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**Partner:**UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

**Serial/Series Title:**NACA Technical Reports

**Collection:**Technical Report Archive and Image Library

### Dynamics of a turbojet engine considered as a quasi-static system

**Date:**January 1, 1951

**Creator:**Otto, Edward W & Taylor, Burt L, III

**Description:**A determination of the dynamic characteristics of a typical turbojet engine with a centrifugal compressor, a sonic-flow turbine-nozzle diaphragm, and fixed area exhaust nozzle is presented. A generalized equation for transient behavior of the engine was developed; this equation was then verified by calculations using compressor and turbine performance charts extrapolated from equilibrium operating data and by experimental data obtained from an engine operated under transients in fuel flow. The results indicate that a linear differential equation for engine acceleration as a function of fuel flow and engine speed for operation near a steady-state operating condition can be written. The coefficients of this equation can be obtained either from actual transient data or, with a fair degree of accuracy, from the steady-state performance maps of the compressor and turbine, and can be corrected for altitude in the same manner that steady-state performance data are corrected.

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### Dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads

**Date:**January 1, 1953

**Creator:**Gold, Harold; Otto, Edward W & Ransom, Victor L

**Description:**An analysis of the dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads is developed and experimental verification is presented. The analysis, which is developed in terms of two physical parameters, yields direct expressions for the following dynamic responses: (1) the transient response to a step input and the maximum cylinder pressure during the transient and (2) the variation of amplitude attenuation and phase shift with the frequency of a sinusoidally varying input. The validity of the analysis is demonstrated by means of recorded transient and frequency responses obtained on two servomotors. The calculated responses are in close agreement with the measured responses. The relations presented are readily applicable to the design as well as to the analysis of hydraulic servomotors.

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### Cloud-droplet ingestion in engine inlets with inlet velocity ratios of 1.0 and 0.7

**Date:**January 1, 1957

**Creator:**Brun, Rinaldo J

**Description:**The paths of cloud droplets into two engine inlets have been calculated for a wide range of meteorological and flight conditions. The amount of water in droplet form ingested by the inlets and the amount and distribution of water impinging on the inlet walls are obtained from these droplet-trajectory calculations. In both types of inlet, a prolate ellipsoid of revolution represents either part or all of the forebody at the center of an annular inlet to an engine. The configurations can also represent a fuselage of an airplane with side ram-scoop inlets. The studies were made at an angle of attack of 0 degree. The principal difference between the two inlets studied is that the inlet-air velocity of one is 0.7 that of the other. The studies of the two velocity ratios lead to some important general concepts of water ingestion in inlets.

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### The effect of increased cooling surface on performance of aircraft-engine cylinders as shown by tests of the NACA cylinder

**Date:**January 1, 1944

**Creator:**Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Verne G & Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

**Description:**A method of constructing fins of nearly optimum proportions has been developed by the NACA to the point where a cylinder has been manufactured and tested. Data were obtained on cylinder temperature for a wide range of inlet-manifold pressures, engine speeds, and cooling-pressure differences.

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### Effect of initial mixture temperature on flame speed of methane-air, propane-air, and ethylene-air mixtures

**Date:**January 1, 1952

**Creator:**Dugger, Gordon L

**Description:**Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene. Empirical equations were determined for maximum flame speed as a function of initial temperature over the temperature range covered for each fuel. The observed effect of temperature on flame speed for each of the fuels was reasonably well predicted by either the thermal theory as presented by Semenov or the square-root law of Tanford and Pease.

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### Calculations of economy of 18-cylinder radial aircraft engine with exhaust-gas turbine geared to the crankshaft

**Date:**January 1, 1945

**Creator:**Hannum, Richard W & Zimmerman, Richard H

**Description:**Calculations based on dynamometer test-stand data obtained on an 18-cylinder radial engine were made to determine the improvement in fuel consumption that can be obtained at various altitudes by gearing an exhaust-gas turbine to the engine crankshaft in order to increase the engine-shaft work.

