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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1930-1939
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Notes
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Aerodynamic Investigation of a Cup Anemometer

Aerodynamic Investigation of a Cup Anemometer

Date: July 1934
Creator: Hubbard, John D. & Brescoll, George P.
Description: Results of an investigation wherein the change of the normal force coefficient with Reynolds Number was obtained statically for a 15.5-centimeter hemispherical cup.
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Bending Tests of Metal Monocoque Fuselage Construction

Bending Tests of Metal Monocoque Fuselage Construction

Date: November 1930
Creator: Mossman, Ralph W. & Robinson, Russell G.
Description: Study of the bending stress in smooth skin, aluminum alloy, true monocoque fuselage sections of varying ratio of diameter to thickness.
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An approximate spin design criterion for monoplanes

An approximate spin design criterion for monoplanes

Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Donlan, Charles J & Seidman, Oscar
Description: A quantitative criterion of merit has been needed to assist airplane designers to incorporate satisfactory spinning characteristics into new designs. An approximate empirical criterion, based on the projected side area and the mass distribution of the airplane, has been formulated in a recent British report. In the present paper, the British results have been analyzed and applied to American designs. A simpler design criterion based solely on the type and the dimensions of the tail, has been developed: it is useful in a rapid estimation of whether a new design is likely to comply with the minimum requirements for safety in spinning.
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The variation in pressure in the cabin of an airplane in flight

The variation in pressure in the cabin of an airplane in flight

Date: March 1, 1931
Creator: Gough, Melvin N
Description: The pressure in the cabin of a Fairchild cabin monoplane wa surveyed in flight, and was found to decrease with increased air speed over the fuselage and to vary with the number and location of openings in the cabin. The maximum depression of 2.2 inches of water (equivalent pressure altitude at sea level of 152 feet) occurred at the high speed of the airplane in level flight with the cabin closed.
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The Unsteady Lift of a Finite Wing

The Unsteady Lift of a Finite Wing

Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Jones, Robert T
Description: Unsteady lift function for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by approximate methods involving corrections of the aerodynamic inertia and of the angle of the infinite wing. The starting lift of the finite wing is found to be only slightly less than that of the infinite wing; whereas the final lift may be considerably less. The calculations indicate that the distribution of lift near the start is similar to the final distribution. Both the indicia and the oscillating lift functions are given. Approximate operational equivalents of the functions have been devised to facilitate the calculation of lift under various conditions of motion.
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Further measurements of normal accelerations on racing airplanes

Further measurements of normal accelerations on racing airplanes

Date: February 1, 1936
Creator: KIRSCHBAUM H W & Scudder, N F
Description: The work of collecting acceleration data for racing airplanes during races, started in January 1934, has been continued by obtaining similar data in the airplanes winning first and second places in the 1935 Thompson Trophy Race. Records were taken in the Howard Racer "Mr. Mulligan" and in the Wittman D-12 Racer. The maximum positive accelerations were generally smaller than those recorded in other airplanes during earlier races; the maximum in the Howard Racer was 2.8 g, and one value of 4.25 g was obtained in the Wittman Racer. Minimum values were as low as -0.55 g in the Howard Racer and 0.3 g in the Wittman Racer.
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Corrugated metal diaphragms for aircraft pressure-measuring instruments

Corrugated metal diaphragms for aircraft pressure-measuring instruments

Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Goerke, V H & Wildhack, W A
Description: None
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Principal Effects of Axial Load on Moment-Distribution Analysis of Rigid Structures

Principal Effects of Axial Load on Moment-Distribution Analysis of Rigid Structures

Date: July 1, 1935
Creator: James, Benjamin Wylie
Description: This thesis presents the method of moment distribution modified to include the effect of axial load upon the bending moments. This modification makes it possible to analyze accurately complex structures, such as rigid fuselage trusses, that heretofore had to be analyzed by approximate formulas and empirical rules. The method is simple enough to be practicable even for complex structures, and it gives a means of analysis for continuous beams that is simpler than the extended three-moment equation now in common use. When the effect of axial load is included, it is found that the basic principles of moment distribution remain unchanged, the only difference being that the factors used, instead of being constants for a given member, become functions of the axial load. Formulas have been developed for these factors, and curves plotted so that their applications requires no more work than moment distribution without axial load. Simple problems have been included to illustrate the use of the curves.
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Calculations of the effect of wing twist on the air forces acting on a monoplane wing

Calculations of the effect of wing twist on the air forces acting on a monoplane wing

Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Datwyler, G
Description: A method is presented for calculating the aerodynamic forces on a moncylane wing, taking into account the elastic twisting of the wing due to these forces. The lift distribution along the span is calculated by the formulas of Amstutz as a function of the geometrical characteristics of the wing and of the twist at stations 60 and 90 percent of the semispan. The twist for a given lift distribution is calculated by means of influence lines. As a numerical example, the forces on a Swiss military D.2V airplane are calculated. Comparisons with the strip method and with the ordinary stress-analysis method are also given.
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Wind-tunnel tests on model wing with Fowler flap and specially developed leading-edge slot

