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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
A theoretical study of the effect of forward speed on the free-space sound-pressure field around propellers
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A theoretical study of the effect of upstream transpiration cooling on the heat-transfer and skin-friction characteristics of a compressible, laminar boundary layer
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Theoretical study of the lateral frequency response to gusts of a fighter airplane, both with controls fixed and with several types of autopilots
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A theoretical study of the lifting efficiency at supersonic speeds of wings utilizing indirect lift induced by vertical surfaces
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A theoretical study of the moment on a body in a compressible fluid
The extension to a compressible fluid of Lagally's theorem on the moment on a body in an incompressible fluid and Poggi's method of treating the flow of compressible fluids are employed for the determination of the effect of compressibility on the moment of an arbitrary body. Only the case of the two-dimensional subsonic flow of an ideal compressible fluid is considered. As examples of the application of the general theory, two well-known systems of profiles are treated; namely the elliptic profile and the symmetrical Joukowski profiles with sharp trailing edges. The effect of compressibility on the position of the center of pressure is also discussed. Several numerical examples of both the elliptic and the Joukowski profiles are given.
Theoretical study of the transonic lift of a double-wedge profile with detached bow wave
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Theoretical study of the transonic lift of a double-wedge profile with detached bow wave
A theoretical study is described of the aerodynamic characteristics at small angle of attack of a thin, double-wedge profile in the range of supersonic flight speed in which the bow wave is detached. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the transonic (nonlinear) small-disturbance theory, and the effects of angle of attack are regarded as a small perturbation on the flow previously calculated at zero angle. The mixed flow about the front half of the profile is calculated by relaxation solution of a suitably defined boundary-value problem for transonic small-disturbance equation in the hodograph plane (i.e., the Tricomi equation). The purely supersonic flow about the rear half is found by an extension of the usual numerical method of characteristics. Analytical results are also obtained, within the framework of the same theory, for the range of speed in which the bow wave is attached and the flow is completely supersonic.
Theoretical study of the tunnel-boundary lift interference due to slotted walls in the presence of the trailing-vortex system of a lifting model
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Theoretical study of the tunnel-boundary lift interference due to slotted walls in the presence of the trailing-vortex system of a lifting model
The equations presented in this report give the interference on the trailing-vortex system of a uniformly loaded finite-span wing in a circular tunnel containing partly open and partly closed walls, with special reference to symmetrical arrangements of the open and closed portions. Methods are given for extending the equations to include tunnel shapes other than circular. The rectangular tunnel is used to demonstrate these methods. The equations are also extended to nonuniformly loaded wings.
Theoretical study of various airplane motions after initial disturbance
The present investigation may be considered as preliminary to the study of automatic stabilizers. We have sought to determine first how an airplane of average characteristics reacts against the principal disturbances it may encounter. Without entering into the general study of automatic stabilizers, the present work suggests the idea of a stabilizer whose sensitive member would be a wind vane or pressure plate. The elements considered as variable were the coefficients of static stability - that is, the derivatives of the coefficients of the moments with respect to the angles of attack and of yaw; these angles may be determined by the vanes.
Theoretical supersonic characteristics of inboard trailing-edge flaps having arbitrary sweep and taper : Mach lines behind flap leading and trailing edges
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Theoretical supersonic force and moment coefficients on a sideslipping vertical- and horizontal-tail combination with subsonic leading edges and supersonic trailing edges
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Theoretical supersonic lift and drag characteristics of symmetrical wedge-shape-airfoil sections as affected by sweepback outside the Mach cone
The theoretical supersonic section lift and drag characteristics of thin wedge-shape, untapered airfoils with sweepback are presented. The results apply to those parts of the wing in two dimensional flow and are not applicable to wings swept back within the Mach cone of the center section. The results may also be applied to swept-forward wings if the angle of sweep is not enough to put the wing within the Mach cone from the tips.
Theoretical supersonic wave drag of untapered sweptback and rectangular wings at zero lift
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Theoretical symmetric span loading at subsonic speeds for wings having arbitrary plan form
A method is shown by which the symmetric span loading for a certain class of wings can be simply found. The geometry of these wings is limited only to the extent that they must have symmetry about the root chord, must have a straight quarter-chord line over the semispan, and must have no discontinuities in twist. A procedure is shown for finding the lift-curve slope, pitching moment, center of lift, and induced drag from the span load distribution. A method of accounting for the effects of Mach number and for changes in section lift-curve slope is also given. Charts are presented which give directly the characteristics of many wings. Other charts are presented which reduce the problem of finding the symmetric loading on all wings falling within the prescribed limits to the solution of not more than four simultaneous equations. The loadings and wing characteristics predicted by the theory are compared to those given by other theories and by experiment. It is concluded that the results given by the subject theory are satisfactory. The theory is applied to a number of wings to exhibit the effects of such variables as sweep, aspect ratio, taper, and twist. The results are compared and conclusions drawn as to the relative effects of these variables.
