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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1930-1939
 Year: 1936
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Notes
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Analysis and model tests of autogiro jump take-off

Analysis and model tests of autogiro jump take-off

Date: October 1, 1936
Creator: Wheatley, John B & Bioletti, Carlton
Description: An analysis is made of the autogiro jump take-off, in which the kinetic energy of the rotor turning at excess speed is used to effect a vertical take-off. By the use of suitable approximations, the differential equation of motion of the rotor during this maneuver is reduced to a form that can be solved. Only the vertical jump was studied; the effect of a forward motion during the jump is discussed briefly. The results of model tests of the jump take-off have been incorporated in the paper and used to establish the relative accuracy of the results predicted from the analysis. Good agreement between calculation and experiment was obtained by making justifiable allowances.
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Boosted performance of a compression-ignition engine with a displaced piston

Boosted performance of a compression-ignition engine with a displaced piston

Date: May 1, 1936
Creator: Moore, Charles S & Foster, Hampton H
Description: Performance tests were made using a rectangular displacer arranged so that the combustion air was forced through equal passages at either end of the displacer into the vertical-disk combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition test engine. After making tests to determine optimum displacer height, shape, and fuel-spray arrangement, engine-performance tests were made at 1,500 and 2,000 r.p.m. for a range of boost pressures from 0 to 20 inches of mercury and for maximum cylinder pressures up to 1,150 pounds per square inch. The engine operation for boosted conditions was very smooth, there being no combustion shock even at the highest maximum cylinder pressures. Indicated mean effective pressures of 240 pounds per square inch for fuel consumptions of 0.39 pound per horsepower-hour have been readily reproduced during routine testing at 2,000 r.p.m. at a boost pressure of 20 inches of mercury.
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Calculated effect of various types of flap on take-off over obstacles

Calculated effect of various types of flap on take-off over obstacles

Date: May 1, 1936
Creator: Wetmore, J W
Description: In order to determine whether or not flaps could be expected to have any beneficial effect on take-off performance, the distances required to take off and climb to an altitude of 50 feet were calculated for hypothetical airplanes, corresponding to relatively high-speed types and equipped with several types of flap. The types considered are the Fowler wing, the Hall wing, the split flap, the balanced split flap, the plain flap, and the external-airfoil flap. The results indicate that substantial reductions in take-off distance are possible through the use of flaps, provided that the proper flap angle corresponding to a given set of conditions is used. The best flap angle for taking off varies inversely as power loading and, to a much smaller extent, varies inversely with wing loading. Apparently, the best take-off characteristics are provided by the type of device in which the flap forms an extension to the main wing as in the case of the Fowler wing and the external-airfoil flap.
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Carbon-monoxide indicators for aircraft

Carbon-monoxide indicators for aircraft

Date: July 1, 1936
Creator: Womack, S H J & Peterson, J B
Description: Several improvements that have been made on commercially available carbon-monoxide indicators to make them more suitable for aircraft use are described. These improvements include an automatic flow regulator, which permits the use of a simplified instrument on aircraft where a source of suction is available, and a more reliable alarm attachment. A field method for testing instruments on standard samples of carbon monoxide is described. Performance data and instructions in operation and maintenance are given.
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Charts for calculating the performance of airplanes having constant-speed propellers

Charts for calculating the performance of airplanes having constant-speed propellers

Date: September 1, 1936
Creator: White, Roland J & Martin, Victor J
Description: Charts are presented for determining the performance of airplanes having variable-pitch propellers, the pitch of which is assumed to be adjusted to maintain constant speed for all rates of flight. The charts are based on the general performance equations developed by Oswald in reference 1, and are used in a similar manner. Examples applying the charts to airplanes having both supercharged and unsupercharged engines are included.
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Circular motion of bodies of revolution

Circular motion of bodies of revolution

Date: February 1, 1936
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Description: The circular motion for airship-like bodies has thus far been calculated only for a prolate ellipsoid of revolution (reference 1, p.133 and reference 2). In this paper, however, the circular motion of elongated bodies of revolution more nearly resembling airships will be investigated. The results will give the effect of rotation on the pressure distribution and thus yield some information as to the stresses set up in an airship in circular flight.
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Combustion-engine temperatures by the sodium line-reversal method

