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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Aeronautic instruments. Section V : power plant instruments
Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65779/
Aeronautic instruments. Section VI : aerial navigation and navigating instruments
This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65781/
Aeronautic instruments. Section VI : oxygen instruments
This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65780/
Aeronautic instruments. Section VIII : recent developments and outstanding problems
This report is section VIII of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments. The preceding reports in this series have discussed in detail the various types of aeronautic instruments which have reached a state of practical development such that they have already found extensive use. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss briefly some of the more recent developments in the field of aeronautic instrument design and to suggest some of the outstanding problems awaiting solution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65782/
Aeronautic insurance
The problem of insuring the emerging commercial aeronautic industry is detailed. The author also motes that a complete solution cannot be obtained until the necessary statistics are compiled. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54177/
Aeronautical instruments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53948/
Aeronautical museums
Different methods of presenting aeronautical artifacts are examined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55809/
Aeronautical record : no. 1 (to June, 1923)
"...considerations have prompted us to pay special attention to the development of aeronautical industries and aerial navigation as a commercial enterprise and to publish an analytical review of events in the aeronautical world and of the attendant problems.". digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277519/
Air cooling : an experimental method of evaluating the cooling effect of air streams on air-cooled cylinders
In this report is described an experimental method which the writer has evolved for dealing with air-cooled engines, and some of the data obtained by its means. Methods of temperature measurement and cooling are provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65234/
Air-flow experiments
This report describes the apparatus used to take air-flow photographs. The photographs show chiefly the spiral course of the lines of flow near the tip of the wing. They constitute therefore a visual presentation of the phenomena covered by airfoil theory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58543/
Air flow investigation for location of angle of attack head on a JN4h airplane
The technical staff of the NACA at Langley Field, has made a series of free flight tests with a JN4h airplane in order to find the best place for an instrument for measuring the angle of attack. A "neutral zone" was found where the air remains either at rest relative to the undisturbed air beyond the influence of the airplane, or is set in motion parallel to the motion of the airplane. This zone is about midway between the two wings and slightly in front of, or at the vertical plane through the leading edges of the wings but the exact position as well as the outlines of the zone varies considerably as the conditions of flight change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53866/
Air flow through poppet valves
Report discusses the comparative continuous flow characteristics of single and double poppet valves. The experimental data presented affords a direct comparison of valves, single and in pairs of different sizes, tested in a cylinder designed in accordance with current practice in aviation engines. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65644/
Air force and moment for N-20 wing with certain cut-outs
The airplane designer often finds it necessary, in meeting the requirements of visibility, to remove area or to otherwise locally distort the plan or section of an airplane wing. This report, prepared for the Bureau of Aeronautics January 15, 1925, contains the experimental results of tests on six 5 by 30 inch N-20 wing models, cut out or distorted in different ways, which were conducted in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel of the Navy Aerodynamical Laboratory in Washington in 1924. The measured and derived results are given without correction for vl/v for wall effect and for standard air density, p=0.00237 slug per cubic foot. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65919/
Air force and three moments for F-5-L Seaplane
A model of the F-5-L seaplane was made, verified, and tested at 40 miles an hour in the 8' x 8' tunnel for lift and drag, also for pitching, yawing and rolling moments. Subsequently, the yawing moment test was repeated with a modified fin. The results are reported without VL scale correction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53748/
Air force tests of sperry messenger model with six sets of wings
The purpose of this test was to compare six well-known airfoils, the R.A.F 15, U.S.A. 5, U.S.A. 27, U.S.A. 35-B, Clark Y, and Gottingen 387, fitted to the Sperry Messenger model, at full scale Reynolds number as obtained in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; and to determine the scale effect on the model equipped with all the details of the actual airplane. The results show a large decrease in minimum drag coefficient upon increasing the Reynolds number from about one-twentieth scale to full scale. Maximum lift coefficient was increased with increasing scale for all the airfoils except the Gottingen 387, for which it was slightly decreased. A comparison is made between the results of these tests and those obtained from tests made in this tunnel on airfoils alone. (author). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65922/
Air Forces Exerted on Streamlined Bodies with Round or Square Cross- Sections, When Placed Obliquely to the Airstream
The question of behavior of a streamlined body with round or square cross-sections is of importance in determining the shape to give an airplane fuselage. It is our task here to show how the lift and drag are affected, with the object placed obliquely to the air stream. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58643/
Air forces, moments and damping on model of fleet airship Shenandoah
To furnish data for the design of the fleet airship Shenandoah, a model was made and tested in the 8 by 8 foot wind tunnel for wind forces, moments, and damping, under conditions described in this report. The results are given for air of standard density. P=0.00237 slugs per cubic foot with vl/v correction, and with but a brief discussion of the aerodynamic design features of the airship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65867/
The air forces on a model of the sperry messenger airplane without propeller
This is a report on a scale effect research which was made in the variable-density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Army Air Service. A 1/10 scale model of the sperry messenger airplane with USA-5 wings was tested without a propeller at various Reynolds numbers up to the full scale value. Two series of tests were: the first on the original model which was of the usual simplified construction, and the second on a modified model embodying a great amount of detail. The experimental results show that the scale effect is almost entirely confined to the drag. It was also found that the model should be geometrically similar to the full-scale airplane if the test data are to be directly applicable to full scale. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65877/