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### Determination of stresses in gas-turbine disks subjected to plastic flow and creep

**Date:**January 1, 1948

**Creator:**Millenson, M B & Manson, S S

**Description:**A finite-difference method previously presented for computing elastic stresses in rotating disks is extended to include the computation of the disk stresses when plastic flow and creep are considered. A finite-difference method is employed to eliminate numerical integration and to permit nontechnical personnel to make the calculations with a minimum of engineering supervision. Illustrative examples are included to facilitate explanation of the procedure by carrying out the computations on a typical gas-turbine disk through a complete running cycle. The results of the numerical examples presented indicate that plastic flow markedly alters the elastic-stress distribution.

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### Diffusion of chromium in alpha cobalt-chromium solid solutions

**Date:**January 1, 1951

**Creator:**Weeton, John W

**Description:**Diffusion of chromium in cobalt-chromium solid solutions was investigated in the range 0 to 40 atomic percent at temperatures of 1360 degrees, 1300 degrees, 1150 degrees, and 10000 degrees c. The diffusion coefficients were found to be relatively constant within the composition range covered by each specimen. The activation heat of diffusion was determined to be 63,000 calories per mole. This value agrees closely with the value of 63,400 calories per mole calculated by means of the Dushman-Langmuir equation.

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### Constant-pressure combustion charts including effects of diluent addition

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Turner, L Richard & Bogart, Donald

**Description:**Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

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### Convection of a pattern of vorticity through a shock wave

**Date:**January 1, 1954

**Creator:**Ribner, H S

**Description:**An arbitrary weak spatial distribution of vorticity can be represented in terms of plane sinusoidal shear waves of all orientations and wave lengths (Fourier integral). The analysis treats the passage of a single representative weak shear wave through a plane shock and shows refraction and modification of the shear wave with simultaneous generation of an acoustically intense sound wave. Applications to turbulence and to noise in supersonic wind tunnels are indicated.

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### Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks

**Date:**January 1, 1947

**Creator:**Manson, S S

**Description:**A method is presented for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. The method is essentially a finite-difference solution of the equilibrium and compatibility equations for elastic stresses in a symmetrical disk. Account can be taken of point-to-point variations in disk thickness, in temperature, in elastic modulus, in coefficient of thermal expansion, in material density, and in Poisson's ratio. No numerical integration or trial-and-error procedures are involved and the computations can be performed in rapid and routine fashion by nontechnical computers with little engineering supervision. Checks on problems for which exact mathematical solutions are known indicate that the method yields results of high accuracy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the manner of treating solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed either of a single material or two or more welded materials. The effect of shrink fitting is taken into account by a very simple device.

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### Effect of centrifugal force on the elastic curve of a vibrating cantilever beam

**Date:**January 1, 1948

**Creator:**Simpkinson, Scott H; Eatherton, Laurel J & Millenson, Morton B

**Description:**A study was made to determine the effect of rotation on the dynamic-stress distribution in vibrating cantilever beams. The results of a mathematical analysis are presented together with experimental results obtained by means of stroboscopic photographs and strain gages. The theoretical analysis was confined to uniform cantilever beams; the experimental work was extended to include a tapered cantilever beam to simulate an aircraft propeller blade. Calculations were made on nondimensional basis for second and third mode vibration; the experiments were conducted on beams of various lengths, materials, and cross sections for second-mode vibration. From this investigation it was concluded that high vibratory-stress positions are unaffected by the addition of centrifugal force. Nonrotating vibration surveys of blades therefore are valuable in predicting high vibratory-stress locations under operating conditions.

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### Discussion of boundary-layer characteristics near the wall of an axial-flow compressor

**Date:**January 1, 1952

**Creator:**Mager, Artur; Mohoney, John J & Budinger, Ray E

**Description:**The boundary-layer velocity profiles in the tip region of an axial-flow compressor downstream of the guide vanes and downstream of the rotor were measured by use of total-pressure and claw-type yaw probes. These velocities were resolved into two components: one along the streamline of the flow outside the boundary layer, and the other perpendicular to it. The affinity among all profiles was thus demonstrated with the boundary-layer thickness and the deflection of the boundary layer at the wall as the generalizing parameters. By use of these results and the momentum-integral equations, boundary-layer characteristics on the walls of an axial-flow compressor were qualitatively evaluated.

