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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Special Report
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds, 1, Rivets and Spot Welds

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds, 1, Rivets and Spot Welds

Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Hood, Manley J.
Description: Tests have been conducted in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to determine the effect of exposed rivet heads and spot welds on wing drag. Most of the tests were made with an airfoil of 5-foot chord. The air speed was varied from 80 to 500 miles per hour and the lift coefficient from 0 to 0.30. The increases in the drag of the 5-foot airfoil varied from 6%, due to countersunk rivets, to 27%, due to 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets, with the rivets in a representative arrangement. The drag increases caused by protruding rivet heads were roughly proportional to the height of the heads. With the front row of rivets well forward, changes in spanwise pitch had negligible effects on drag unless the pitch was more than 2.5% of the chord. Data are presented for evaluating the drag reduction attained by removing rivets from the forward part of the wing surface; for example, it is shown that over 70% of the rivet drag is caused by the rivets on the forward 30% of the airfoil in a typical case.
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Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders

Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders

Date: December 1, 1931
Creator: Cassens, J.
Description: This paper presents a series of tables for the simple and more common types of girders, similar to the tables given in handbooks under the heading "Strength of Materials," for determining the moments, deflections, etc., of simple beams. Instead of the uniform cross section there assumed, the formulas given here apply only to girders of "uniform strength," i.e., it is assumed that a girder is so dimensioned that a given load subjects it to a uniform stress throughout its whole length. This principle is particularly applicable to very strong structures. Girders of uniform strength are the lightest girders conceivable, because any girder, all of whose members are stressed to the limit, can not be surpassed by a lighter girder, if the two girders have the same form. The weight G of a member of length l, cross section F and specific gravity gamma is: G = Flgamma.
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Relative Efficiencies and Design Charts for Various Engine-Propeller Combinations, Special Report

Relative Efficiencies and Design Charts for Various Engine-Propeller Combinations, Special Report

Date: September 1, 1936
Creator: Biermann, David
Description: The relative efficiencies of various engine-propeller combinations were the subject of a study that covered the important flight conditions, particularly the take-off. Design charts that graphically correlate the various propeller parameters were prepared to facilitate the solution of problems and also to c1arify the conception of the relationships of the various engine-propeller design factors. It is shown that, among the many methods for improving the take-off thrust, the use of high-pitch, large-diameter controllable propellers turning at low rotational speeds is probably the most generally promising. With such a combination the take-off thrust may be further increased, at the expense of a small loss in cruising efficiency, by compromise designs wherein the pitch setting is slightly reduced and the diameter is further increased. The degree of compromise necessary to accomplish the maximum possible take-off improvement depends on such design factors as overspeeding and overboosting at take-off as well as depending on the design altitude. Both overspeeding and designing for altitude operation have the same effect on the take-off thrust as compromising in that the propulsive efficiency is increased thereby; boosting the engine, however, has the reverse effect on the propulsive efficiency, although the brake horsepower is increased.
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Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Bruggeman, Wm. C. & Roop, Frederick C.
Description: The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, 'dimpled' joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomacrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.
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Performance Characteristics of an Aircraft Engine with Exhaust Turbine Supercharger, Special Report

Performance Characteristics of an Aircraft Engine with Exhaust Turbine Supercharger, Special Report

Date: May 1, 1941
Creator: Lester, E. M. & Paulson, V. A.
Description: The Pratt and Whitney Aircraft company and the Naval Aircraft Factory of the United States Navy cooperated in a laboratory and flight program of tests on an exhaust turbine supercharger. Two series of dynamometer tests of the engine super-charger combination were completed under simulated altitude conditions. One series of hot gas-chamber tests was conducted by the manufacturer of the supercharger. Flight demonstrations of the supercharger installed in a twin-engine flying boat were terminated by failure of the turbine wheels. The analysis of the results indicated that a two-stage supercharger with the first-stage exhaust turbine driven will deliver rated power for a given indicated power to a higher altitude, will operate more efficiently, and will require simpler controls than a similar engine with the first stage of the supercharger driven from the crankshaft through multispeed gears.
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The Effect of Various Wing-Gun Installations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Model Equipped with an NACA Low-Drag Wing, Special Report

The Effect of Various Wing-Gun Installations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Model Equipped with an NACA Low-Drag Wing, Special Report

