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 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Automotive Vehicle Sensors

Automotive Vehicle Sensors

Date: September 1995
Creator: Sheen, S. H.; Raptis, A. C. & Moscynski, M. J.
Description: This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Characterization of Plutonium-Bearing Wastes by Chemical Analysis and Analytical Electron Microscopy

Characterization of Plutonium-Bearing Wastes by Chemical Analysis and Analytical Electron Microscopy

Date: September 1995
Creator: Behrens, R. G.; Buck, E. C.; Dietz, N. L.; Bates, J. K.; Van Deventer, E. & Chaiko, David J.
Description: This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO2, PuO₂x, and Pu4O7 phases, of about 1micrometer or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 micrometer to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Parallel Solution of the Time-Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Equations and other Experiences using BlockComm-Chameleon and PCN on the IBM SP, Intel iPSC/860, and Clusters of Workstations

Parallel Solution of the Time-Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Equations and other Experiences using BlockComm-Chameleon and PCN on the IBM SP, Intel iPSC/860, and Clusters of Workstations

Date: September 1995
Creator: Coskun, Erhan & Kwong, Man Kam
Description: Time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations are considered for modeling a thin-film finite size superconductor placed under magnetic field. The problem then leads to the use of so-called natural boundary conditions. Computational domain is partitioned into subdomains and bond variables are used in obtaining the corresponding discrete system of equations. An efficient time-differencing method based on the Forward Euler method is developed. Finally, a variable strength magnetic field resulting in a vortex motion in Type II High-critical-temperature superconducting films is introduced. The authors tackled the problem using two different state-of-the-art parallel computing tools: BlockComm/Chameleon and PCN. They had access to two high-performance distributed memory supercomputers: the Intel iPSC/860 and IBM SP1. They also tested the codes using, as a parallel computing environment, a cluster of Sun Sparc workstations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The DART Dispersion Analysis Research Tool:  a Mechanistic Model for Predicting Fission-Product-Induced Swelling of Aluminum Dispersion Fuels : User's Guide for Mainframe, Workstation, and Personal Computer

The DART Dispersion Analysis Research Tool: a Mechanistic Model for Predicting Fission-Product-Induced Swelling of Aluminum Dispersion Fuels : User's Guide for Mainframe, Workstation, and Personal Computer

Date: August 1995
Creator: Rest, J.
Description: This report describes the primary physical models that form the basis of the DART mechanistic computer model for calculating fission-product-induced swelling of aluminum dispersion fuels; the calculated results are compared with test data. In addition, DART calculates irradiation-induced changes in the thermal conductivity of the dispersion fuel, as well as fuel restructuring due to aluminum fuel reaction, amorphization, and recrystallization. Input instructions for execution on mainframe, workstation, and personal computers are provided, as is a description of DART output. The theory of fission gas behavior and its effect on fuel swelling is discussed. The behavior of these fission products in both crystalline and amorphous fuel and in the presence of irradiation-induced recrystallization and crystalline-to-amorphous-phase change phenomena is presented, as are models for these irradiation-induced processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Implementation and Validation of a Reynolds Stress Model in the COMMIX-1C/RSM and CAPS-3D/RSM Codes

Implementation and Validation of a Reynolds Stress Model in the COMMIX-1C/RSM and CAPS-3D/RSM Codes

Date: August 1995
Creator: Chang, F. C. & Bottoni, M.
Description: A Reynolds stress model (RSM) of turbulence, based on seven transport equations, has been linked to the COMMIX-1C/RSM and CAPS-3D/RSM computer codes. Six of the equations model the transport of the components of the Reynolds stress tensor and the seventh models the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. When a fluid is heated, four additional transport equations are used: three for the turbulent heat fluxes and one for the variance of temperature fluctuations. All of the analytical and numerical details of the implementation of the new turbulence model are documented. The model was verified by simulation of homogeneous turbulence.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase 1: Soil Washing Final Report

Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase 1: Soil Washing Final Report

Date: August 1995
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Description: As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Physics Division Annual Review: April 1, 1994-March 31, 1995

