nanoindentation, Nanovision, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattered diffraction techniques were used to determine the sample composition and crystal orientation. Surface topographical features like indentation pile-ups and sink-ins were measured and the effect of crystal orientation on them was studied. The results show that pile-up formation is not a random phenomenon, but is quite characteristic of the material. It depends on the type of stress imposed by a specific indenter, the depth of penetration, the microstructure and orientation of the plane of indentation. Pile-ups are formed along specific directions on a plane and this formation as well as the pile-up height and the contact radii with the indenter ...
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Polyethylene-layered double hydroxide and montmorillonite nanocomposites: Thermal, mechanical and flame retardance properties.

Polyethylene-layered double hydroxide and montmorillonite nanocomposites: Thermal, mechanical and flame retardance properties.

Date: May 2008
Creator: Kosuri, Divya
Description: The effect of incorporation two clays; layered double hydroxides (LDH) and montmorillonite layered silicates (MLS) in linear low density polyethylene (PE) matrix was investigated. MLS and LDH were added of 5, 15, 30 and 60 weight percent in the PE and compounded using a Brabender. Ground pellets were subsequently compression molded. Dispersion of the clays was analyzed using optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. Both the layered clays were immiscible with the PE matrix and agglomerates formed with increased clay concentration. The thermal properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both clays served as nucleation enhancers increasing recrystallization temperatures in the composites. Flame retarding properties were determined by using the flammability HVUL-94 system. LDH indicated better flame retarding properties than MLS for PE. The char structure was analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by tensile testing and Vickers microhardness testing apparatus.
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Investigation of growth kinetics of self-assembling monolayers by means of contact angle, optical ellipsometry, angle-resolved XPS and IR spectroscopy.

Investigation of growth kinetics of self-assembling monolayers by means of contact angle, optical ellipsometry, angle-resolved XPS and IR spectroscopy.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Jakubowicz, Agnieszka
Description: Absorption of octadecanethiol and p-nitrobenzenethiol onto gold surfaces from ethanol solutions has been studied by means of contact angle, optical ellipsometry, angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS), and with grazing angle total reflection FTIR. Growth of the monolayers from dilute solutions has been monitored and Langmuir isotherm adsorption curves were fitted to experimental data. A saturated film is formed within approximately 5h after immersion in solutions of concentrations ranging from 0.0005mM to 0.01mM. We found, that the final density of monolayer depends on the concentration of the solution.
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Polymer Liquid Crystal (PLC) and Polypropylene Interlayers in Polypropylene and Glass Fiber Composites: Mechanical Properties

Polymer Liquid Crystal (PLC) and Polypropylene Interlayers in Polypropylene and Glass Fiber Composites: Mechanical Properties

Date: December 2000
Creator: Maswood, Syed
Description: In recent developments of composite materials, scientists and engineers have come up with fibers as well as matrices for composites and techniques of blending high cost components with low cost materials. Thus, one creates cost effective composite materials that are as efficient as space age components. One of the major breakthroughs in this area is the innovation of molecular composites, specifically polymeric liquid crystals (PLCs). These materials have excellent mechanical properties such as tensile impact and bending strength. They have excellent chemical resistance, low thermal expansivity, and low flammability. Their low viscosity leads to good processability One major setback in using space age composite technology in commercial applications is the price. Due to the complexity of processing, the cost of space composite materials is skyrocketing. To take the same concept of space age composite materials to create a more economical substitute has become a serious concern among scientists and engineers around the world. The two issues that will be resolved in this thesis are: (1) the potential impact of using PLCs (molecular reinforcement) can have on macro reinforced (heterogeneous composite, HC) long fiber systems; and (2) how strategic placement of the reinforcing layers can affect the macromechanical properties of the ...
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A Wet Etch Release Method for Silicon Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Using Polystyrene Microspheres for Improved Yield

A Wet Etch Release Method for Silicon Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Using Polystyrene Microspheres for Improved Yield

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Date: May 2004
Creator: Mantiziba, Fadziso
Description: One of the final steps in fabricating microelectromechanical devices often involves a liquid etch release process. Capillary forces during the liquid evaporation stage after the wet etch process can pull two surfaces together resulting in adhesion of suspended microstructures to the supporting substrate. This release related adhesion can greatly reduce yields. In this report, a wet etch release method that uses polystyrene microspheres in the final rinse liquid is investigated. The polystyrene microspheres act as physical barriers between the substrate and suspended microstructures during the final liquid evaporation phase. A plasma ashing process is utilized to completely remove the polystyrene microspheres from the microstructure surfaces. Using this process, release yields > 90% were achieved. It is found that the surface roughness of gold surfaces increases while that of the silicon is reduced due to a thin oxide that grows on the silicon surface during the plasma process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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