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 Serial/Series Title: Background paper
 Collection: Office of Technology Assessment
Electronic delivery of public assistance benefits: technology options and policy issues

Electronic delivery of public assistance benefits: technology options and policy issues

Date: April 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper discusses the technological options available for use in an electronic system to deliver public assistance benefits, the privacy and security implications of such a system, and the programmatic effects of changing to an electronic delivery system. It was requested by the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electronic Surveillance in a Digital Age

Electronic Surveillance in a Digital Age

Date: July 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper reviews the progress of the industry and the law enforcement agencies in implementing the Act since its approval in October 1994.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Use and the U.S. Economy

Energy Use and the U.S. Economy

Date: June 1990
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: The background paper extends the analysis of energy use into new areas by explicitly looking at how energy use has changed with the expansion of the service sector, the explosion of international trade, and greater complexity of the U.S. economy as the structure of businesses changed in response to new technologies and competitive challenges. The increasing sophistication of the U.S. economy means that the role of energy is less likely to be directly identified and is instead more likely to be an indirect factor that was added many steps before in the complex network that connects producer to consumer. This report explicitly separates direct from indirect energy use.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The FBI Fingerprint Identification Automation Program: Issues and Options

The FBI Fingerprint Identification Automation Program: Issues and Options

Date: November 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This report focuses on key assumptions that will affect the sizing and procurement of the new FBI system, and on other related steps that appear necessary to ensure complete and up-to-date record systems. These include full implementation of a Federal/State/local partnership for maintaining and exchanging fingerprint and criminal history records; enactment of an interstate compact or Federal legislation setting out uniform rules for the exchange of such records; standards and funding for improving criminal history record completeness and disposition reporting; and privacy and security protections for electronic fingerprint and record information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal and Private Roles in the Development and Provision of Alglucerase Therapy for Gaucher Disease

Federal and Private Roles in the Development and Provision of Alglucerase Therapy for Gaucher Disease

Date: October 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper describes the development of alglucerase, illustrates the role that both the Federal Government and private sector can have in making new therapies available for orphan diseases, and lays out some of the tradeoffs that can exist between developing new medical technologies and controlling health care costs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Technology Transfer and the Human Genome Project

Federal Technology Transfer and the Human Genome Project

Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This report analyzes universities’, companies’, and researchers’ experiences and perspectives since enactment of federal laws to enhance technology transfer—especially as it pertains to research funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy, the agencies funding U.S. efforts in the Human Genome Project.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Fusion Energy Program: The Role of TPX and Alternate Concepts

The Fusion Energy Program: The Role of TPX and Alternate Concepts

Date: unknown
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This report focuses on the following two questions for the U.S. fusion energy program. First, what is the role of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), an approximately $700 million fusion reactor currently awaiting a congressional decision to begin construction? Second, what is the role of alternatives to the tokamak concept in a broad-based fusion energy program?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Genetic Counseling and Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Screening: Results of a Survey

Genetic Counseling and Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Screening: Results of a Survey

Date: October 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This paper presents results from a 1991 OTA survey of 431 genetic counselors and nurse geneticists. It was conducted to better understand the environment in which the average genetic counselor or nurse in genetics works, to describe the infrastructure and tools available to these professionals, to assess the state of practice in the provision of cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening, and to evaluate their attitudes regarding CF carrier screening.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Genetic Tests and Health Insurance: Results of a Survey

Genetic Tests and Health Insurance: Results of a Survey

Date: October 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper describes results from a 1991 OTA survey of U.S. health insurers’ attitudes toward genetic tests and genetic information— both how they currently view information from various sources (e.g., genetic tests, other medical tests, or family histories) in underwriting decisions and how they might reimburse consumers for genetic tests. It also reports data on the role health insurers expect genetic tests and genetic information will play in their business practices over the coming decade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid

Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid

Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This report examines the question of how telecommunication related aid policies might be designed to support both United States trade and foreign aid goals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hazards Ahead: Managing Cleanup Worker Health and Safety at the Nuclear Weapons Complex

Hazards Ahead: Managing Cleanup Worker Health and Safety at the Nuclear Weapons Complex

