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 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Airplane dopes and doping

Airplane dopes and doping

Date: January 1, 1919
Creator: Smith, W H
Description: Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of ...
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Airplane Stress Analysis

Airplane Stress Analysis

Date: January 1, 1918
Creator: Zahm, A F & Crook, L H
Description: Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.
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The airplane tensiometer

The airplane tensiometer

Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Larson, L J
Description: Certain parts of an airplane are subjected not only to the stresses imposed by the aerodynamic or flying load, but also to the initial stresses, caused by the tension in the stay and drift wires. Report describes a tensiometer that measures such stresses which is simple in construction, accurate, and easily and quickly operated even by inexperienced persons. Two sizes of the instrument are available. One is suitable for wires up to one-fourth inch in diameter and the other for wires from one-fourth to three-eights inch in diameter.
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Airship model tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Airship model tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Abbott, Ira H
Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airship models. Eight Goodyear-Zeppelin airship models were tested in the original closed-throat tunnel. After the tunnel was rebuilt with an open throat a new model was tested, and one of the Goodyear-Zeppelin models was retested. The results indicate that much may be done to determine the drag of airships from evaluations of the pressure and skin-frictional drags on models tested at large Reynolds number.
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An airship slide rule

An airship slide rule

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Weaver, E. R. & Pickering, S. F.
Description: This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.
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Alternating-current equipment for the measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow

Alternating-current equipment for the measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Mock, W. C., Jr.
Description: Recent electrical and mechanical improvements have been made in the equipment developed at the National Bureau of Standards for measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow. Data useful in the design of similar equipment are presented. The design of rectified alternating-current power supplies for such apparatus is treated briefly, and the effect of the power supplies on the performance of the equipment is discussed.
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The altitude effect on air speed indicators

The altitude effect on air speed indicators

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Hersey, M. D.; Hunt, F. L. & Eaton, H. N.
Description: The object of this report is to present the results of a theoretical and experimental study of the effect, on the performance of air speed indicators, of the different atmospheric conditions experienced at various altitudes.
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The altitude effect on air speed indicators II

The altitude effect on air speed indicators II

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Eaton, H. N. & Macnair, W. A.
Description: In an investigation described in NACA Technical Report 110, it was shown that under certain conditions, particularly for the relatively low-speed flight of airships, the data obtained were not sufficiently accurate. This report describes an investigation in which the data obtained were sufficiently accurate and complete to enable the viscosity correction to be deduced quantitatively for a number of the air-speed pressure nozzles in common use. The report opens with a discussion of the theory of the performance of air-speed nozzles and of the calibration of the indicators, from which the theory of the altitude correction is developed. Then follows the determination of the performance characteristics of the nozzles and calibration constants used for the indicators. In the latter half of the report, the viscosity correction is computed for the Zahm Pitot-venturi nozzles.
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The altitude laboratory for the test of aircraft engines

The altitude laboratory for the test of aircraft engines

Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Dickinson, H C & Boutell, H G
Description: Report presents descriptions, schematics, and photographs of the altitude laboratory for the testing of aircraft engines constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
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Altitude-pressure tables based on the United States standard atmosphere

Altitude-pressure tables based on the United States standard atmosphere

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Brombacher, W. G.
Description: This report is a revision of the altitude pressure tables of the United States standard atmosphere given in Technical Report No. 246. The altitude range has been extended from 50,000 to 80,000 feet.
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Aluminum and its light alloys

Aluminum and its light alloys

Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Merica, Paul D
Description: Report is a summary of research work which has been done here and abroad on the constitution and mechanical properties of the various alloy systems with aluminum. The mechanical properties and compositions of commercial light alloys for casting, forging, or rolling, obtainable in this country are described.
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Analog study of interacting and noninteracting multiple-loop control systems for turbojet engines

Analog study of interacting and noninteracting multiple-loop control systems for turbojet engines

Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: Pack, George J & Phillips, W E , Jr
Description: The results of an analog investigation of several turbojet-engine control configurations is presented in this report. Both proportional and proportional-plus-integral controllers were studied, and compensating terms for engine interaction were added to the control system. Data were obtained on the stability limits and the transient responses of these various configurations. Analytical expressions in terms of the component transfer functions were developed for the configurations studied, and the optimum form for the compensation terms was determined. It was found that the addition of the integral term, while making the system slower and more oscillatory, was desirable in that it made the final values of the system parameters independent of source of disturbance and also eliminated droop in these parameters. Definite improvement in system characteristics resulted from the use of proper compensation terms. At comparable gain points the compensated system was faster and more stable. Complete compensation eliminated engine interaction, permitting each loop to be developed to an optimum point independently.
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Analysis and calculation by integral methods of laminar compressible boundary-layer with heat transfer and with and without pressure gradient