Date: July 1, 1941
Creator: Muse, Thomas C.
Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of various win-gun installation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a model with an NACA low-drag wing. Measurements were made of lift and drag over an angle-of-attack range and for several values of dynamic pressure on a four-tenths scale model of a high-speed airplane equipped with the low-drag wing and with various wing-gun installations. Two installations were tested: one in which the blast tube and part of the gun barrel protrude ahead of the wing and another in which the guns is mounted wholly within the wing. Two types of openings for the latter installation were tested. For each installation three simulated guns were mounted in each wing. The results are given in the form of nondimensional coefficients. The installations tested appear to have little effect on the maximum-lift coefficient of the model. However, the drag coefficient shows a definite change. The least adverse effect was obtained with the completely internal mounting and small nose entrance. The results indicate that a properly designed wing-gun installation will have very little adverse effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the low-drag wing.
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Effects of Direction of Propeller Rotation on the Longitudinal Stability of the 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XB-28 Airplane with Flaps Neutral, Special Report

Effects of Direction of Propeller Rotation on the Longitudinal Stability of the 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XB-28 Airplane with Flaps Neutral, Special Report

Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Delany, Noel K.
Description: The effects of direction of propeller rotation on factors affecting the longitudinal stability of the XB-28 airplane were measured on a 1/10-scale model in the 7- by 10-foot tunnel of the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The main effect observed was that caused by regions of high downwash behind the nacelles (power off as well as power on with flaps neutral). The optimum direction of propeller rotation, both propellers rotating up toward the fuselage, shifted this region off the horizontal tail and thus removed its destabilizing effect. Rotating both propellers downward toward the fuselage moved it inboard on the tail and accentuated the effect, while rotating both propellers right hand had an intermediate result. Comparisons are made of the tail effects as measured by force tests with those predicted from the point-by-point downwash and velocity surveys in the region of the tail. These surveys in turn are compared with the results predicted from available theory.
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Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 66,2-216 Low-Drag Wing with Split Flaps of Various Sizes, Special Report

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 66,2-216 Low-Drag Wing with Split Flaps of Various Sizes, Special Report

Date: September 1, 1941
Creator: Muse, Thomas C. & Neely, Robert H.
Description: An investigation was conducted in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel of a rectangular wing having NACA 66, 2-216 low-drag airfoil sections and various sizes of simple split flaps. The purpose of the investigation was, primarily, to determine the influence of these flap installations on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing. Complete lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics were determined for a range of test Reynolds numbers from about 2,600,000 to 4,600,000 for each of the installations and for the plain wing. The results of this investigation indicate that values of maximum lift coefficient similar to those of wings with conventional airfoil sections and split flaps can be expected of wings having the NACA 66,2-216 low-drag sections. The increment of maximum lift due to the split flap was found to be practically independent of the Reynolds number over the range investigated. The optimum split flap on the basis of maximum lift appears to have a chord about 20% of the wing chord and a deflection of 60 degrees. The C(sub L) max of the wing with the 0.20c partial-span flap deflected 60 degrees is 2.07 at a Reynolds number of 4,600,000 while with the full-span flap it is approximately 2.53; the ...
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Study of Turning Performance of a Fighter-Type Airplane Particularly as Affected by Flaps and Increased Supercharging, Special Report

Study of Turning Performance of a Fighter-Type Airplane Particularly as Affected by Flaps and Increased Supercharging, Special Report

Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Wetmore, J. W.
Description: Results of a study to determine the effects on turning performance due to various assumed modifications to a typical Naval fighter airplane are presented. The modifications considered included flaps of various types, both part and full space, increased supercharging, and increased wing loading. The calculations indicated that near the low-speed end of the speed range, the turning performance, as defined by steady level turns at a given speed, would be improved to some extent by any of the flaps considered at altitudes up to about 25,000 feet. (If turning is not restricted to the conditions of no loss of speed or altitude, more rapid turning can, of course, be accomplished with the aid of flaps, regardless of altitude.) Fowler flaps and NACA slotted flaps appeared somewhat superior to split or perforated split flaps for maneuvering purposes, particularly if the flap position is not adjustable. Similarly, better turning performance should be realized with full-span than with part-span flaps. Turning performance over the lower half of the speed range would probably not be materially improved at any altitude by increased supercharging of the engine unless the propeller were redesigned to absorb the added power more effectively; with a suitable propeller the turning ...
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Tests of Wing Machine-Gun and Cannon Installations in the NACA Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Tests of Wing Machine-Gun and Cannon Installations in the NACA Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Date: August 1, 1941
Creator: Czarnecki, K. R. & Guryansky, Eugene R.
Description: At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, an investigation was conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel of wing installations of .50-caliber machine guns and 20-millimeter cannons. The tests were made to determine the effect of various gun installations on the maximum lift and the high-speed drag of the airplane.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department