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Results 15391 - 15440 of 18,519
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Comparative flight and full-scale wind-tunnel measurements of the maximum lift of an airplane
Determinations of the power-off maximum lift of a Fairchild 22 airplane were made in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel and in flight. The results from the two types of test were in satisfactory agreement. It was found that, when the airplane was rotated positively in pitch through the angle of stall at rates of the order of 0.1 degree per second, the maximum lift coefficient was considerably higher than that obtained in the standard tests, in which the forces are measured with the angles of attack fixed. Scale effect on the maximum lift coefficient was also investigated.
Composition of Coal Tar and Light Oil
No Description
Compressible flow about symmetrical Joukowski profiles
The method of Poggi is employed for the determination of the effects of compressibility upon the flow past an obstacle. A general expression for the velocity increment due to compressibility is obtained. The general result holds whatever the shape of the obstacle; but, in order to obtain the complete solution, it is necessary to know a certain Fourier expansion of the square of the velocity of flow past the obstacle. An application is made to the case flow of a symmetrical Joukowski profile with a sharp trailing edge, fixed in a stream of an arbitrary angle of attack and with the circulation determined by the Kutta condition. The results are obtained in a closed form and are exact insofar as the second approximation to the compressible flow is concerned, the first approximation being the result for the corresponding incompressible flow. Formulas for lift and moment analogous to the Blasius formulas in incompressible flow are developed and are applied to thin symmetrical Joukowski profiles for small angles of attack.
Copper Mining in North America
No Description
The crinkling strength and the bending strength of round aircraft tubing
The upper limit of the column strength of structural members composed of thin material is the maximum axial stress such members can carry when short enough to fail locally, by crinkling. This stress is a function of the mechanical properties of the material and of the geometrical shape of the cross section. The bending strength, as measured by the modulus of rupture, of structural members is also a function of these same variables. Tests were made of round tubes of chromium-molybdenum steel and of duralumin to determine the crinkling strengths and the bending strengths in terms of the specified yield strength and the ratio of diameter to thickness. Empirical formulas are given relating these quantities.
Crushing and Grinding
No Description
Determination of boundary-layer transition on three symmetrical airfoils in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel
For the purpose of studying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, boundary-layer measurements were made in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel on three symmetrical airfoils of NACA 0009, 0012, and 0018 sections. The effects of variations in lift coefficient, Reynolds number, and airfoil thickness on transition were investigated. Air speed in the boundary layer was measured by total-head tubes and by hot wires; a comparison of transition as indicated by the two techniques was obtained. The results indicate no unique value of Reynolds number for the transition, whether the Reynolds number is based upon the distance along the chord or upon the thickness of the boundary layer at the transition point. In general, the transition is not abrupt and occurs in a region that varies in length as a function of the test conditions.
A discussion of certain problems connected with the design of hulls of flying boats and the use of general test data
Report presents the results of a survey of problems encountered in applying general test data to the design of flying-boat hulls. It is shown how basic design features may be readily determined from special plots of test data. A study of the effect of the size of a flying boat on the probable limits to be covered by the general test data is included and recommendations for special tests and new methods of presenting test data for direct use in design are given.
Drag of cylinders of simple shapes
In order to determine the effect of shape, compressibility, and Reynolds number on the drag and critical speed for simple forms, the drag forces on models of various simple geometric cross sections were measured in the NACA 11-inch high-speed wind tunnel. The models were circular, semitubular, elliptical, square, and triangular (isosceles) cylinders. They were tested over a speed range from 5 percent of the speed of sound to a value in excess of the critical speed, corresponding, for each model, approximately to a tenfold Reynolds number range, which extended from a minimum of 840 for the smallest model to a maximum of 310,000 for the largest model.
The effect of compressibility on eight full-scale propellers operating in the take-off and climbing range
Tests were made of eight full-scale propellers of different shape at various tip speeds up to about 1,000 feet per second. The range of blade-angle settings investigated was from 10 degrees to 30 degrees at the 0.75 radius. The results indicate that a loss in propulsive efficiency occurred at tip speeds from 0.5 to 0.7 the velocity of sound for the take-off and climbing conditions. As the tip speed increased beyond these critical values, the loss rapidly increased and amounted, in some instances, to more than 20 percent of the thrust power for tip-speed values of 0.8 the speed of sound. In general, as the blade-angle setting was increased, the loss started to occur at lower tip speeds. The maximum loss for a given tip speed occurred at a blade-angle setting of about 20 degrees for the take-off and 25 degrees for the climbing condition. A simplified method for correcting propellers for the effect of compressibility is given in an appendix.