Combustion-engine temperatures by the sodium line-reversal method

Date: March 1, 1936
Creator: Brevoort, Maurice J
Description: The sodium line-reversal method has been used in some preliminary measurements of flame temperature. Improvements in the method involving a photographic recorder and a means of correcting for the dirtiness of the windows are described. The temperatures so obtained are compared with those calculated from pressure diagrams.
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A comparison of corrosion-resistant steel (18 percent chromium - 8 percent nickel) and aluminum alloy (24st)

A comparison of corrosion-resistant steel (18 percent chromium - 8 percent nickel) and aluminum alloy (24st)

Date: March 1, 1936
Creator: Sullivan, J E
Description: In the selection of materials for aircraft application, it is not enough to make the selection on a strength-weight basis alone. A strength-weight comparison is significant but other factors must be considered, for while a material with a high ratio of strength to weight may be perfectly satisfactory for one use, it may be totally unfitted for another. It is essential, among other things, that the probable nature, magnitude, and direction of the principal stresses be given special consideration. The following analysis has therefore been made with this in mind. An attempt has been made to cover insofar as possible the major, but not all the points, that a designer would consider in the use of "18-8", as it is commonly referred to, and 24ST aluminum alloy, as applied to aircraft. 24ST was selected for this comparison as it has practically replaced 17ST for aircraft construction and it appears to have the best combination of properties of the alloys now available for this purpose. The cost of fabrication has not been considered.
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Considerations of the take-off problem

Considerations of the take-off problem

Date: February 1, 1936
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P
Description: Many technical papers on the various phases of airplane take-off have been published. Frequently, however, there appear new ideas which affect only particular scattered phases of the subject and which do not receive individual publication. It is the purpose of this paper to present several ideas of this nature which may be of considerable aid in calculating take-off performance and one idea which should correct what appears to be a popular misconception of the importance of static propeller thrust. Although these considerations all concern the general problem of take-off, they are not directly related and therefore will be treated in individual sections.
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Effect of changes in tail arrangement upon the spinning of a low-wing monoplane model

Effect of changes in tail arrangement upon the spinning of a low-wing monoplane model

Date: June 1, 1936
Creator: Zimmerman, C H
Description: A series of tests was made in the N.A.C.A. free spinning tunnel to find the effect upon spinning characteristics of systematic changes in tail arrangement. The tests were made with a 1/16-scale made of a low-wing monoplane of modern design. The changes consisted of: (1) variation of the fuselage length; (2) variation of the fore-and-aft location of the vertical surfaces; and (3) variation of the vertical location of the horizontal surfaces. The spinning characteristics of the model, including the number of turns required for recovery, were found to vary systematically and regularly with systematic changes in the tail arrangement. The following changes in tail arrangement had harmful effects upon the recovery characteristics (which originally were excellent): (1) shortening the fuselage; (2) placing the vertical surfaces directly above the horizontal surfaces as compared with locations either fore or aft of this position; (3) moving the horizontal surfaces downward from their original location at the top of the fuselage.
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Effect of several factors on the cooling of a radial engine in flight

Effect of several factors on the cooling of a radial engine in flight

Date: November 1, 1936
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Pinkel, Benjamin
Description: Flight tests of a Grumman Scout (XSF-2) airplane fitted with a Pratt & Whitney 1535 supercharged engine were conducted to determine the effect of engine power, mass flow of the cooling air, and atmospheric temperature on cylinder temperature. The tests indicated that the difference in temperature between the cylinder wall and the cooling air varied as the 0.38 power of the brake horsepower for a constant mass flow of cooling air, cooling-air temperature, engine speed, and brake fuel consumption. The difference in temperature was also found to vary inversely as the 0.39 power of the mass flow for points on the head and the 0.35 power for points on the barrel, provided that engine power, engine speed, brake fuel consumption, and cooling-air temperature were kept constant. The results of the tests of the effect of atmospheric temperature on cylinder temperature were inconclusive owing to unfavorable weather conditions prevailing at the time of the tests. The method used for controlling the test conditions, however, was found to be feasible.
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Estimation of moments of inertia of airplanes from design data