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### Displacement effect of a three-dimensional boundary layer

**Date:**January 1, 1953

**Creator:**Moore, Franklin K

**Description:**A method is described for determining the "displacement surface" of known three-dimensional compressible boundary-layer flow in terms of the mass-flow defects associated with the profiles of the two velocity components parallel to the surface. The result is a generalization of the plane flow concept of displacement thickness introduced in order to describe how a thin boundary layer distorts the outer nonviscous flow. Numerical values are found for the known three-dimensional boundary-layer flow about a cone at a small angle of attack to a supersonic stream.

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### Direct method of design and stress analysis of rotating disks with temperature gradient

**Date:**January 1, 1950

**Creator:**Manson, S S

**Description:**A method is presented for the determination of the contour of disks, typified by those of aircraft gas turbines, to incorporate arbitrary elastic-stress distributions resulting from either centrifugal or combined centrifugal and thermal effects. The specified stress may be radial, tangential, or any combination of the two. Use is made of the finite-difference approach in solving the stress equations, the amount of computation necessary in the evolution of a design being greatly reduced by the judicious selection of point stations by the aid of a design chart. Use of the charts and of a preselected schedule of point stations is also applied to the direct problem of finding the elastic and plastic stress distribution in disks of a given design, thereby effecting a great reduction in the amount of calculation. Illustrative examples are presented to show computational procedures in the determination of a new design and in analyzing an existing design for elastic stress and for stresses resulting from plastic flow.

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### Dislocation theory of the fatigue of metals

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Machlin, E S

**Description:**A dislocation theory of fatigue failure for annealed solid solutions is presented. On the basis of this theory, an equation giving the dependence of the number of cycles for failure on the stress, the temperature, the material parameters, and the frequency is derived for uniformly stressed specimens. The equation is in quantitative agreement with the data. Inasmuch as one material parameter is indicated to be temperature-dependent and its temperature dependence is unknown, it is impossible to predict the temperature dependence of the number of cycles for failure. A predicted quantitative correlation between fatigue and creep was found to exist, which suggests the practical possibility of obtaining fatigue data for annealed solid solutions and elements from steady-state creep-rate data for these materials. As a result of this investigation, a modification of the equation for the steady-state creep rate previously developed on the basis of the dislocation theory is suggested. Additional data are required to verify completely the dislocation theory of fatigue.

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### Correlation of cylinder-head temperatures and coolant heat rejections of a multicylinder, liquid-cooled engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Lundin, Bruce T; Povolny, John H & Chelko, Louis J

**Description:**Data obtained from an extensive investigation of the cooling characteristics of four multicylinder, liquid-cooled engines have been analyzed and a correlation of both the cylinder-head temperatures and the coolant heat rejections with the primary engine and coolant variables was obtained. The method of correlation was previously developed by the NACA from an analysis of the cooling processes involved in a liquid-cooled-engine cylinder and is based on the theory of nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer. The data correlated included engine power outputs from 275 to 1860 brake horsepower; coolant flows from 50 to 320 gallons per minute; coolants varying in composition from 100 percent water to 97 percent ethylene glycol and 3 percent water; and ranges of engine speed, manifold pressure, carburetor-air temperature, fuel-air ratio, exhaust-gas pressure, ignition timing, and coolant temperature. The effect on engine cooling of scale formation on the coolant passages of the engine and of boiling of the coolant under various operating conditions is also discussed.

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### Correlation of exhaust-valve temperatures with engine operating conditions and valve design in an air-cooled cylinder

**Date:**January 1, 1945

**Creator:**Zipkin, M A & Sanders, J C

**Description:**A semiempirical equation correlating exhaust-valve temperatures with engine operating conditions and exhaust-valve design has been developed. The correlation is based on the theory correlating engine and cooling variables developed in a previous NACA report. In addition to the parameters ordinarily used in the correlating equation, a term is included in the equation that is a measure of the resistance of the complex heat-flow paths between the crown of the exhaust valve and a point on the outside surface of the cylinder head. A means for comparing exhaust valves of different designs with respect to cooling is consequently provided. The necessary empirical constants included in the equation were determined from engine investigations of a large air-cooled cylinder. Tests of several valve designs showed that the calculated and experimentally determined exhaust-valve temperatures were in good agreement.

