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 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Activation of hydrocarbons and the octane number
This report presents an examination of the history of research on engine knocking and the various types of fuels used in the investigations of this phenomenon. According to this report, the spontaneous ignition of hydrocarbons doped with oxygen follows the logarithmic law within a certain temperature range, but not above 920 degrees K. Having extended the scope of investigations to prove hydrocarbons, the curves of the mixtures burned by air should then be established by progressive replacement of pure iso-octane with heptane. Pentane was also examined in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63233/
An active particle diffusion theory of flame quenching for laminar flames / Dorothy M. Simon and Frank E. Belles
An equation for quenching distance based on the destruction of chain carriers by the surface is derived. The equation expresses the quenching distance in terms of the diffusion coefficients and partial pressures of the chain carriers and gas phase molecules, the efficiency of the surface as a chain breaker, the total pressure of the mixture, and a constant which depends on the geometry of the quenching surface. Quenching distances measured by flashback for propane-air flames are shown to be consistent with the mechanism. The derived equation is used with the lean inflammability limit and a rate constant calculated from burning velocity data to estimate quenching distances for propane-air (hydrocarbon lean) flames satisfactorily. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc59077/
Adaptation of a Cascade Impactor to Flight Measurement of Droplet Size in Clouds
A cascade impactor, an instrument for obtaining: the size distribution of droplets borne in a low-velocity air stream, was adapted for flight cloud droplet-size studies. The air containing the droplets was slowed down from flight speed by a diffuser to the inlet-air velocity of the impactor. The droplets that enter the impactor impinge on four slides coated with magnesium oxide. Each slide catches a different size range. The relation between the size of droplet impressions and the droplet size was evaluated so that the droplet-size distributions may be found from these slides. The magnesium oxide coating provides a permanent record. of the droplet impression that is not affected by droplet evaporation after the. droplets have impinged. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53539/
Adaptation of aeronautical engines to high altitude flying
Issues and techniques relative to the adaptation of aircraft engines to high altitude flight are discussed. Covered here are the limits of engine output, modifications and characteristics of high altitude engines, the influence of air density on the proportions of fuel mixtures, methods of varying the proportions of fuel mixtures, the automatic prevention of fuel waste, and the design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying. Summary: 1. Limits of engine output. 2. High altitude engines. 3. Influence of air density on proportions of mixture. 4. Methods of varying proportions of mixture. 5. Automatic prevention of fuel waste. 6. Design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53936/
Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume 2, Combustion in Air-Breathing Jet Engines
This volume continues the NACA study of combustion principles for aircraft propulsion. The various aspects of combustion pertinent to jet engines are organized and interpreted with quite extensive information, particularly for basic or fundamental. subject matter. The report concerns only air-breathing engines and hydrocarbon fuels, and not rocket engines and high-energy fuels. Since the references have been selected to illustrate important points, the bibliographies, while thorough, are not complete. This volumes describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. These include combustor-inlet conditions; starting, acceleration, combustion limits, combustion efficiency, coke deposits, and smoke formation in turbojets; ram-jet performance; and afterburner performance and design. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63711/
Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion, Volume I, Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air
The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61037/
Adaptor for measuring principal strains with Tuckerman strain gage
An adapter is described which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc56629/
Addition of heat to a compressible fluid in motion
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62512/
Additional abstracts pertaining to seaplanes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53128/
Additional comparisons between computed and measured transonic drag-rise coefficients at zero lift for wing-body-tail configurations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61416/
Additional design charts relating to the stalling of tapered wings
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61269/
Additional experimental heat-transfer and durability data on several forced-convection, air-cooled, strut-supported turbine blades of improved design
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc60906/
Additional experiments with flat-top wing- body combinations at high supersonic speeds
Flat top wing body configuration effects on aerodynamic characteristics of supersonic aircraft. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53065/
Additional fatigue tests on effects of design details in 355-T6 sand-cast aluminum alloy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc59956/
Additional free-flight tests of the rolling effectiveness of several wing-spoiler arrangements at high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58001/
An additional investigation of the high-speed lateral-control characteristics of spoilers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc60955/
The additional-mass effect of plates as determined by experiments
The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66368/
Additional measurements of the low-speed static stability of a configuration employing three triangular wing panels and a body of equal length
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63845/
Additional power-on wind-tunnel tests of the 1/8-scale model of the Brewster F2A airplane with full-span slotted flaps
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62635/
Additional results in a free-flight investigation of control effectiveness of full-span, 0.2-chord plain ailerons at high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds to determine some effects of wing sweepback, aspect ratio, taper, and section thickne