Physics Division Annual Review: April 1, 1994-March 31, 1995

Date: August 1995
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Physics Division.
Description: Annual report of activities of the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division, including heavy-ion nuclear physics research, operation and development of ATLAS, medium-energy nuclear physics research, theoretical physics, atomic and molecular physics research.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Validation of the Generic TRUEX Model Using Data from TRUEX Demonstrations with Actual High-Level Waste

Validation of the Generic TRUEX Model Using Data from TRUEX Demonstrations with Actual High-Level Waste

Date: August 1995
Creator: Regalbuto, M. C.; Aase, S. B. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Description: The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to simulate three different counter-current flowsheet tests performed using mixer-settlers that had been carried out prior to 1993 in the Chemical Processing Facility, Tokai-works, of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The feed for the PNC runs was the highly active raffinate from reprocessing of spent fuel from fast breeder reactors. The PNC demonstration runs were planned without using the GTM. Results predicted by the GTM and those obtained experimentally by PNC for the three demonstration runs are compared. Effects of stage efficiency, nitrate complexation, temperature, and equipment type are also included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aqueous Biphasic Extraction of Uranium and Thorium from Contaminated Soils : Final Report

Aqueous Biphasic Extraction of Uranium and Thorium from Contaminated Soils : Final Report

Date: July 1995
Creator: Chaiko, David J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J. L.; Krause, T. R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y. et al.
Description: The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethylene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Extraction of Long-Lived Radionuclides from Caustic Hanford Tank Waste Supernatants

Extraction of Long-Lived Radionuclides from Caustic Hanford Tank Waste Supernatants

Date: July 1995
Creator: Chaiko, David J.; Mertz, C. J.; Vojta, Y.; Henriksen, J. L.; Neff, R. & Takeuchi, M.
Description: A series of polymer-based extraction systems, based on the use of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or polypropylene glycols (PPGs), was demonstrated to be capable of selective extraction and recovery of long-lived radionuclides, such as Tc-99 and I-129, from Hanford SY-101 tank waste, neutralized current acid waste, and single-shell tank waste simulants. During the extraction process, anionic species like TcO₄⁻ and I⁻ are selectively transferred to the less dense PEG-rich aqueous phase. The partition coefficients for a wide range of inorganic cations and anions, such as sodium, potassium, aluminum, nitrate, nitrite, and carbonate, are all less than one. The partition coefficients for pertechnetate ranged from 12 to 50, depending on the choice of waste simulant and temperature. The partition coefficient for iodide was about 5, while that of iodate was about 0.25. Irradiation of the PEG phase with gamma-ray doses up to 20 Mrad had no detectable effect on the partition coefficients. The most selective extraction systems examined were those based on PPGs, which exhibited separation factors in excess of 3000 between TcO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻/NO₂⁻. An advantage of the PPG-based system is minimization of secondary waste production. These studies also highlighted the need for exercising great care in extrapolating the partitioning behavior ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Information Exchange within the U.S. Department of Energy Pollution Prevention Community

Information Exchange within the U.S. Department of Energy Pollution Prevention Community

Date: July 1995
Creator: Thuot, James R.
Description: Improving Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Program (PP/WMIN) technologies, actions, and culture could be an important cost-cutting step for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Communicating ideas, concepts, process changes, and achievements is essential for the success of this program. The need to openly communicate ideas and concepts in a cost-effective manner is essential in an organization that has such diverse components as research and development, weapons production, and power generation. This approach is in contrast to the historic DOE culture developed within the cold war period in which compartmentalization, independence, and secrecy were stressed. DOE has now recognized that for any pollution prevention program to be successful, the many diverse elements of the organization must share information. Avenues for such information exchange are examined in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
LEVSEEP: Analysis Software for Levee Underseepage and Rehabilitation