Theoretical symmetric span loading due to flap deflection for wings of arbitrary plan form at subsonic speeds
A simplified lifting-surface theory is applied to the problem of evaluating span loading due to flap deflection for arbitrary wing plan forms. With the resulting procedure, the effects of flap deflection on the span loading and associated aerodynamic characteristics can be easily computed for any wing which is symmetrical about the root chord and which has a straight quarter-chord line over the wing semispan. The effects of compressibility and spanwise variation of section lift-curve slope are taken into account by the procedure. The method presented can also be used to calculate the downwash in the vertical center of the wake of a wing which has arbitrary spanwise loading.
Theoretical turbojet thrust augmentation by evaporation of water during compression as determined by use of a Mollier diagram
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Theoretical wave drag and lift of thin supersonic ring airfoils
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Theoretical wave drag of shrouded airfoils and bodies
Formulas for the wave drag of shrouded symmetrical airfoils and shrouded bodies of revolution of arbitrary shape are derived by means of linearized theory. In the case of the airfoils, the shroud consists of flat plates and for the bodies of revolution the shroud is a cylindrical shell. The results obtained hold for a Mach number range dependent on the geometry of the configuration. Expressions are also given for determining a class of body shapes for which the wave drag is theoretically zero.
Theoretical wave drags and pressure distributions for axially symmetric open-nose bodies
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Theories of flow similitude
The laws of comparison of dynamically similar fluid motions are derived by three different methods based on the same principle and yielding the same or equivalent formulas. This report outlines the three current methods of comparing dynamically similar motions, more especially of fluids, initiated respectively by Newton, Stokes (or Helmholtz), and Rayleigh. These three methods, viz., the integral, the differential, and the dimensional, are enough alike to be studied profitably together. They are treated in succession then compared. (author).
The theories of turbulence
The theory of turbulence reached its full growth at the end of the 19th century as a result of the work by Boussinesq and Reynolds. It then underwent a long period of stagnation which ended under the impulse given to it by the development of wind tunnels caused by the needs of aviation. Numerous researchers, attempted to put Reynolds' elementary statistical theory into a more precise form. During the war, some isolated scientists - von Weizsacker and Heisenberg in Germany, Kolmogoroff in Russia, Onsager in the U.S.A. - started a program of research. By a system of assumptions which make it possible to approach the structure of turbulence in well-defined limiting conditions quantitatively, they obtained a certain number of laws on the correlations and the spectrum. Since the late reports have improved the mathematical language of turbulence, it was deemed advisable to start with a detailed account of the mathematical methods applicable to turbulence, inspired at first by the work of the French school, above all for the basic principles, then the work of the foreigners, above all for the theory of the spectrum.
Theory and apparatus for measurement of emissivity for radiative cooling of hypersonic aircraft with data for Inconel and Inconel X
The importance of radiation as a means of cooling high-supersonic- and hypersonic-speed aircraft is discussed to show the need for measurements of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces. The theory underlying the measurement of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces is presented, readily duplicable apparatus for performing the measurements is described, and measurements for stably oxidized Inconel and Inconel X are given for the temperature range from 600 F to 2,000 F.
Theory and application of hot-wire instruments in the investigation of turbulent boundary layers
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Theory and design of a pneumatic temperature probe and experimental results obtained in a high-temperature gas stream
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Theory and experiments on supersonic air-to-air ejectors.
A comparison of experiment with theory is made for air ejectors having cylindrical mixing sections and operating under conditions of supersonic primary flow and either mixed or supersonic regimes of mixing. The effect on ejector performance of such parameters as mixer length and cross section, terminating diffuser, primary Mach number, and primary nozzle position is presented in terms of mass flow and pressure ratio.
A theory and method for applying interferometry to the measurement of certain two-dimensional gaseous density fields
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Theory and Methods of Optical Pyrometry
Report reviewing the theoretical methods of optical pyrometry and the application of these methods at the National Bureau of Standards in realizing, maintaining and distributing the International Practical Temperature Scale above 1063 ÂșC is presented. In the theoretical presentation, the concepts of effective and mean effective wavelengths are introduced, and various equations relating these parameters to each other and other physical quantities are derived. The methods presentation discusses important features of precision visual optical pyrometers, experimental procedures, and results of primary and secondary calibrations of optical pyrometers.
Theory and preliminary flight tests of an all-movable vertical tail surface
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Theory and procedure for determining loads and motions in chine-immersed hydrodynamic impacts of prismatic bodies
A theoretical method is derived for the determination of the motions and loads during chine-immersed water landings of prismatic bodies. This method makes use of a variation of two-dimensional deflected water mass over the complete range of immersion, modified by a correction for three-dimensional flow. Equations are simplified through omission of the term proportional to the acceleration of the deflected mass for use in calculation of loads on hulls having moderate and heavy beam loading. The effects of water rise at the keel are included in these equations. In order to make a direct comparison of theory with experiment, a modification of the equations was made to include the effect of finite test-carriage mass. A simple method of computation which can be applied without reading the body of this report is presented as an appendix along with the required theoretical plots for determination of loads and motions in chine-immersed landings.
A theory for predicting the flow of real gases in shock tubes with experimental verification
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A theory for primary failure of straight centrally loaded columns
A theory of primary failure of straight centrally loaded columns is presented. It is assumed that the column cross section and the load are constant throughout the length.