Analysis and calculation by integral methods of laminar compressible boundary-layer with heat transfer and with and without pressure gradient

Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: Morduchow, Morris
Description: A survey of integral methods in laminar-boundary-layer analysis is first given. A simple and sufficiently accurate method for practical purposes of calculating the properties (including stability) of the laminar compressible boundary layer in an axial pressure gradient with heat transfer at the wall is presented. For flow over a flat plate, the method is applicable for an arbitrarily prescribed distribution of temperature along the surface and for any given constant Prandtl number close to unity. For flow in a pressure gradient, the method is based on a Prandtl number of unity and a uniform wall temperature. A simple and accurate method of determining the separation point in a compressible flow with an adverse pressure gradient over a surface at a given uniform wall temperature is developed. The analysis is based on an extension of the Karman-Pohlhausen method to the momentum and the thermal energy equations in conjunction with fourth- and especially higher degree velocity and stagnation-enthalpy profiles.
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Analysis and modification of theory for impact of seaplanes on water

Analysis and modification of theory for impact of seaplanes on water

Date: January 1, 1945
Creator: Mayo, Wilbur L
Description: An analysis of available theory on seaplane impact and a proposed modification thereto are presented. In previous methods the overall momentum of the float and virtual mass has been assumed to remain constant during the impact but the present analysis shows that this assumption is rigorously correct only when the resultant velocity of the float is normal to the keel. The proposed modification chiefly involves consideration of the fact that forward velocity of the seaplane float causes momentum to be passed into the hydrodynamic downwash (an action that is the entire consideration in the case of the planing float) and consideration of the fact that, for an impact with trim, the rate of penetration is determined not only by the velocity component normal to the keel but also by the velocity component parallel to the keel, which tends to reduce the penetration. Experimental data for planing, oblique impact, and vertical drop are used to show that the accuracy of the proposed theory is good.
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Analysis and prediction of longitudinal stability of airplanes

Analysis and prediction of longitudinal stability of airplanes

Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Gilruth, R R & White, M D
Description: An analysis has been made of the longitudinal stability characteristics of 15 airplanes as determined in flight. In the correlation of satisfactory and unsatisfactory characteristics with determined values, the derivative that expresses the ratio of static-restoring moments to elevator-control moments was found to represent most nearly the stability characteristics appreciated by the pilots. The analysis was extended to study the effects of various design features on the observed stability characteristics. Design charts and data are included that show the effects on longitudinal stability of relative positions of wing and tail, fuselage size and location, engine nacelles, and horizontal-tail arrangements.
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Analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings with special reference to torsion and load transference

Analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings with special reference to torsion and load transference

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Kuhn, Paul
Description: This report deals with the analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings in torsion, taking cognizance of the fact that the spars are not independent, but are interconnected by ribs and other structural members. The principles of interaction are briefly explained, showing that the mutual relief action occurring depends on the "pure torsional stiffness" of the wing cross section. Various practical methods of analysis are outlined. The "Friedrichs-Von Karman equations" are shown to require the least amount of labor. Numerical examples by the several methods of analysis are given and the agreement between the calculation and experiment is shown.
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An analysis of base pressure at supersonic velocities and comparison with experiment

An analysis of base pressure at supersonic velocities and comparison with experiment

Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Chapman, Dean R
Description: In the first part of the investigation an analysis is made of base pressure in an inviscid fluid, both for two-dimensional and axially symmetric flow. It is shown that for two-dimensional flow, and also for the flow over a body of revolution with a cylindrical sting attached to the base, there are an infinite number of possible solutions satisfying all necessary boundary conditions at any given free-stream Mach number. For the particular case of a body having no sting attached only one solution is possible in an inviscid flow, but it corresponds to zero base drag. Accordingly, it is concluded that a strictly inviscid-fluid theory cannot be satisfactory for practical applications. An approximate semi-empirical analysis for base pressure in a viscous fluid is developed in a second part of the investigation. The semi-empirical analysis is based partly on inviscid-flow calculations.
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Analysis of cooling limitations and effect of engine-cooling improvements on level-flight cruising performance of four-engine heavy bomber

Analysis of cooling limitations and effect of engine-cooling improvements on level-flight cruising performance of four-engine heavy bomber

Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Marble, Frank E; Miller, Marlon A & Bell, E Barton
Description: The NACA has developed means, including an injection impeller and ducted head baffles, to improve the cooling characteristics of the 3350-cubic-inch-displacement radial engines installed in a four-engine heavy bomber. The improvements afforded proper cooling of the rear-row exhaust-valve seats for a wide range of cowl-flap angles, mixture strengths, and airplane speeds. The results of flight tests with this airplane are used as a basis for a study to determine the manner and the extent to which the airplane performance was limited by engine cooling. By means of this analysis for both the standard airplane and the airplane with engine-cooling modifications, comparison of the specific range at particular conditions and comparison of the cruising-performance limitations was made.
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Analysis of effect of basic design variables on subsonic axial-flow-compressor performance

Analysis of effect of basic design variables on subsonic axial-flow-compressor performance

Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Sinnette, John T , Jr
Description: A blade-element theory for axial-flow compressors has been developed and applied to the analysis of the effects of basic design variables such as Mach number, blade loading, and velocity distribution on compressor performance. A graphical method that is useful for approximate design calculations is presented. The relations among several efficiencies useful in compressor design are derived and discussed. The possible gains in useful operating range obtainable by the use of adjustable stator blades are discussed and a rapid approximate method of calculating blade-angle resettings is shown by an example. The relative Mach number is shown to be a dominant factor in determining the pressure ratio.
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The analysis of free flight propeller tests and its application to design

The analysis of free flight propeller tests and its application to design

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Munk, Max M
Description: This report contains a description of a new and useful method suitable for the design of propellers and for the interpretation of tests with propellers. The fictitious slipstream velocity, computed from the absorbed horsepower, is plotted against the relative slip velocity. It is discussed in detail how this velocity is obtained, interpreted, and used. The methods are then illustrated by applying them to model tests and to free flight tests with actual propellers.
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Analysis of heat and compressibility effects in internal flow systems and high-speed tests of a ram-jet system

Analysis of heat and compressibility effects in internal flow systems and high-speed tests of a ram-jet system

Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Becker, John V & Baals, Donald D
Description: An analysis has been made by the NACA of the effects of heat and compressibility in the flow through the internal systems of aircraft. Equations and charts are developed whereby the flow characteristics at key stations in a typical internal system may be readily obtained.
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Analysis of jet-propulsion-engine combustion-chamber pressure losses

Analysis of jet-propulsion-engine combustion-chamber pressure losses

Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Pinkel, I Irving & Shames, Harold
Description: The development and the use of a chart for estimating the pressure losses in jet-engine combustion chambers are described. By means of the chart, the pressure losses due to fluid friction and to momentum changes in the air flow accompanying combustion can be separately evaluated. The pressure-loss chart is based on the assumption that the pressure losses in the actual combustion chamber can be matched by those of an equivalent combustion chamber of constant cross-sectional area. The concept of the equivalent combustion chamber serves as a convenient basis for comparing the pressure-loss characteristics of combustion chambers of a variety of designs. The over-all pressure losses computed from the pressure-loss chart are within 7 percent of the experimental values for the three types of combustion chambers considered herein.
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An analysis of laminar free-convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate paralled to the direction of the generating body force

An analysis of laminar free-convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate paralled to the direction of the generating body force

Date: January 1, 1953
Creator: Ostrach, Simon
Description: The free-convection flow and heat transfer (generated by a body force) about a flat plate parallel to the direction of the body force are formally analyzed and the type of flow is found to be dependent on the Grashof number alone. For large Grashof numbers (which are of interest in aeronautics), the flow is of the boundary-layer type and the problem is reduced in a formal manner, which is analogous to Prandtl's forced-flow boundary-layer theory, to the simultaneous solution of two ordinary differential equations subject to the proper boundary conditions. Velocity and temperature distributions for Prandtl numbers of 0.01, 0.72, 0.733, 1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 are computed, and it is shown that velocities and Nusselt numbers of the order of magnitude of those encountered in forced-convection flows may be obtained in free-convection flows. The theoretical and experimental velocity and temperature distributions are in good agreement. A flow and a heat-transfer parameter, from which the important physical quantities such as shear stress and heat-transfer rate can be computed, are derived as functions of Prandtl number alone.
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Analysis of landing-gear behavior

Analysis of landing-gear behavior

Date: January 1, 1953
Creator: Milwitzky, Benjamin & Cook, Francis E
Description: This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.
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