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 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Transonic flow past cone cylinders

Transonic flow past cone cylinders

Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: Solomon, George E
Description: Experimental results are presented for transonic flow post cone-cylinder, axially symmetric bodies. The drag coefficient and surface Mach number are studied as the free-stream Mach number is varied and, wherever possible, the experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions. Interferometric results for several typical flow configurations are shown and an example of shock-free supersonic-to-subsonic compression is experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical problem of transonic flow past finite cones is discussed briefly and an approximate solution of the axially symmetric transonic equations, valid for a semi-infinite cone, is presented.
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Moisture resistant finishes for airplane woods

Moisture resistant finishes for airplane woods

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Dunlap, M E
Description: This report describes briefly a series of experiments made at the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, to determine the comparative moisture resistance of linseed oil, impregnation treatments, condensation varnishes, oil varnishes, enamels, cellulose varnishes, rubber, electroplated and sprayed metal coatings, and metal-leaf coatings when applied to wood. All coatings except rubber and electroplated metal coatings, which were not developed sufficiently to make them practical, admitted moisture in varying degrees. The most effective and most practical coating was found to be that of aluminum leaf.
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The Design of Wind Tunnels and Wind Tunnel Propellers

The Design of Wind Tunnels and Wind Tunnel Propellers

Date: January 1, 1919
Creator: Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H & Hebbert, C M
Description: Report discusses the theory of energy losses in wind tunnels, the application of the Drzewiecki theory of propeller design to wind tunnel propellers, and the efficiency and steadiness of flow in model tunnels of various types.
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Airplane Stress Analysis

Airplane Stress Analysis

Date: January 1, 1918
Creator: Zahm, A F & Crook, L H
Description: Report presents stress analysis of individual components of an airplane. Normal and abnormal loads, sudden loads, simple stresses, indirect simple stresses, resultant unit stress, repetitive and equivalent stress, maximum steady load and stress are considered.
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Data on the design of plywood for aircraft

Data on the design of plywood for aircraft

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Elmendorf, Armin
Description: This report makes available data which will aid the designer in determining the plywood that is best adapted to various aircraft parts. It gives the results of investigations made by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service at Madison, Wisconsin, for the Army and Navy Departments, and is one of a series of reports on the use of wood in aircraft prepared by the Forest Products Laboratory for publication by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The object of the study was to determine, through comprehensive tests, the mechanical and physical properties of plywood and how these properties vary with density, number, thickness, arrangement of the plies and direction of grain of the plies.
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Wind tunnel studies in aerodynamic phenomena at high speed

Wind tunnel studies in aerodynamic phenomena at high speed

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Caldwell, F W & Fales, E N
Description: A great amount of research and experimental work has been done and fair success obtained in an effort to place airplane and propeller design upon an empirical basis. However, one can not fail to be impressed by the apparent lack of data available toward establishing flow phenomena upon a rational basis, such that they may be interpreted in terms of the laws of physics. With this end in view it was the object of the authors to design a wind tunnel differing from the usual type especially in regard to large power and speed of flow. This report describes the wind tunnel at Mccook Field and gives the results of experiments conducted in testing the efficiency of the wind tunnel.
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High-resolution autoradiography

High-resolution autoradiography

Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J & Freemen, J W
Description: This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.
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Pressure distribution over the wings of an MB-3 airplane in flight

Pressure distribution over the wings of an MB-3 airplane in flight

Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out to determine the distribution of load over the wings of a high speed airplane under all conditions of flight. In particular it was desired to find the pressure distribution during level flight, over the portions of the wings in the slipstream and, during violent maneuvers, over the entire wing surface. The method used consisted in connecting a number of holes in the surface of the wings to recording multiple manometers mounted in the fuselage of the airplane. In this way simultaneous records could be taken on all of the holes for any desired length of time. (author).
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Wing spar stress charts and wing truss proportions

Wing spar stress charts and wing truss proportions

Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Warner, Edward P
Description: In order to simplify the calculation of beams continuous over three supports, a series of charts have been calculated giving the bending moments at all the critical points and the reactions at all supports for such members. Using these charts as a basis, calculations of equivalent bending moments, representing the total stresses acting in two bay-wing trusses of proportions varying over a wide range, have been determined, both with and without allowance for column effect. This leads finally to the determination of the best proportions for any particular truss or the best strut locations in any particular airplane. The ideal proportions are found to vary with the thickness of the wing section used, the aspect ratio, and the ratio of gap to chord.
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Experimental research on air propellers  IV