LEVSEEP: Analysis Software for Levee Underseepage and Rehabilitation

Date: July 1995
Creator: Brizendine, Anthony L.; Taylor, Hugh M., Jr. & Gabr, M. A.
Description: This report uses the computer software LEVSEEP to describe analysis methodology for levee underseepage analyses and rehabilitation. Information required for data input, calculation procedures, output, and graphics is presented. In addition, comprehensive results of case studies and parameter analyses utilizing LEVSEEP are included.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nonlinear Dynamics of a Stack/Cable System

Nonlinear Dynamics of a Stack/Cable System

Date: July 1995
Creator: Cai, Y. & Chen, Shoei-Sheng
Description: In this study, we developed a coupled model of wind-induced vibration of a stack, based on an unsteady-flow theory and nonlinear dynamics of the stack's heavy elastic suspended cables. Numerical analysis was performed to identify excitation mechanisms. The stack was found to be excited by vortex shedding. Once lock-in resonance occurred, the cables were excited by the transverse motion of the stack. Large-amplitude oscillations of the cables were due to parametric resonance. Appropriate techniques have been proposed to alleviate the vibration problem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Technology Development Goals for Automotive Fuel Cell Power Systems

Technology Development Goals for Automotive Fuel Cell Power Systems

Date: July 1995
Creator: Thomas, C. E. & James, Brian D.
Description: Directed Technologies, Inc. has previously submitted a detailed technical assessment and concept design for a mid-size, five-passenger fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), under contract to Argonne National Laboratory. As a supplement to that contract, DTI has reviewed the literature and conducted a preliminary evaluation of two energy carriers for the FCEV: hydrogen and methanol. This report compares the estimated fuel efficiency, cost of producing and delivering the fuel, and the resultant life cycle costs of the FCEV when fueled directly by hydrogen and when fueled by methanol with on-board reforming to produce the required hydrogen-rich gas for the fuel cell. This work will be supplemented and expanded under the Ford contract with the Department of Energy to develop the FCEV and its fuel infrastructure.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Annual Report October 1993 - September 1994

ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Annual Report October 1993 - September 1994

Date: June 1995
Creator: Bates, John K.
Description: A program was established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are anticipated to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, especially in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1994

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1994

Date: June 1995
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.
Description: Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Technology Division (CMT) discussing the group's activities during 1994. These included electrochemical technology; fossil energy research; hazardous waste research; nuclear waste programs; separation science and technology; electrometallurgical technology; actinide recovery; applied physical chemistry; basic chemistry research; analytical chemistry.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Argonne National Laboratory-East Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1994

Argonne National Laboratory-East Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1994

Date: May 1995
Creator: Golchert, N. W. & Kolzow, R. G.
Description: This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1994. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Radiolysis and Hydrolysis of Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation Particles

Radiolysis and Hydrolysis of Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation Particles

Date: May 1995
Creator: Buchholz, B. A.; Nuñez, Luis & Vandegrift, G. F.
Description: This report discusses experiments with various ways to conduct a magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, designed to separate transuranic (TRU) elements out of high-level waste (HLW) or TRU waste.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Surveillance of Site A and Plot M : Report for 1994

Surveillance of Site A and Plot M : Report for 1994

Date: May 1995
Creator: Golchert, N. W.
Description: The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for 1994 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
User Interface Program for Secure Electronic Tags

User Interface Program for Secure Electronic Tags

Date: May 1995
Creator: Cai, Y.; Koehl, E. R.; Carlson, R. D. & Raptis, A. C.
Description: This report summarizes and documents the efforts of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in developing a secure tag communication user interface program comprising a tag monitor and a communication tool. This program can perform the same functions as the software that was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but it is enhanced with a user-friendly screen. It represents the first step in updating the TRANSCOM Tracking System (TRANSCOM) by incorporating a tag communication screen menu into the main menu of the TRANSCOM user program. A working version of TRANSCOM, enhanced with ANL secure-tag graphics, will strongly support the Department of Energy Warhead Dismantlement/Special Nuclear Materials Control initiatives. It will allow commercial satellite tracking of the movements and operational activities of treaty-limited items and transportation vehicles throughout Europe and the former USSR, as well as the continental US.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Application of NMR Spectroscopy and Multidimensional Imaging to the Gelcasting Process and in-situ Real-Time Monitoring of Cross-Linking Polyacrylamide Gels