The experimental and calculated characteristics of 22 tapered wings
The experimental and calculated aerodynamic characteristics of 22 tapered wings are compared, using tests made in the variable-density wind tunnel. The wings had aspect ratios from 6 to 12 and taper ratios from 1:6:1 and 5:1. The compared characteristics are the pitching moment, the aerodynamic-center position, the lift-curve slope, the maximum lift coefficient, and the curves of drag. The method of obtaining the calculated values is based on the use of wing theory and experimentally determined airfoil section data. In general, the experimental and calculated characteristics are in sufficiently good agreement that the method may be applied to many problems of airplane design.
A flight comparison of conventional ailerons on a rectangular wing and of conventional and floating wing-tip ailerons on a tapered wing
Report presents the results of flight tests comparing the relative effectiveness of conventional ailerons of the same size on wings of rectangular and tapered plan forms made with a Fairchild 22 airplane. Information is included comparing conventional and floating wing-tip ailerons on a tapered wing. The results showed that the conventional ailerons were somewhat more effective on the tapered than on the rectangular wing. The difference, however, was so small as to be imperceptible to the pilots. The floating wing-tip ailerons were only half as effective as the conventional ailerons and, for this reason, were considered unsatisfactory.
Flow in smooth straight pipes at velocities above and below sound velocity
To investigate the laws of flow of compressible fluids in pipes, tests were carried out with air flowing at velocities below and above that of sound in straight smooth pipes. Air was chosen as the flow medium. In order that the effect of compressibility may be brought out most effectively, the velocity should lie between 100 and 500 m/s (200 and 1,000 mph); that is, be of the order of magnitude of the velocity of sound in air. The behavior of the compression shock in a smooth cylindrical pipe was also investigated. The compression shock can occur at any position in the pipe, depending on the throttling downstream, and travels upstream with increasing throttling up to the pipe entrance, so that only subsonic velocities occur in the pipe.
Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders
From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.
Heat transfer to fuel sprays injected into heated gases
This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.
Improvement of aileron effectiveness by the prevention of air leakage through the hinge gap as determined in flight
A flight investigation was made of the increase in effectiveness of ailerons that can be obtained by preventing flow of air through the wing at the hinges and of the possibility of reducing the aileron operating force by replacing ailerons having normal open hinge gaps with narrower but equally effective ailerons having sealed hinge gaps. Tests were made with a Fairchild 22 airplane with two sizes of plain unbalanced ailerons, one set having a chord equal to 0.18c, and the other chord equal to 0.09c. The results of the investigation show that improvement of the lateral-control effectiveness is obtained by completely preventing the flow of air through the wing at the hinge axis of conventional ailerons. The magnitude of the improvement depends on the aileron chord. For the 0.18c ailerons the gain in aileron effectiveness due to sealing the gap at the hinge axis was of the order of one-fifth and for the 0.09c ailerons the gain was about one-third. The importance of sealing the gap was demonstrated by the fact that the 0.09c ailerons with a slight increase in deflection range were made as effective as the 0.18c ailerons with an unsealed gap but required only about one-third as large an operating force.
The influence of lateral stability on disturbed motions of an airplane with special reference to the motions produced by gusts
Distributed lateral motions have been calculated for a hypothetical small airplane with various modifications of fin area and dihedral setting. Special combinations of disturbing factors to simulate gusts are considered and the influence of lateral stability on the motions is discussed. Fin area and wing dihedral were found to be of primary importance in side gusts. It was found that the rolling action of the wing with as much as 5 degrees dihedral was distinctly unfavorable, especially when the weathercock stability was small. It is pointed out that the greatest susceptibility to lateral disturbances lies in the inherent damping and coupling moments developed by the wing.
Interrelation of exhaust-gas constituents
This report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the interrelation of the constituents of the exhaust gases of internal-combustion engines and the effect of engine performance on these relations. Six single-cylinder, liquid-cooled tests engines and one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled engine were tested. Various types of combustion chambers were used and the engines were operated at compression ratios from 5.1 to 7.0 using spark ignition and from 13.5 to 15.6 using compression ignition. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,100 r.p.m. The fuels used were two grades of aviation gasoline, auto diesel fuel, and laboratory diesel fuel. Power, friction, and fuel-consumption data were obtained from the single-cylinder engines at the same time that the exhaust-gas samples were collected.