Experimental research on air propellers IV

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Description: This report states the results of investigations made upon numerous propeller models at the request of the Subcommittee on Aerodynamics, and contains valuable data for those interested in the design of air propellers.
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The decay of a simple eddy

The decay of a simple eddy

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Bateman, H
Description: The principal result obtained in this report is a generalization of Taylor's formula for a simple eddy. The discussion of the properties of the eddy indicates that there is a slight analogy between the theory of eddies in a viscous fluid and the quantum theory of radiation. Another exact solution of the equations of motion of viscous fluid yields a result which reminds one of the well-known condition for instability in the case of a horizontally stratified atmosphere.
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The six-component wind balance

The six-component wind balance

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A F
Description: Dr. Zahm's report is a description of the six-component wind-tunnel balance in use at the Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard. The description of the balance gives the mechanical details and the method of operation, and is accompanied by line drawings showing the construction of the balance. The balance is of particular interest, as it allows the model to be set up quickly and accurately in roll, pitch, and yaw, without stopping the wind. It is possible to measure automatically, directly, and independently the drag, cross-wind force, and lift; also the rolling, pitching, and yawing moments. It is also possible to make the balance self-recording.
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Standard atmosphere

Standard atmosphere

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Gregg, Willis Ray
Description: This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.
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Internal stresses in laminated construction

Internal stresses in laminated construction

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Heim, A L; Knauss, A C & Seutter, Louis
Description: This report reviews the procedure employed in an investigation of the sources and influence of internal stresses in laminated construction, and discusses the influence of shrinkage and swelling stresses caused by atmospheric conditions upon the tensile strength across grain in laminated construction with special reference to airplane propellers. The investigation covered three sources of internal stress, namely, the combination of plain-sawed and quarter-sawed material in the same construction, the gluing together of laminations of different moisture contents, and the gluing together of laminations of different densities. Glued specimens and free specimens, made up under various manufacturing conditions, were subjected to various climatic changes inducing internal stresses and then were tested.
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Experimental research on air propellers V

Experimental research on air propellers V

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Description: In previous reports on experimental research on air propellers, by W. F. Durand and E. P. Lesley, as contained in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics reports nos. 14, 30, and 64, the investigations were made progressively and each without reference to results given in preceding reports and covering only information relating to forms perhaps adjacent in geometrical form and proportion. This report is a review of the entire series of results of the preceding reports with a view of examining through graphical and other appropriate means the nature of the history of the characteristics of operation as related to the systematic variations in characteristics of forms, etc., through the series of such characteristics.
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Interaction between air propellers and airplane structures

Interaction between air propellers and airplane structures

Date: January 1, 1927
Creator: Durand, W F
Description: The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the character and amount of interaction between air propellers as usually mounted on airplanes and the adjacent parts of the airplane structure - or, more specifically, those parts of the airplane structure within the wash of the propeller, and capable of producing any significant effect on propeller performance. In report no. 177 such interaction between air propellers and certain simple geometrical forms was made the subject of investigation and report. The present investigation aims to carry this general study one stage further by substituting actual airplane structures for the simple geometrical forms. From the point of view of the present investigation, the airplane structures, viewed as an obstruction in the wake of the propeller, must also be viewed as a necessary part of the airplane and not as an appendage which might be installed or removed at will. (author).
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The design of plywood webs for airplane wing beams

The design of plywood webs for airplane wing beams

Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Trayer, George W
Description: This report deals with the design of plywood webs for wooden box beams to obtain maximum strength per unit weight. A method of arriving at the most efficient and economical web thickness, and hence the most suitable unit shear stress, is presented and working stresses in shear for various types of webs and species of plywood are given. The questions of diaphragm spacing and required glue area between the webs and flange are also discussed.
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The design of airplane wing ribs

The design of airplane wing ribs

Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Newlin, J A & Trayer, George W
Description: The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information for use in the design of truss and plywood forms, particularly with reference to wing ribs. Tests were made on many designs of wing ribs, comparing different types in various sizes. Many tests were also made on parallel-chord specimens of truss and plywood forms in place of the actual ribs and on parts of wing ribs, such as truss diagonals and sections of cap strips. It was found that for ribs of any size or proportions, when they were designed to obtain a well-balanced construction and were carefully manufactured, distinct types are of various efficiencies; the efficiency is based on the strength per unit of weight. In all types of ribs the heavier are the stronger per unit of weight. Reductions in the weight of wing ribs are accompanied even in efficient designs by a much greater proportional reduction in strength.
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Some problems on the lift and rolling moment of airplane wings

