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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Special Report
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report

Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report

Date: October 1, 1940
Creator: Biermann, David
Description: Wind-tunnel tests of several propeller, cuff, and spinner combinations were conducted in the 20 foot propeller-research tunnel. Three propellers, which ranged in diameter from 8.4 to 11.25 feet, were tested at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners of two diameters. The tests covered a blade angle range from 20 deg to 65 deg. The effect of spinner diameter and propeller cuffs on the characteristics of one propeller was determined. Test were also conducted using a propeller which incorporated aerodynamically good shank sections and using one which incorporated the NACA 16 series sections for the outer 20 percent of the blades. Compressibility effects were not measured, owing to the low testing speeds. The results indicated that a conventional propeller was slightly more efficient when tested in conjunction with a 28 inch diameter spinner than with a 23 inch spinner, and that cuffs increased the efficiency as well as the power absorption characteristics. A propeller having good aerodynamic shanks was found to be definitely superior from the efficiency standpoint to a conventional round-shank propeller with or without cuffs; this propeller would probably be considered structurally impracticable, however. The propeller incorporating the NACA 16 series sections at the tims were ...
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Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wing-Cooling Ducts Effects of Propeller Slipstream, Special Report

Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wing-Cooling Ducts Effects of Propeller Slipstream, Special Report

Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Nickle, F. R.
Description: The safety of remotely operated vehicles depends on the correctness of the distributed protocol that facilitates the communication between the vehicle and the operator. A failure in this communication can result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. To complicate matters, the communication system may be required to satisfy several, possibly conflicting, requirements. The design of protocols is typically an informal process based on successive iterations of a prototype implementation. Yet distributed protocols are notoriously difficult to get correct using such informal techniques. We present a formal specification of the design of a distributed protocol intended for use in a remotely operated vehicle, which is built from the composition of several simpler protocols. We demonstrate proof strategies that allow us to prove properties of each component protocol individually while ensuring that the property is preserved in the composition forming the entire system. Given that designs are likely to evolve as additional requirements emerge, we show how we have automated most of the repetitive proof steps to enable verification of rapidly changing designs.
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Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wing Cooling Ducts, Special Report

Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wing Cooling Ducts, Special Report

Date: October 1, 1938
Creator: Nickle, F. R.
Description: The systematic investigation of wing cooling ducts at the NACA laboratory has been continued with tests in the full-scale wind tunnel on ducts of finite span. These results extend the previous investigation on section characteristics of ducts to higher Reynolds numbers and indicate the losses due to the duct ends. The data include comparisons between ducts completely within the ring and the conventional underslung ducts. Methods of flow regulation were studied and data were obtained for a wide range of internal duct resistance. The results show satisfactory correlation between the finite span and the previously measured section characteristics obtained with full-span ducts. The effects of the various design parameters on the duct characteristics are discussed. The cooling power required for the internal duct installation is shown to be only a small percentage of the engine power.
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High-Speed Tests of a Model Twin-Engine Low-Wing Transport Airplane

High-Speed Tests of a Model Twin-Engine Low-Wing Transport Airplane

Date: April 1, 1940
Creator: Becker, John V. & Leonard, Lloyd H.
Description: Force tests were made of a 1/8-scale model of a twin-engine low-wing transport airplane in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to investigate compressibility and interference effects at speeds up to 450 miles per hour. In addition to tests of the standard arrangement of the model tests were made with several modifications designed to reduce the drag and to increase the critical speed. The results show serious increases in drag at critical speeds below 450 miles per hour due to the occurrence of compressibility burbles on the standard radial-engine cowlings, on sections of the wing as a result of wing-nacelle interference, and on the semi-retracted main landing wheels. The critical speed at which the shock occurred on the standard cowlings was 20 miles per hour lower in the presence of the fuselage than in the presence of the wing only. The drag of the complete model was reduced 25% at 300 miles per hour by completely retracting the landing gear, fairing the windshield irregularities, and substituting streamline nacelles (with allowance made for the proper amount of cooling-air flow) for the standard nacelle arrangement. The values of the critical Mach number were extended from 0.47 to 0.60 as a result of ...
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High-Speed Tests of Radial-Engine Cowlings

High-Speed Tests of Radial-Engine Cowlings

Date: April 1, 1939
Creator: Robinson, Russell G.
Description: The drag characteristics of eight radial-engine cowlings have been determined over a wide speed range in the N.A.C.A. 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. The pressure distribution over all cowlings was measured, to and above the speed of the compressibility burble, as an aid in interpreting the force tests. One-fifth-scale models of radial-engine cowlings on a wing-nacelle combination mere used in the tests.
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Ice Prevention on Aircraft by Means of Impregnated Leather Covers, Special Report