Wind-tunnel tests on model wing with Fowler flap and specially developed leading-edge slot

Date: May 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E & Platt, Robert C
Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel to find the increase in maximum lift coefficient which could be obtained by providing a model wing with both a Fowler trailing-edge extension flap and a Handley Page type leading-edge slot. A conventional Handley page slot proportioned to operate on the plain wing without a flap gave but a slight increase with the flap; so a special form of slot was developed to work more effectively with the flap. With the best combined arrangement the maximum lift coefficient based on the original area was increased from 3.17, for the Fowler wing, to 3.62. The minimum drag coefficient with both devices retracted was increased in approximately the same proportion. Tests were also made with the special-type slot on the plain wing without the flap. The special slot, used either with or without the Fowler flap, gave definitely higher values of the maximum lift coefficient than the slots of conventional form, with an increase of the same order in the minimum drag coefficient.
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Wind-tunnel tests of a wing with a trailing-edge auxiliary airfoil used as a flap

Wind-tunnel tests of a wing with a trailing-edge auxiliary airfoil used as a flap

Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Noyes, Richard W
Description: This report gives the characteristics of a wing with an auxiliary airfoil mounted near its trailing edge and used as a flap. The tests were made with a 10 by 60 inch Clark Y main airfoil and an NACA 0012 flap having a chord equal to 15 percent of the main wing chord. The axis of the flap in all cases was on the flap chord and 20 percent back from its leading edge. The optimum location of the flap axis relative to the main wing for maximum lift was found to be 1.25 percent of the main wing chord behind the trailing edge and 2.5 percent below the chord. In this position C(sub L max) was increased from 1.250 (for the plain wing) to 1.810 at 45 degrees deflection of the flap and C(sub D min) was decreased form 0.0155 to 0.0146 at minus 5 degrees deflection, the coefficient in each case being based on the sum of the flap and wing areas. No serious adverse change in lateral stability was found to result from the use of the flap in the optimum position.
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Wind tunnel standardization disk drag

Wind tunnel standardization disk drag

Date: December 1, 1936
Creator: Knight, Montgomery
Description: None
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Influence of fuel-oil temperature on the combustion in a prechamber compression-ignition engine

Influence of fuel-oil temperature on the combustion in a prechamber compression-ignition engine

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Ayer, Bruce E
Description: None
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The importance of auto-ignition lag in knocking

The importance of auto-ignition lag in knocking

Date: March 1, 1935
Creator: Taylor, E S
Description: None
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Some Investigations of the General Instability of Stiffened Metal Cylinders V : Stiffened Metal Cylinders subjected to pure bending

Some Investigations of the General Instability of Stiffened Metal Cylinders V : Stiffened Metal Cylinders subjected to pure bending

Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Hoff, N J; Boley, Bruno A & Nardo, S V
Description: This report summarizes the work that has been carried on in the experimental investigation of the problem of general instability of stiffened metal cylinders subjected to pure bending at the C.I.T. This part of the investigation included tests of 46 sheet-covered specimens. The most significant result was the determination of a new design parameter for the case of a stiffened metal cylinder subjected to pure bending.
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Aerodynamic tests of a low aspect ratio tapered wing with an auxiliary airfoil for use on tailless airplanes

Aerodynamic tests of a low aspect ratio tapered wing with an auxiliary airfoil for use on tailless airplanes

Date: November 1, 1933
Creator: Sanders, Robert
Description: None
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Calculation of horsepower available : appendix to estimation of the variation of thrust horsepower with air speed

Calculation of horsepower available : appendix to estimation of the variation of thrust horsepower with air speed

Date: July 1, 1934
Creator: Ober, Shatswell
Description: None
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Identification of Aircraft Tubing by Rockwell Test

Identification of Aircraft Tubing by Rockwell Test

Date: June 1, 1930
Creator: Knerr, Horace C.
Description: Seamless steel tubing is today the principal material of construction for aircraft. The commercial grade of tubing containing about 0.10 to 0.20% carbon at first used is being superseded by two grades which are approved by the army and navy, and which are also becoming standard for commercial airplanes.
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A Complete Tank Test of a Model of a Flying-Boat Hull - N.A.C.A. Model No.11

A Complete Tank Test of a Model of a Flying-Boat Hull - N.A.C.A. Model No.11

Date: July 1, 1933
Creator: Shoemaker, James M. & Parkinson, John B.
Description: This note discusses the limitations of the conventional tank test of a seaplane model. The advantages of a complete test, giving the characteristics of the model at all speeds, loads, and trim angles in the useful range are pointed out. The data on N.A.C.A. Model No.11, obtained from a complete test, are presented and discussed. The results are analyzed to determine the best trim angle for each speed and load. The data for the best angles are reduced to non-dimensional form for ease of comparison and application. A practical problem using the characteristics of model no.11 is presented to show the method of calculating the take-off time and run of a seaplane from these data.
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Tables of stiffness and carry-over factor for structural members under axial load