Some problems on the lift and rolling moment of airplane wings

Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Scarborough, James B
Description: This report deals with the application of the airfoil and twisted wing theory to the calculation of the lift and rolling moment of airplane wings. Most of the results arrived at are strictly true only for wings of elliptic plan form. The investigation aims to give some indications of the accuracy with which the results can be applied to the wing forms in actual use.
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Report on behavior of aeroplanes in gusts

Report on behavior of aeroplanes in gusts

Date: January 1, 1917
Creator: Hunsaker, J C & Wilson, Edward Bidwell
Description: Part 1 presents the results of a wind tunnel test of a biplane model with an 18 inch span. The lift, drift, and pitching moment were measured for a series of angles of incidence corresponding to the maximum possible changes of flight attitude. Only the discussion of symmetrical or longitudinal changes is given. From the observed rate of variation of the forces and pitching moment, it was possible to calculate the derivatives needed in the complete theory of longitudinal stability in still air. The damping of the pitching oscillation was also determined experimentally. Part 2 presents a theoretical method for determining the effects of gusts on aeroplanes in the following cases: (1) head-on gusts rising from 0 to j feet per second with various degrees of sharpness, (2) up gusts of the same type, (3) rotary gusts of the same type, (4) rear gusts and down gusts are included by merely changing the sign of j.
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Investigation of a nonlinear control system

Investigation of a nonlinear control system

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Flugge-Lotz, I; Taylor, C F & Lindberg, H E
Description: A discontinuous variation of coefficients of the differential equation describing the linear control system before nonlinear elements are added is studied in detail. The nonlinear feedback is applied to a second-order system. Simulation techniques are used to study performance of the nonlinear control system and to compare it with the linear system for a wide variety of inputs. A detailed quantitative study of the influence of relay delays and of a transport delay is presented.
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Glues used in airplane parts

Glues used in airplane parts

Date: January 1, 1920
Creator: Allen, S W & Truax, T R
Description: This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and presents the results of investigations conducted by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service on the manufacture, preparation, application, testing and physical properties of the different types of glues used in wood airplane parts.
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The influence of the form of a wooden beam on its stiffness and strength II : form factors of beams subjected to transverse loading only

The influence of the form of a wooden beam on its stiffness and strength II : form factors of beams subjected to transverse loading only

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Newlin, J A & Trayer, G W
Description: The general aim of the investigation described in this report is the achievement of efficient design in wing beams. The purpose of the tests was to determine factors to apply to the usual beam formula in order that the properties of wood based on tests of rectangular sections might be used as a basis of design for beams of any sections and if practical to develop formulas for determining such factors and to verify them by experiment. Such factors for various sections have been determined from test by comparing properties of the beam in question to similar properties of matched beams 2 by 2 inches in section. Furthermore, formulas were worked out, more or less empirical in character, which check all of these test values remarkably well.
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The influence of the form of a wooden beam on its stiffness and strength I : deflection of beams with special reference to shear deformations

The influence of the form of a wooden beam on its stiffness and strength I : deflection of beams with special reference to shear deformations

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Newlin, J A & Trayer, G W
Description: The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent ordinary deflection formulas, which neglect shear deformations, are in error when applied to beams of various sections, and to develop reasonably accurate yet comparatively simple formulas which take into account such deformations. A great many tests were made to determine the amount of shear deformation for beams of various sections tested over many different spans. As the span over which the beam is tested is increased the error introduced by neglecting shear deformations becomes less, and the values obtained by substituting measured deflections in the ordinary formulas approach more nearly the modulus of elasticity in tension and compression. For short spans the error is considerable and increases rapidly as the span is reduced. Two formulas were developed for estimating the magnitude of shear deformations, both of which have been verified by tests. The first assumes the parabolic distribution of shear on a cross section of a beam and, starting with a differential volume, the distortion due to shear is determined by the ordinary methods of summarizing the work. The second assumes that the deflections due to shear in any two beams of the same length, height, and moment of ...
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