Estimation of moments of inertia of airplanes from design data

Date: July 1, 1936
Creator: Kirschbaum, H W
Description: A method of determining the moments of inertia of an airplane from design data pertaining to the weights and locations of the component parts is described. The computations required to ascertain the center-of-gravity position are incorporated with the calculations of moments of inertia. A complete set of data and calculations for a modern airplane is given to illustrate the procedure. From a comparison between calculated values and measured values it is believed that the moments of inertia can be estimated within 10 percent by the use of this method.
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The forces and moments on airplane engine mounts

The forces and moments on airplane engine mounts

Date: December 1, 1936
Creator: Donely, Philip
Description: A resume of the equations and formulas for the forces and moments on an aircraft-engine mount is presented. In addition, available experimental data have been included to permit the computation of these forces and moments. A sample calculation is made and compared with present design conditions for engine mounts.
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Friction of compression-ignition engines

Friction of compression-ignition engines

Date: August 1, 1936
Creator: Moore, Charles S & Collins, John H , Jr
Description: The cost in mean effective pressure of generating air flow in the combustion chambers of single-cylinder compression-ignition engines was determined for the prechamber and the displaced-piston types of combustion chamber. For each type a wide range of air-flow quantities, speeds, and boost pressures was investigated. Supplementary tests were made to determine the effect of lubricating-oil temperature, cooling-water temperature, and compression ratio on the friction mean effective pressure of the single-cylinder test engine. Friction curves are included for two 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition aircraft engines. The results indicate that generating the optimum forced air flow increased the motoring losses approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure regardless of chamber type or engine speed. With a given type of chamber, the rate of increase in friction mean effective pressure with engine speed is independent of the air-flow speed. The effect of boost pressure on the friction cannot be predicted because the friction was decreased, unchanged, or increased depending on the combustion-chamber type and design details. High compression ratio accounts for approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure of the friction of these single-cylinder compression-ignition engines. The single-cylinder test engines used in this investigation had a much higher friction mean ...
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Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap

Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap

Date: August 1, 1936
Creator: Dearborn, C H & Soule, H A
Description: Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.
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Full-scale wind-tunnel to determine a satisfactory location for a service Pitot-static tube on a low-wing monoplane

Full-scale wind-tunnel to determine a satisfactory location for a service Pitot-static tube on a low-wing monoplane

Date: March 1, 1936
Creator: Parsons, John F
Description: Surveys of the air flow over the upper surface of four different airfoils were made in the full-scale wind tunnel to determine a satisfactory location for a fixed Pitot-static tube on a low-wing monoplane. The selection was based on small interference errors, less than 5 percent, and on a consideration of structural and ground handling problems. The most satisfactory location on the airfoils without flaps that were investigated was 10 percent of the chord aft and 25 percent of the chord above the trailing edge of a section approximately 40 percent of the semispan inboard of the wing tip. No satisfactory location was found near the wing when the flaps were deflected.
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Further measurements of normal accelerations on racing airplanes

Further measurements of normal accelerations on racing airplanes

Date: February 1, 1936
Creator: KIRSCHBAUM H W & Scudder, N F
Description: The work of collecting acceleration data for racing airplanes during races, started in January 1934, has been continued by obtaining similar data in the airplanes winning first and second places in the 1935 Thompson Trophy Race. Records were taken in the Howard Racer "Mr. Mulligan" and in the Wittman D-12 Racer. The maximum positive accelerations were generally smaller than those recorded in other airplanes during earlier races; the maximum in the Howard Racer was 2.8 g, and one value of 4.25 g was obtained in the Wittman Racer. Minimum values were as low as -0.55 g in the Howard Racer and 0.3 g in the Wittman Racer.
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A general tank test of a model of the hull of the British Singapore IIC flying boat

A general tank test of a model of the hull of the British Singapore IIC flying boat