Tables of stiffness and carry-over factor for structural members under axial load

Date: June 1, 1938
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E & Kroll, W D
Description: Tables of stiffness and carry-over factor are presented for members in which the cross section and axial load do not vary along the length of the member. These tables are of use in solving problems in the stability of structural members under axial load as well as in application of the Cross method of moment distribution when the effects of axial load in the members are considered. The interval between successive values of the argument is small enough to make interpolation unnecessary in engineering calculations.
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Notes on the technique of landing airplanes equipped with wing flaps

Notes on the technique of landing airplanes equipped with wing flaps

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gough, Melvin N
Description: The proper landing of airplanes equipped with flaps, although probably no more difficult than landing without them, requires a different technique. The effects of flaps on the aerodynamics characteristics of a wing are given and, with the aid of figures and diagrams, a detailed comparison of the glide and landing of an airplane with and without flaps is made. The dangers attending improper execution and the importance of such factors as air speed fuselage attitude, glide-path angle, and control manipulation, upon all of which a pilot bases his judgement, are emphasized. Of most importance in connection with the use of flaps are: the maintenance of a sufficient margin of speed above the stall; a decisive use of the controls at the proper time; more cautious use of power during the approach glide; and, above all, the willingness to accept the steep nose-down attitude necessary in the glide resulting from the use of flaps.
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Wind-tunnel investigation of rectangular and tapered NACA 23012 wings with plain ailerons and full-span split flaps

Wind-tunnel investigation of rectangular and tapered NACA 23012 wings with plain ailerons and full-span split flaps

Date: August 1, 1938
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J & Ames, Milton B , Jr
Description: An investigation was made to determine the aerodynamic properties of rectangular and tapered NACA 23012 wings with plain ailerons and a full-span split flap, the flap retracting ahead of the ailerons. Measurements were made of lift and drag and of pitching, rolling, yawing, and hinge moments for all conditions of full-span flaps neutral and deflected at different chord locations. The results of the tests showed that a 0.20c(sub w) full span split flap located at approximately the 0.75c(sub w) point gave higher lift coefficients than had previously been obtained with a conventional 0.20c(sub w) partial-span split flap of a length to permit satisfactory control with plain ailerons. Still higher lifts were obtained if the full-span flap, when deflected, was moved back to the aileron axis. Moving the flap back to the aileron, in general, improved the aileron characteristics over those with the flap retracted. The most promising arrangement of full-span split flap and plain aileron combination tested, both for high lift and lateral control, was the rectangular wing with 0.20c(sub w) deflected 60 degrees at the 0.90c(sub w) location with 0.10c(sub w) semispan ailerons.
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Wind-tunnel tests of wing flaps suitable for direct control of glide-path angle

Wind-tunnel tests of wing flaps suitable for direct control of glide-path angle

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Weick, Fred E
Description: Preliminary tests have been made for the purpose of obtaining a flap arrangement suitable for direct and immediate control of the steepness of the glide path of an airplane, a use for which present flaps are not satisfactory. An attempt has been made to develop a flap giving a reasonably high maximum lift coefficient with relatively low deflection and maintaining this value of the maximum lift coefficient with a large increase of deflection, the increase in deflection being accompanied by a large increase in drag. An arrangement was found that gave a maximum lift coefficient of approximately 1.90 for all flap deflections between 25 and 80 degrees, within which range the drag of the wing increased regularly to a large value.
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A comparison of several tapered wings designed to avoid tip stalling

A comparison of several tapered wings designed to avoid tip stalling

Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F
Description: Optimum proportions of tapered wings were investigated by a method that involved a comparison of wings designed to be aerodynamically equal. The conditions of aerodynamic equality were equality in stalling speed, in induced drag at a low speed, and in the total drag at cruising speed. After the wings were adjusted to aerodynamic equivalence, the weights of the wings were calculated as a convenient method of indicating the optimum wing. The aerodynamic characteristics were calculated from wing theory and test data for the airfoil sections. Various combinations of washout, camber increase in the airfoil sections from the center to the tips, and sharp leading edges at the center were used to bring about the desired equivalence of maximum lift and center-stalling characteristics. In the calculation of the weights of the wings, a simple type of spar structure was assumed that permitted an integration across the span to determine the web and the flange weights. The covering and the remaining weight were taken in proportion to the wing area. The total weights showed the wings with camber and washout to have the lowest weights and indicated the minimum for wings with a taper ratio between 1/2 and 1/3.
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