Date: February 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This paper concludes that, thus far, Department of Energy has (DOE) and its contractors have devoted little attention to cleanup worker health and safety. They have not convinced workers and managers that a “new culture” of accountability in environment, safety, and health is truly ascendent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries

Health Care Technology and Its Assessment in Eight Countries

Date: February 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This paper discusses the experiences of Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom—technology assessment with six technologies (or sets of technologies) including evaluation and management efforts and how the technologies diffused— are presented and compared.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
High Performance Computing and Networking for Science

High Performance Computing and Networking for Science

Date: September 1989
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper explores key issues concerning the Federal role in supporting national high performance computing facilities and in developing a national research and education network.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hip Fracture Outcomes in People Age 50 and Over

Hip Fracture Outcomes in People Age 50 and Over

Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper is one of four documents resulting from OTA’s study of policy issues in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A History of the Department of Defense Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

A History of the Department of Defense Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

Date: June 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: The focus of this paper is the history of Department of Defense (DoD) Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) over the past 50 years, which forms part of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) study of defense modeling and simulation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hospital Financing in Seven Countries

Hospital Financing in Seven Countries

Date: May 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This report discusses a seven-country study of hospital financing is an attempt to find lessons for the United States. The individual experiences over the past decade of the United States and six of its international peers—Canada, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden—in hospital financing and payment systems are reviewed by experts in each country.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Identifying and Controlling Immunotoxic Substances

Identifying and Controlling Immunotoxic Substances

Date: April 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper, which describes the state-of the- art of identifying substances that can harm the immune system, represents one response to the committee’s request. Chapter 2 provides basic information about the principal components of the immune system and the general consequences that stem from perturbations to it. Chapter 3 describes methods for evaluating chemical immunotoxicity and reports on some known or suspected immunotoxicants. Chapter 4 summarizes Federal research and regulatory activities related to immunotoxicity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Identifying and Controlling Pulmonary Toxicants

Identifying and Controlling Pulmonary Toxicants

Date: June 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This Background Paper examines whether the agencies responsible for administering Federal environmental and health and safety laws have taken this concern for respiratory health to heart. This paper provides a partial response to the committees’ request for an assessment of noncancer health risks in the environment and follows OTA’s previous work on carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and immunotoxic substances.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Impact of Legal Reforms on Medical Malpractice Costs

Impact of Legal Reforms on Medical Malpractice Costs

Date: September 1993
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This report discusses the indirect cost of medical malpractice, commonly referred to as “defensive medicine,” that may add to overall health care costs. The cost of defensive medicine remains unknown and is subject to much speculation because there are no sound empirical data.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Improving the Prospects for Future International Peace Operations: Workshop Proceedings

Improving the Prospects for Future International Peace Operations: Workshop Proceedings

Date: September 1995
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: In June 1995, OTA convened a workshop that brought together some of the world’s leading practitioners, academic experts, experienced diplomats, and leading technologists in order to study and discuss this issue. This report contains a summary of the results of the workshop, along with the original papers presented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Comparisons of Administrative Costs in Health Care

International Comparisons of Administrative Costs in Health Care

Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This paper examines what is known about administrative costs in the health care systems of the United States and several other countries. In addition to exploring the types of activities that constitute health care administration, it reviews studies that measure and compare these activities in different countries, and it explores the potential usefulness of such comparisons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States

International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States

Date: September 1994
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This paper reviews how the United States compares with other developed countries on available health status measures, evaluates the validity of the data used to make such comparisons, and describes how international comparisons might be interpreted in the context of health care reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Issues in Medical Waste Management

Issues in Medical Waste Management

Date: October 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: The paper examines the adequacy of current medical waste disposal practices and the potential for human health impacts to occur as a result of such practices. It also addresses the need for additional research and databases, and discusses probable trends in future costs and capacity as new regulations are adopted around the country. Finally, the paper considers the possible need for further Federal involvement in regulating the handling, treatment, storage, and disposal of medical wastes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Lessons in Restructuring Defense Industry: The French Experience

Lessons in Restructuring Defense Industry: The French Experience

Date: June 1992
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Description: This background paper first describes the structure and management of the French defense-industrial base and then reviews a variety of strategies the French Government and industry are pursuing to rationalize the base, while preserving key technological assets and strengthening the competitive position of French defense contractors in world markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department