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58183/
Additional results of an investigation at transonic speeds to determine the effects of a heated propulsive jet on the drag characteristics of a series of related afterbodies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62574/
Additional Results on the Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics of a 0.05-Scale Model of the Convair F2Y-1 Airplane at High Subsonic Speeds
Additional results on the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a 0.05-scale model of the Convair F2Y-1 water-based fighter airplane were obtained in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.92. The maximum angle-of-attack range (obtained at the lower Mach numbers) was from -2 degrees to 25 degrees. The sideslip-angle range investigated was from -4 degrees to 12 degrees. The investigation included effects of various arrangements of wing fences, leading-edge chord-extensions, and leading-edge notches. Various fuselage fences, spoilers, and a dive brake also were investigated. From overall considerations of lift, drag, and pitching moments, it appears that there were two modifications somewhat superior to any of the others investigated: One was a configuration that employed a full-chord fence and a partial-chord fence located at 0.63 semispan and 0.55 semispan, respectively. The second was a leading-edge chord-extension that extended from 0.68 semispan to 0.85 semispan in combination with a leading-edge notch located at 0.68 semispan. With plus or minus 10 degrees aileron, the estimated wing-tip helix angle was reduced from 0.125 at a Mach number of 0.50 to 0.088 at a Mach number of 0.92, with corresponding rates of roll of 4.0 and 5.2 radians per second. The upper aft fuselage dive brake, when deflected 30 degrees and 60 degrees, reduced the rudder effectiveness about 10 to 20 percent and about 35 to 50 percent, respectively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65304/
Additional static and fatigue tests of high-strength aluminum-alloy bolted joints
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc57279/
Additional Studies of the Stability and Controllability of an Unswept-Wing Vertically Rising Airplane Model in Hovering Flight Including Studies of Various Tethered Landing Techniques
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58981/
Additional test data on static longitudinal stability
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the influence of weights of the controls on the stability with elevator released. The available test data were extended to stability with elevator locked. In this connection the study of the propeller effect seemed of vital importance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63477/
Adhesion of ice in its relation to the de-icing of airplanes
The various possible means of preventing ice adhesion on airplane surfaces are critically reviewed. Results are presented of tests of the adhesives forces between ice and various solid and liquid forces. It is concluded that the de-icing of airplane wings by heat from engine exhaust shows sufficient promise to warrant full-scale tests. For propellers, at least, and possibly for certain small areas such as windshields, radio masts, etc. the use of de-icing or adhesion-preventing liquids will provide the best means of protection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54585/
The adhesion of molten boron oxide to various materials
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc64004/
Adhesive and protective characteristics of ceramic coating A-417 and its effect on engine life of forged Refractaloy-26 (AMS 5760) and cast stellite 21 (AMS 5385) turbine blades
The adhesive and protective characteristics of National Bureau of Standards Coating A-417 were investigated, as well as the effect of the coating on the life of forged Refractaloy 26 and cast Stellite 21 turbine blades. Coated and uncoated blades were run in a full-scale J33-9 engine and were subjected to simulated service operations consisting of consecutive 20-minute cycles (15 min at rated speed and approximately 5 min at idle). The ceramic coating adhered well to Refractaloy 26 and Stellite 21 turbine blades operated at 1500 degrees F. The coating also prevented corrosion of the Refractaloy 26, a corrosion-sensitive nickel-base alloy, and of the Stellite 21, a relatively corrosion-resistant cobalt-base alloy. Although the coating prevented corrosion of both alloys, it had no apparent effect on blade life. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc59641/
Adjustment of stick force by a nonlinear aileron-stick linkage
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61609/
Advantages of oxide films as bases for aluminum pigmented surface coatings for aluminum alloys
Both laboratory and weather-exposure corrosion tests showed conclusively that the protection afforded by aluminum pigmented spar varnish coatings applied to previously anodized aluminum surfaces was greatly superior to that afforded by the same coatings applied to surfaces which had simply been cleaned free from grease and not anodized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54028/
The advantages of uniform fuel distribution for air-cooled engines from considerations of cooling requirements and fuel economy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61935/
Aerial convention of October 13, 1919
The aerial convention delegates are listed as well as the set of rules that were developed during the session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55281/
Aerial navigation by dead reckoning
The problem to be solved, as presented to the pilot or observer of an aircraft, is as follows: The aircraft starting from A must land at B, the only data being the speed of the airplane, the altitude and the orientation D of the course. The above data would be amply sufficient, were it not for the fact that the airplane is constantly subjected to a wind of variable direction and strength. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55696/
Aerial navigation : on the problem of guiding aircraft in a fog or by night when there is no visibility
The use of magnetic fields and wire to navigate aircraft in conditions of poor visibility is presented. This field may be considered to be derived from a double lemniscate, considered in the particular case where the origin is a double point formed from the magnetic field of the slack wire, from the field produced by the return currents and from the field due to the currents induced in the conducting mass. These fields are dephased in two ways, one in the direction of the wire, the other in a direction perpendicular to it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53657/