Application of NMR Spectroscopy and Multidimensional Imaging to the Gelcasting Process and in-situ Real-Time Monitoring of Cross-Linking Polyacrylamide Gels

Date: April 1995
Creator: Ahuja, S.; Dieckman, S. L.; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Raptis, A. C. & Omatete, Oritsegbemi O.
Description: In the gelcasting process, a slurry of ceramic powder in a solution of organic monomers is cast in a mold. The process is different from injection molding in that it separates mold-filling from setting during conversion of the ceramic slurry to a formed green part. In this work, NMR spectroscopy and imaging have been conducted for in-situ monitoring of the gelation process and for mapping the polymerization. ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been obtained during polymerization of a premix of soluble reactive methacrylamide (monomer) and N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (cross-linking molecules). The premix was polymerized by adding ammonium persulfate (initiator) and tetramethyl-ethylene-diamine (accelerator) to form long-chain, cross-linked polymers. The time-varying spin-lattice relaxation times T₁ during polymerization have been studied at 25 and 35 C, and the variation of spectra and T₁ with respect to extent of polymerization has been determined. To verify homogeneous polymerization, multidimensional NMR imaging was utilized for in-situ monitoring of the process. The intensities from the images are modeled and the correspondence shows a direct extraction of T₁ data from the images.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dynamic Stability Experiment of Maglev Systems

Dynamic Stability Experiment of Maglev Systems

Date: April 1995
Creator: Cai, Y.; Rote, D. M.; Mulcahy, T. M.; Wang, Z.; Chen, Shoei-Sheng & Zhu, S.
Description: This report summarizes the research performed on Maglev vehicle dynamic stability at Argonne National Laboratory during the past few years. It also documents magnetic-force data obtained from both measurements and calculations. Because dynamic instability is not acceptable for any commercial Maglev system, it is important to consider this phenomenon in the development of all Maglev systems. This report presents dynamic stability experiments on Maglev systems and compares their numerical simulation with predictions calculated by a nonlinear dynamic computer code. Instabilities of an electrodynamic system (EDS)-type vehicle model were obtained from both experimental observations and computer simulations for a five-degree-of-freedom Maglev vehicle moving on a guideway consisting of double L-shaped aluminum segments attached to a rotating wheel. The experimental and theoretical analyses developed in this study identify basic stability characteristics and future research needs of Maglev systems.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
IPNS Upgrade: a Feasibility Study

IPNS Upgrade: a Feasibility Study

Date: April 1995
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Description: Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R & D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R & D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Laboratory Testing of Glasses for Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. Fiscal Year 1994 Report

Laboratory Testing of Glasses for Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. Fiscal Year 1994 Report

Date: April 1995
Creator: Ellison, A. J. G.; Wolf, S. F. & Bates, John K.
Description: The purpose of this project is to measure the intermediate and long-term durability of vitrified waste forms developed by Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. (LITCO) for the immobilization of calcined radioactive wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Two vitreous materials referred to as Formula 127 and Formula 532, have been subjected to accelerated durability tests to measure their long-term performance. Formula 127 consists of a glass matrix containing 5-10 vol % fluorite (CaF2) as a primary crystalline phase. It shows low releases of glass components to solution in 7-, 28-, 70-, and 140-day Product Consistency Tests performed at 2000 m⁻¹ at 90 C. In these tests, release rates for glass-forming components were similar to those found for durable waste glasses. The Ca and F released by the glass as it corrodes appear to re-precipitate as fluorite. Formula 532 consists of a glass matrix containing 5-10 vol % of an Al-Si-rich primary crystalline phase. The release rates for components other than aluminum are relatively low, but aluminum is released at a much higher rate than is typical for durable waste glasses. Secondary crystalline phases form relatively early during the corrosion of Formula 532 and appear to consist almost entirely of the Al-Si-rich ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department