Metal-Mine Accidents in the United States During the Calendar Year 1935
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines covering accidents that happened in metal mines located in the United States including statistics for injuries, fatalities, kinds and causes of accidents, and operational data, such as number of mine workers and shifts worked.
Mineral Industries Survey of the United States: California, Calaveras County, Mother Lode District (South). Mines of the Southern Mother Lode Region. Part 1 -- Calaveras County
No Description
The N.A.C.A. optical engine indicator
An optically recording engine-pressure indicator of simple and rugged construction has been developed for use in high-pressure and high temperature combustion research. This instrument is of the diaphragm type and has a natural frequency of about 10,000 cycles per second.
The negative thrust and torque of several full-scale propellers and their application to various flight problems
Negative thrust and torque data for 2, 3, and 4-blade metal propellers having Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections were obtained from tests in the NACA 20-foot tunnel. The propellers were mounted in front of a radial engine nacelle and the blade-angle settings covered in the tests ranged from l5 degrees to 90 degrees. One propeller was also tested at blade-angle settings of 0 degree, 5 degrees, and 10 degrees. A considerable portion of the report deals with the various applications of the negative thrust and torque to flight problems. A controllable propeller is shown to have a number of interesting, and perhaps valuable, uses within the negative thrust and torque range of operation. A small amount of engine-friction data is included to facilitate the application of the propeller data.
On some reciprocal relations in the theory of nonstationary flows
In the theory of nonstationary flows about airfoils, the "indicial lift" function ksub1(s) of Wagner and the "alternating lift" function c(k) of Theodorsen have fundamental significance. This paper reports on some interesting relations of the nature of Fourier transforms that exist between these functions. General problems in transient flows about airfoils may be given a unified broad treatment when these functions are employed. Certain approximate results also are reported which are of notable simplicity, and an analogy with transient electrical flows is drawn.
On the theory of hydrofoils and planing surfaces
The present article describes the application of the results of airfoil theory to hydrofoils and planing surfaces with consideration of the boundary conditions of the free upper surface.
A photographic study of combustion and knock in a spark-ignition engine
Report presents the results of a photographic study of the combustion in a spark-ignition engine using both Schlieren and flame photographs taken at high rates of speed. Although shock waves are present after knock occurs, there was no evidence of any type of sonic or supersonic compression waves existing in the combustion gases prior to the occurrence of knock. Artificially induced shock waves in the engine did not in themselves cause knock. The photographs also indicate that, although auto-ignition ahead of the flame front may occur in conjunction with knock, it is not necessary for the occurrence of knock. There is also evidence that the reaction is not completed in the flame front but continues for some time after the flame front has passed through the charge.
Prechamber compression-ignition engine performance
Single-cylinder compression-ignition engine tests were made to investigate the performance characteristics of prechamber type of cylinder head. Certain fundamental variables influencing engine performance -- clearance distribution, size, shape, and direction of the passage connecting the cylinder and prechamber, shape of prechamber, cylinder clearance, compression ratio, and boosting -- were independently tested. Results of motoring and of power tests, including several typical indicator cards, are presented.
Pressure distribution over airfoils with Fowler flaps
Report presents the results of tests made of a Clark y airfoil with a Clark y Fowler flap and of an NACA 23012 airfoil with NACA Fowler flaps. Some of the tests were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and others in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoils and on the flaps for several angles of attack with the flaps located at the maximum-lift settings. A test installation was used in which the model was mounted in the wind tunnel between large end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are given in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as plots of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and for the flaps alone.
Pressure distribution over an NACA 23012 airfoil with a slotted and a plain flap
Report presents the results of pressure-distribution of an NACA 23012 airfoil equipped with a slotted flap and with a plain flap conducted in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel. A test installation was used in which the 7-foot-span airfoil was mounted vertically between the upper and lower sides of the closed test section so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoil and on the flaps for several different flap deflections and at several angles of attack. The data are presented in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as graphs of calculated section coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and also for the flaps alone. The results are useful for application to rib and flap structural design; in addition, the plain-flap data furnish considerable information applicable to the structural design of plain ailerons.
Pressure distribution over an NACA 23012 airfoil with an NACA 23012 external-airfoil flap
Report presents the results of pressure-distribution tests of an NACA 23012 airfoil with an NACA 23012 external airfoil flap made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section on both the main airfoil and on the flap for several different flap deflections and at several angles of attack. A test installation was used in which the airfoil was mounted horizontally in the wind tunnel between vertical end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are presented in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as graphs of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combination and for the flap alone.