Date: September 1, 1936
Creator: Dawson, John R & Truscott, Starr
Description: A general test was made in the N.A.C.A. tank of a 1/12-size model of the hull of the British Singapore IIC flying boat loaned by the Director of Research, British Air Ministry. The results are given in charts and are compared with the results of tests of a model of an American flying-boat hull, the Sikorsky S-40. The Singapore hull has a greater hump resistance but a much lower high-speed resistance than the S-40.
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Influence of fuel-oil temperature on the combustion in a prechamber compression-ignition engine

Influence of fuel-oil temperature on the combustion in a prechamber compression-ignition engine

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Ayer, Bruce E
Description: None
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Limitations of the pilot in applying forces to airplane controls

Limitations of the pilot in applying forces to airplane controls

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gough, M N & Beard, A P
Description: Measurements were made to determine the relative maximum forces a pilot can exert on the controls of an airplane with the view of obtaining systematic data upon which to base the location of controls within the cockpit and the design of the control surfaces. A cockpit model of generous proportions, capable of being rotated to any attitude, was built with the location of the control stick and rudder pedals adjustable over a wide range of positions with respect to the seat. Besides measurements of maximum forces obtainable with various control locations and with the pilot in several attitudes, estimates of forces within the range normally encountered in flight were made to gain an indication of the accuracy of estimating control forces. The maximum aileron forces measured were of the order of 90 pounds, maximum elevator 200 pounds, and maximum rudder 450 pounds. The average forces applied with the controls in the neutral position for the various cockpit attitudes were of the order of 35, 95, and 400 pounds, respectively, for the ailerons, elevators, and rudder.
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Mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

Mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets

Date: November 1, 1936
Creator: Brueggeman, Wm C
Description: The development of metal construction for aircraft has created a need for accurate and detailed information regarding the strength of riveted joints in aluminum-alloy structures. To obtain this information the National Bureau of Standards in cooperation with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is investigating the strength of riveted joints in aluminum alloys. The strength of riveted joints may be influenced by the form of the head, the ratio of the rivet diameter to the sheet thickness, the driving stress, and other factors. This note gives the results of tests to develop the riveting technique for test specimens and to determine the effects of these factors.
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A method of estimating the aerodynamic effects of ordinary and split flaps of airfoils similar to the Clark Y

A method of estimating the aerodynamic effects of ordinary and split flaps of airfoils similar to the Clark Y

Date: June 1, 1936
Creator: Pearson, H A
Description: An empirical method is given for estimating the aerodynamic effect of ordinary and split flaps on airfoils similar to the Clark Y. The method is based on a series of charts that have been derived from an analysis of existing wind-tunnel data. Factors are included by which such variables as flap location, flap span, wing aspect ratio, and wing taper may be taken into account. A series of comparisons indicate that the method would be suitable for use in making preliminary performance calculations and in structural design.
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Mixture distribution in a single-row radial engine

Mixture distribution in a single-row radial engine

Date: October 1, 1936
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Voss, Fred
Description: The distribution of the fuel among the various cylinders of a Pratt and Whitney 1340 S1H1-G engine was determined by chemically analyzing samples of exhaust gas from each cylinder. The engine was operated in the 20-foot wind tunnel at different power outputs, specific fuel consumptions, and engine speeds. The results showed that the variation in the quality of the mixture among the different cylinders was approximately 4 percent and was independent of power output, specific fuel consumption, and engine speed. The results also showed that the top cylinders operated with a lower air-fuel ratio than the bottom cylinders.
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Notes on the technique of landing airplanes equipped with wing flaps

Notes on the technique of landing airplanes equipped with wing flaps

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gough, Melvin N
Description: The proper landing of airplanes equipped with flaps, although probably no more difficult than landing without them, requires a different technique. The effects of flaps on the aerodynamics characteristics of a wing are given and, with the aid of figures and diagrams, a detailed comparison of the glide and landing of an airplane with and without flaps is made. The dangers attending improper execution and the importance of such factors as air speed fuselage attitude, glide-path angle, and control manipulation, upon all of which a pilot bases his judgement, are emphasized. Of most importance in connection with the use of flaps are: the maintenance of a sufficient margin of speed above the stall; a decisive use of the controls at the proper time; more cautious use of power during the approach glide; and, above all, the willingness to accept the steep nose-down attitude necessary in the glide resulting from the use of flaps.
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