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### Correlation of physical properties with molecular structure for some dicyclic hydrocarbons having high thermal-energy release per unit volume

**Date:**January 1, 1951

**Creator:**Wise, P H; Serijan, K T & Goodman, I A

**Description:**As part of a program to study the correlation between molecular structure and physical properties of high-density hydrocarbons, the net heats of combustion, melting points, boiling points, densities, and kinematic viscosities of some hydrocarbons in the 2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 1,1-diphenylalkane, diphenylalkane, 1,1-dicyclohexylalkane, and dicyclohexylalkane series are presented.

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### Correlation of physical properties with molecular structure for some dicyclic hydrocarbons having high thermal-energy release per unit volume -- 2-alkylbiphenyl and the two isomeric 2-alkylbicyclohexyl series

**Date:**January 1, 1952

**Creator:**Goodman, Irving A & Wise, Paul H

**Description:**Three homologous series of related dicyclic hydrocarbons are presented for comparison on the basis of their physical properties, which include net heat of combustion, density, melting point, boiling point, and kinematic viscosity. The three series investigated include the 2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 2-n-alkylbicyclohexyl (high boiling), and 2-n-alkylbiphenyls (low boiling) series through c sub 16, in addition to three branched-chain (isopropyl, sec-butyl, and isobutyl) 2-alkylbiphenyls and their corresponding 2-alkylbicyclohexyls. The physical properties of the low-boiling and high-boiling isomers of 2-sec-butylbicyclohexyl and 2-isobutylbicyclohexyl are reported herein for the first time.

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### Effect of combustor-inlet conditions on performance of an annular turbojet combustor

**Date:**January 1, 1947

**Creator:**Childs, J Howard; Mccafferty, Richard J & Surine, Oakley W

**Description:**The combustion performance, and particularly the phenomenon of altitude operational limits, was studied by operating the annular combustor of a turbojet engine over a range of conditions of air flow, inlet pressure, inlet temperature, and fuel flow. Information was obtained on the combustion efficiencies, the effect on combustion of inlet variables, the altitude operational limits with two different fuels, the pressure losses in the combustor, the temperature and velocity profiles at the combustor outlet, the extent of afterburning, the fuel-injection characteristics, and the condition of the combustor basket.

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### Effect of chord size on weight and cooling characteristics of air-cooled turbine blades

**Date:**January 1, 1958

**Creator:**Esgar, Jack B; Schum, Eugene F & Curren, Arthur N

**Description:**An analysis has been made to determine the effect of chord size on the weight and cooling characteristics of shell-supported, air-cooled gas-turbine blades. In uncooled turbines with solid blades, the general practice has been to design turbines with high aspect ratio (small blade chord) to achieve substantial turbine weight reduction. With air-cooled blades, this study shows that turbine blade weight is affected to a much smaller degree by the size of the blade chord.

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### Effects of temperature distribution and elastic properties of materials on gas-turbine-disk stresses

**Date:**January 1, 1947

**Creator:**Holms, Arthur G & Faldetta, Richard D

**Description:**Calculations were made to determine the influence of changes in temperature distribution and in elastic material properties on calculated elastic stresses for a typical gas-turbine disk. Severe temperature gradients caused thermal stresses of sufficient magnitude to reduce the operating safety of the disk. Small temperature gradients were found to be desirable because they produced thermal stresses that subtracted from the centrifugal stresses in the region of the rim. The thermal gradients produced a tendency for a severe stress condition to exist near the rim but this stress condition could be shifted away from the region of blade attachment by altering the temperature distribution. The investigation of elastic material properties showed that centrifugal stresses are slightly affected by changes in modulus of elasticity, but that thermal stresses are approximately proportional to modulus of elasticity and to coefficient of thermal expansion.

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### Effect of fuel variables on carbon formation in turbojet-engine combustors

**Date:**January 1, 1958

**Creator:**Jonash, Edmund R; Wear, Jerrold D & Cook, William P

**Description:**Report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of fuel properties and of a number of fuel additives on combustion-chamber carbon deposition and exhaust-gas smoke formation in a single tubular turbojet-engine combustor. Limited tests were conducted with a number of the fuels in several full-scale turbojet engines to verify single-combustor data.

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