Procedure in sealing and unsealing mine fires and in recovery operations following mine explosions
No Description
Quarry Accidents in the United States During the Calendar Year 1936
Report published by the U.S. Bureau of Mines which is a compilation of accidents in quarries located in the United States with data regarding the number and kinds of accidents as well as information about the mining operations (e.g., number of men employed, kinds of quarries, amount of work performed, etc.).
Radium Protection
Regulations for the safe handling of radium in radium therapy.
Some Investigations of the General Instability of Stiffened Metal Cylinders V : Stiffened Metal Cylinders subjected to pure bending
This report summarizes the work that has been carried on in the experimental investigation of the problem of general instability of stiffened metal cylinders subjected to pure bending at the C.I.T. This part of the investigation included tests of 46 sheet-covered specimens. The most significant result was the determination of a new design parameter for the case of a stiffened metal cylinder subjected to pure bending.
Spinning characteristics of wings V : N.A.C.A. 0009, 23018, and 6718 monoplane wings
Three rectangular monoplane wings having rounded tips were tested on the N.A.C.A. spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The airfoil sections used were the N.A.C.A. 0009, 23018, and 6718. The aerodynamic characteristics of the models and a prediction of the angles of sideslip for steady spins are given. There is included an estimate of the yawing moment that must be furnished by parts of the airplane to balance the inertia couples and wing yawing moments for spinning equilibrium. The predicted angles of sideslip and yawing moments required for spinning equilibrium for a Clark Y wing with the same form are included for comparison.
Stresses in reinforcing rings due to axial forces in cylindrical and conical stressed skins
At the ends of a monocoque fuselage concentrated axial forces in the skin must generally be taken up. Such axial forces must also be taken up in the case of other members where axial forces from the neighboring stressed skin construction must be considered. In order to take up these axial forces two bulkheads or reinforcing frames may be arranged at the positions where the forces are applied. If these bulkheads are in the form of rings, bending moments are set up in them. In the present paper computations are performed for obtaining the value of these bending moments.
Studies of Certain Properties of Oil Shale and Shale Oil
No Description
A Study of a Solvent Analytical Separation of Waxes from Petroleum and its Lubricating Fractions
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing studies conducted on the wax byproducts of crude petroleum. As stated in the scope of report, "this report discusses the principal methods given in the literature for the quantitative determination of wax in petroleum and its fractions by the use of selective solvents" (p. 3). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
A study of the torque equilibrium of an autogiro rotor
Two improvements have been made in the method developed in NACA Reports nos. 487 and 591 for the estimation of the inflow velocity required to overcome a given decelerating torque in an autogiro rotor. At low tip-speed ratios, where the assumptions necessary for the analytical integrations of the earlier papers are valid, the expressions therein derived are greatly simplified by combining and eliminating terms with a view of minimizing the numerical computations required. At high tip-speed ratios, by means of charts based on graphical integrations, errors inherent in the assumptions associated with the analytical method are largely eliminated. The suggested method of estimating the inflow velocity presupposes a knowledge of the decelerating torque acting on the rotor; all available full-scale experimental information on this subject is included.
A study of the two-control operation of an airplane
The two-control operation of a conventional airplane is treated by means of the theory of disturbed motions. The consequences of this method of control are studied with regard to the stability of the airplane in its unconstrained components of motion and the movements set up during turn maneuvers.
Tests of five full-scale propellers in the presence of a radial and a liquid-cooled engine nacelle, including tests of two spinners
Wind-tunnel tests are reported of five 3-blade 10-foot propellers operating in front of a radial and a liquid-cooled engine nacelle. The range of blade angles investigated extended from 15 degrees to 45 degrees. Two spinners were tested in conjunction with the liquid-cooled engine nacelle. Comparisons are made between propellers having different blade-shank shapes, blades of different thickness, and different airfoil sections. The results show that propellers operating in front of the liquid-cooled engine nacelle had higher take-off efficiencies than when operating in front of the radial engine nacelle; the peak efficiency was higher only when spinners were employed. One spinner increased the propulsive efficiency of the liquid-cooled unit 6 percent for the highest blade-angle setting investigated and less for lower blade angles. The propeller having airfoil sections extending into the hub was superior to one having round blade shanks. The thick propeller having a Clark y section had a higher take-off efficiency than the thinner one, but its maximum efficiency was possibly lower. Of the three blade sections tested, Clark y, R.A.F. 6, and NACA 2400-34, the Clark y was superior for the high-speed condition, but the R.A.F. 6 excelled for the take-off condition.