Aerial photography : obtaining a true perspective
A demonstration was given within the last few days at the British Museum by Mr. J. W. Gordon, author of "Generalized Linear Perspective" (Constable and Co.), a work describing a newly-worked-out system by which photographs can be made available for the purpose of exactly recording the dimensions of the objects photographed even when the objects themselves are presented foreshortened in the photograph. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277511/
Aerial transportation
The origin of air traffic dates from the war. The important development of aeronautic industries and the progress made in recent years, under the impelling force of circumstances, rendered it possible, after the close of hostilities, to consider the practical utilization of this new means of economic expansion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53663/
Aero dopes and varnishes
Before proceeding to discuss the preparation of dope solutions, it will be necessary to consider some of the essential properties which should be possessed of a dope film, deposited in and on the surface of an aero fabric. The first is that it should tighten the material and second it should withstand weathering. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65251/
An aerodynamic analysis of the autogiro rotor with a comparison between calculated and experimental results
This report presents an extension of the autogiro theory of Glauert and Lock in which the influence of a pitch varying with the blade radius is evaluated and methods of approximating the effect of blade tip losses and the influence of reversed velocities on the retreating blades are developed. A comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that most of the rotor characteristics could be calculated with reasonable accuracy, and that the type of induced flow assumed has a secondary effect upon the net rotor forces, although the flapping motion is influenced appreciably. An approximate evaluation of the effect of parasite drag on the rotor blades established the importance of including this factor in the analysis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66144/
The aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system
An aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system is presented herein. This system consists of a freely rotating rotor in which opposite blades are rigidly connected and allowed to rotate or feather freely about their span axis. Equations have been derived for the lift, the lift-drag ratio, the angle of attack, the feathering angles, and the rolling and pitching moments of a gyroplane rotor in terms of its basic parameters. Curves of lift-drag ratio against lift coefficient have been calculated for a typical case, showing the effect of varying the pitch angle, the solidarity, and the average blade-section drag coefficient. The analysis expresses satisfactorily the qualitative relations between the rotor characteristics and the rotor parameters. As disclosed by this investigation, the aerodynamic principles of the gyroplane are sound, and further research on this wing system is justified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54506/
Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of a deck-inlet multijet water-based-aircraft configuration designed for supersonic flight
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62900/
Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of a proposed supersonic multijet water-based hydro-ski aircraft with a variable-incidence wing
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63527/
Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of models of some aircraft-towed mine-sweeping devices : TED No. NACA AR 8201
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62388/
Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic tests of a family of models of flying-boat hulls derived from a streamline body : NACA model 84 series
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61711/
Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic tests of a family of models of flying hulls derived from a streamline body -- NACA model 84 series
A series of related forms of flying-boat hulls representing various degrees of compromise between aerodynamic and hydrodynamic requirements was tested in Langley Tank No. 1 and in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel. The purpose of the investigation was to provide information regarding the penalties in water performance resulting from further aerodynamic refinement and, as a corollary, to provide information regarding the penalties in range or payload resulting from the retention of certain desirable hydrodynamic characteristics. The information should form a basis for over-all improvements in hull form. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc60031/
Aerodynamic and inlet-flow-field characteristics at a free-stream Mach number of 3.0 for airplanes with circular fuselage cross sections and for two engine locations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc64014/
Aerodynamic and lateral-control characteristics of a 1/28-scale model of the Bell X-1 airplane wing-fuselage combination : transonic-bump method
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58563/
The aerodynamic aspect of wing-fuselage fillets
Model tests prove the feasibility of enhancing the aerodynamic qualities of wing-fuselage fillets by appropriate design of fuselage and wing roots. Abrupt changes from maximum fuselage height to wing chord must be avoided and every longitudinal section of fuselage and wing roots must be so faired and arranged as to preserve the original lift distribution of the continuous wing. Adapting the fuselage to the curvilinear circulation of the wing affords further improvement. The polars of such arrangements are almost the same as those of the "wing alone," thus voiding the superiority of the high-wing type airplane known with conventional design. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63461/
The aerodynamic behavior of a harmonically oscillating finite sweptback wing in supersonic flow
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55838/
Aerodynamic characteristics and flap loads of perforated double split flaps on a rectangular NACA 23012 airfoil
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61464/
Aerodynamic characteristics and flap loads of the brake-flap installation on the 0.40-scale model of the F4F-3 left wing panel
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61360/