A theory for stability and buzz pulsation amplitude in ram jets and an experimental investigation including scale effects
From a theory developed on a quasi-one-dimensional-flow basis, it is found that the stability of the ram jet is dependent upon the instantaneous values of mass flow and total pressure recovery of the supersonic diffuser and immediate neighboring subsonic diffuser. Conditions for stable and unstable flow are presented. The theory developed in the report is in agreement with the experimental data of NACA-TN-3506 and NACA-RM-L50K30. A simple theory for predicting the approximate amplitude of small pressure pulsation in terms of mass-flow decrement from minimum-stable mass flow is developed and found to agree with experiments. Cold-flow tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of ram-jet models having scale factors of 3.15:1 and Reynolds number ratios of 4.75:1 with several supersonic diffuser configurations showed only small variations in performance between geometrically similar models. The predominant variation in steady-flow performance resulted from the larger boundary layer in the combustion chamber of the low Reynolds number models. The conditions at which buzz originated were nearly the same for the same supersonic diffuser (cowling-position angle) configurations in both large and small diameter models. There was no appreciable variation in stability limits of any of the models when the combustion-chamber length was increased by a factor of three. The unsteady-flow performance and wave patterns were also similar when considered on a reduced-frequency basis determined from the relative lengths of the model. The negligible effect of Reynolds number on stability of the off-design configurations was not anticipated in view of the importance of boundary layer to stability, and this result should not be construed to be generally applicable. (author).
A theory for stability and buzz pulsation amplitude in ram jets and an experimental investigation including scale effects
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A theory for the elastic deflections of plates integrally stiffened on one side
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A theory for the lateral response of airplanes to random atmospheric turbulence
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The Theory of a Free Jet of a Compressible Gas
In the present report the theory of free turbulence propagation and the boundary layer theory are developed for a plane-parallel free stream of a compressible fluid. In constructing the theory use was made of the turbulence hypothesis by Taylor (transport of vorticity) which gives best agreement with test results for problems involving heat transfer in free jets.
Theory of aircraft structural models subject to aerodynamic heating and external loads
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Theory of an airplane encountering gusts II
Calculations of aerodynamic effects of an airplane encountering gusts are presented.
Theory of an Airplane Encountering Gusts III
Report presents a new method for solving linear equations developed by Bromwich, which is suited to determine the motion for any particular gust, when the machine started from equilibrium, without the trouble of determining the constants of integration in the complementary function. (author).
Theory of automatic control of airplanes
Methods of automatically controlling the airplane are reviewed. Equations for the controlled motion including inertia effects of the control are developed and methods of investigating the stability of the resulting fifth and higher order equations are presented. The equations for longitudinal and lateral motion with both ideal and non-ideal controls are developed in dimensionless form in terms of control parameters based on simple dynamic tests of the isolated control unit.
Theory of Characteristics
The theory of characteristics will be presented generally for quasilinear differential equations of the second order in two variables. This is necessary because of the manifold requirements to be demanded from the theory of characteristics.
A theory of conductivity of cold-worked copper
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The theory of contra-vanes applied to the propeller
The optimum circulation distribution and hence the maximum theoretical thrust obtainable for contra-vanes fitted behind propellers is markedly dependent on the number of guide vanes. The outer portion of the vanes, even if projecting considerably beyond the edge of the propeller slipstream, still contribute appreciably to this theoretical gain of thrust. But, owing to the always existing friction of the vanes, the limit of the optimum vane length lies at relatively small diameters. A large hub unloads the vanes. Hence, the guide vanes are best attached to suitable parts of the bodies which would, in any case, be subjected to the slipstream.
Theory of Determination of Ultra-Radio Frequencies by Standing Waves on Wires
Scientific paper issued by the Bureau of Standards over ultra-radio frequencies. As stated in the abstract, "this paper furnishes the theoretical background for the method of frequency standardization employing short standing waves on parallel wires" (p. 487). This paper includes tables, and illustrations.
The theory of diffusion in strained systems
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Theory of dynamic creep
An analysis is given of the causes of the increase in the creep of a material under dynamic loads. A theory of dynamic creep is proposed based on the after-effect theory of Becker.
Theory of flame propagation
The mechanism of flame propagation has been qualitatively formulated. In accordance with this formulation, the chemical reaction initiated in some layer brings about an increase in the temperature; because of the heat conduction, the temperature is raised in the neighboring layer where in turn the chemical reaction is initiated. In this manner the flame is propagated.
Theory of flapping flight
Before attempting to construct a human-powered aircraft, the aviator will first try to post himself theoretically on the possible method of operating the flapping wings. This report will present a graphic and mathematical method, which renders it possible to determine the power required, so far as it can be done on the basis of the wing dimensions. We will first consider the form of the flight path through the air. The simplest form is probably the curve of ordinary wave motion. After finding the flight curve, we must next determine the change in the angle of attack while passing through the different phases of the wave.
Theory of ground vibrations of a two-blade helicopter rotor on anisotropic flexible supports
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