Theoretical stability and control characteristics of wings with various amounts of taper and twist
Stability derivatives have been computed for twisted wings of different plan forms that include variations in both the wing taper and the aspect ratio. Taper ratios of 1.0, 0,50, and 0.25 are considered for each of three aspect ratios: 6, 10, and 16. The specific derivatives for which results are given are the rolling-moment and the yawing-moment derivatives with respect to (a) rolling velocity, (b) yawing velocity, and (c) angle of sideslip. These results are given in such a form that the effect of any initial symmetrical wing twist (such as may be produced by flaps) on the derivatives may easily be taken into account. In addition to the stability derivatives, results are included for determining the theoretical rolling moment due to aileron deflection and a series of influence lines is given by which the loading across the span may be determined for any angle-of-attack distribution that may occur on the wing plan forms considered. The report also includes incidental references to the application of the results.
A theory for primary failure of straight centrally loaded columns
A theory of primary failure of straight centrally loaded columns is presented. It is assumed that the column cross section and the load are constant throughout the length.
The Torsional and Bending Deflection of Full-Scale Aluminum-Alloy Propeller Blades under Normal Operating Conditions
The torsional deflection of the blades of three full-scale aluminum-alloy propellers operating under various loading conditions was measured by a light-beam method. Angular bending deflections were also obtained as an incidental part of the study. The deflection measurements showed that the usual present-day type of propeller blades twisted but a negligible amount under ordinary flight conditions. A maximum deflection of about 1/10 degree was found at a v/nd of 0.3 and a smaller deflection at higher values of v/nd for the station at 0.70 radius. These deflections are much smaller than would be expected from earlier tests, but the light-beam method is considered to be much more accurate than the direct-reading-transit method used in the previous test.
The Transition Phase in the Take-Off of an Airplane
Report presents the results of an investigation to determine the character and importance of the transition phase between the ground run and steady climb in the take-off of an airplane and the effects of various factors on this phase and on the air-borne part of the take-off as a whole. The information was obtained from a series of step-by-step integrations, which defined the motion of the airplane during the transition and which were based on data derived from actual take-off tests of a Verville AT airplane. Both normal and zoom take-offs under several loading and take-off speed conditions were considered. The effects of a moderate wind with a corresponding wind gradient and the effect of proximity of the ground were also investigated.
Two-dimensional subsonic compressible flow past elliptic cylinders
The method of Poggi is used to calculate, for perfect fluids, the effect of compressibility upon the flow on the surface of an elliptic cylinder at zero angle of attack and with no circulation. The result is expressed in a closed form and represents a rigorous determination of the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the obstacle insofar as the second approximation is concerned. Comparison is made with Hooker's treatment of the same problem according to the method of Janzen and Rayleight and it is found that, for thick elliptic cylinders, the two methods agree very well. The labor of computation is considerably reduced by the present solution.
United States Earthquakes, 1938
Report discussing earthquake activity in the United States during 1938. The report is broken down by regions and has sections for specific earthquakes.
The variation with Reynolds number of pressure distribution over an airfoil section
Pressures were simultaneously measured at 54 orifices distributed over the midspan section of a 5 by 30-inch rectangular model of the NACA 4412 airfoil in the variable-density tunnel. These measurements were made at 17 angles of attack from -20 degrees to 30 degrees for eight values of the effective Reynolds number form approximately 100,000 to 8,200,000. Accurate data were thus obtained for studying the variation of pressure distribution with Reynolds number. These results on the NACA 4412 section indicated that the pressure distribution is practically unaffected by changes in Reynolds number except where separation is involved.
Wind-tunnel tests of carburetor-intake rams
An investigation was conducted in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel of the ramming effect of three general types of carburetor intake rams for radial engines, namely, the internal constant area type, the external constant area type, and the external expanding type. The rams were installed on a radial air- cooled engine nacelle, and tests were made with and without the propeller operating. The results indicated that the external types having entrances near the front of the engine cowling gave the greatest ramming effect. The propeller increased the ramming effect for the external types. From considerations of the ramming effect, the best entrance location for the external types was close to the nose of the engine cowling. For the internal type, the best location was in a plane perpendicular to the propeller shaft and immediately forward of the engine cylinders.
Detonation and autoignition : some considerations on methods of determination
This paper is a critical analysis of the methods of determination of the tendency to detonation. No attempt has been made to describe in detail the different fuels and the different methods proposed.
Free spinning wind-tunnel tests of a low-wing monoplane with systematic wings and tails
No Description