Ice Prevention on Aircraft by Means of Impregnated Leather Covers, Special Report

Date: August 1, 1935
Creator: Clay, William C.
Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is testing the effectiveness of a method to prevent the formation of ice on airplanes. The system makes use of a leather cover that is attached to the leading edge of the wing. A small tube, attached to the inner surface of the leather, distributes to the leading edge a solution that permeates throughout the leather and inhibits the formation of ice on the surface. About 25 pounds of the liquid per hour would be sufficient to prevent ice from forming on a wing of 50-foot span. The additional gross weight of the system will not be excessive. The tests are not yet completed but the method is thought to be practicable for the wing and it may also be adaptable to the propeller.
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Intercooler Design for Aircraft, Special Report

Intercooler Design for Aircraft, Special Report

Date: September 1, 1939
Creator: Brevoort, M. J.
Description: When an airplane is operating at high altitude, it is necessary to use a supercharger to maintain ground pressure at the carburetor inlet. This maintenance and high intake-manifold pressure tends to keep the power output of the engine at ground-level value. The air, being compressed by the supercharger, however, is heated by adiabatic compression and friction to a temperature that seriously affect the performance of the engine. It is thus necessary to use an intercooler to reduce the temperature of the air between the supercharger outlet and the carburetor inlet. The amount of cooling required of the intercooler depend on the efficiency of the supercharger installation. In this investigation, several types of intercoolers were compared and a design procedure that will give the best intercooler for a given set of conditions is indicated. The figure of merit used for the selection of the best design was the total power consumed by the intercooler. This value includes the power required to transport the weight of the intercooler as well as the power used to force the charge air and the cooling air through the intercooler. The cost, size and practicality of construction were not considered, inasmuch as it was thought that ...
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Interference of Tail Surfaces and Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 17 Combinations in the N.A.C.A. Variable-Density Tunnel

Interference of Tail Surfaces and Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 17 Combinations in the N.A.C.A. Variable-Density Tunnel

Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Sherman, Albert
Description: An investigation of the interference associated with tail surfaces added to wing-fuselage combinations was included in the interference program in progress in the NACA variable-density tunnel. The results indicate that, in aerodynamically clean combinations, the increment to the high-speed drag can be estimated from section characteristics within useful limits of accuracy. The interference appears mainly as effects on the downwash angel and as losses in the tail. An interference burble, which markedly increases the glide-path angle and the stability in pitch before the actual stall, may be considered a means of obtaining satisfactory stalling characteristics for a complete combination.
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Investigation in the 7-By-10 Foot Wind Tunnel of Ducts for Cooling Radiators Within an Airplane Wing, Special Report

Investigation in the 7-By-10 Foot Wind Tunnel of Ducts for Cooling Radiators Within an Airplane Wing, Special Report

Date: July 1, 1938
Creator: Harris, Thomas A.
Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord wing model with a duct to house a simulated radiator suitable for a liquid-cooled engine. The duct was expanded to reduce the radiator losses, and the installation of the duct and radiator was made entirely within the wing to reduce form and interference drag. The tests were made using a two-dimensional flow set-up with a full-span duct and radiator. Section aerodynamic characteristics of the basic airfoil are given and also curves showing the characteristics of the various duct-radiator combinations. An expression for efficiency, the primary criterion of merit of any duct, and the effect of the several design parameters of the duct-radiator arrangement are discussed. The problem of throttling is considered and a discussion of the power required for cooling is included. It was found that radiators could be mounted in the wing and efficiently pass enough air for cooling with duct outlets located at any point from 0.25c to 0.70c from the wing leading edge on the upper surface. The duct-inlet position was found to be critical and, for maximum efficiency, had to be at the stagnation point of the airfoil and to change ...
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Investigation of an Electrically Heated Airplane Windshield for Ice Prevention, Special Report

Investigation of an Electrically Heated Airplane Windshield for Ice Prevention, Special Report

Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A.
Description: A study was made at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Laboratory of the operation of an electrically heated glass panel, which simulated a segment of an airplane windshield, to determine if ice formations, which usually result in the loss of visibility, could be prevented. Tests were made in the 7- by 3-foot ice tunnel, and in flight, under artificially created ice-forming conditions. Ice was prevented from forming on the windshield model in the tunnel by 1.25 watts of power per square inch with the air temperature at 23 F and a velocity of 80 miles per hour. Using an improved model in flight, ice was prevented by 1.43 watts of power per square inch of protected area and 2 watts per inch concentrated in the rim, with the air temperature at 26 F and a velocity of 120 miles per hour. The removal of a preformed ice cap was effected to a limited extent in the tunnel by the use of 1.89 watts of power per square inch when the temperature and velocity were 25 F and 80 miles per hour, respectively. The results indicate that service tests with an improved design are justified.
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