The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models
The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models are the subject of this report. The test consist in the determination of the lift, drag, and moment of each individual airfoil in each cellule, mostly with the same wing section. The magnitude of the gap and of the stagger is systematically varied; not, however, the decalage, which is zero throughout the tests. Certain check tests with a second wing section make the tests more complete and conclusions more convincing. The results give evidence that the present army and navy specifications for the relative lifts of biplanes are good. They furnish material for improving such specifications for the relative lifts of triplanes. A larger number of factors can now be prescribed to take care of different cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65908/
Air forces on airfoils moving faster than sound
We are undertaking the task of computing the air forces on a slightly cambered airfoil in the absence of friction and with an infinite aspect ratio. We also assume in advance that the leading edge is very sharp and that its tangent lies in the direction of motion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc59216/
The air propeller, its strength and correct shape
It is possible to give a propeller such a shape that, under given conditions, viz., a definite speed of revolution and flying speed, the bending stresses in the blades will assume quite an insignificant magnitude. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53811/
Air reactions to objects moving at rates above the velocity of sound with application to the air propeller
There has been a tradition general among aeronautical engineers that a critical point exists for tip speeds at or near the velocity of sound, indicating a physical limit in the use of propellers at higher tip speeds; the idea being that something would occur analogous to what is known in marine propellers as cavitation. In the examination of the physics pertaining to both propellers and projectiles moving at or above 1100 feet per second, the conclusion was reached by the author that there is no reason for the existence of such a critical point and that, if it had been noted by observers it was not inherent in the phenomena revealed, but rather due to a particular shape or proportion of the projectile and that, with properly proportioned sections, it would not exist. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc56168/
Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts
For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53822/
Air traffic
This report presents a recounting of the steps taken by France to establish national and international regulation over air traffic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55206/
Air transport
I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277549/
Air transport economics
The report presents a determination of air transport costs with and without subsidies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55798/
Aircraft accidents : method of analysis
This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65962/
Aircraft engine design
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53887/
Airfoil lift with changing angle of attack
Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53911/
Airplane balance
The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53731/
Airplane crashes: engine troubles : a possible explanation
The aim was to bring attention to what might be the cause of some aircraft accidents for which there was no satisfactory explanation. The author notes that in testing aircraft accidents at the Bureau of Standards, it happened frequently that the engine performance became erratic when the temperature of the air entering the carburetor was between 0 C and 20 C. Investigation revealed the trouble to have been caused by the formation and collection of snow somewhere between the entrance to the carburetor and the manifold, probably at the throttle. Proof scarcely less convincing was obtained during engine tests. The results of such engine tests are described. Granting that the loss of power and the sudden increases in power were caused by the condensation of moisture from the air and the subsequent formation of snow, two solutions proved effective. The removal of the moisture or an increase in temperature cured the problem. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53738/
Airplane drag
It has been less well understood that the induced drag (or, better said, the undesired increase in the induced drag as compared with the theoretical minimum calculated by Prandtl) plays a decisive role in the process of taking off and therefore in the requisite engine power. This paper seeks to clarify the induced drag. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277500/
Airplane parachutes
The "Bulletin Technique", of March, 1919, gave the results of tests and studies made up to that date in connection with airplane parachutes. This work has been continued. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc59234/
Airplane performance as influenced by the use of a supercharged engine
The question of the influence of a supercharged engine on airplane performance is treated here in a first approximation, but one that gives an exact idea of the advantage of supercharging. Considered here is an airplane that climbs first with an ordinary engine, not supercharged, and afterwards climbs with a supercharged engine. The aim is to find the difference of the ceilings reached in the two cases. In the case of our figure, the ceiling from 25,000 feet is increased to 37,000 feet, the supercharging maintaining the power only up to 20,000 feet. This makes, in comparison with an engine without supercharging, an increase of about 50 percent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53684/
Airplane performance, past and present
The progress of airplane performance, measured by speed, is recounted in this article. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc56185/
Airplane speeds of the future
While the reliability of predictions is poor the author still attempts to gauge the future speeds of airplanes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc56191/
Airplane stability calculations and their verification by flight tests
For some time, the designers of airplanes have begun to occupy themselves with the question of longitudinal stability. In their quest to simplify calculation and data collection, the designers have attached the greatest importance to the coefficient of initial longitudinal stability. In this study a diagram was constructed from the data of the tunnel tests, which depends neither on the position of the center of gravity nor of the angle of deflection of the elevators. This diagram is constructed by means of straight lines drawn through the metacenters of the complete airplane, in a direction parallel to the tangents to the polar of the airplane relative to a system of axes fixed with reference to the airplane. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55694/
Airplane strength calculations and static tests in Russia : an attempt at standardization
We are here giving a summary of the rules established by the Theoretical Section of the Central Aerodynamic Institute of Moscow for the different calculation cases of an airplane. It appears the engineers of the Aerodynamic Institute considered only thick or medium profiles. For these profiles they have attempted to increase the safety when the center of pressure moves appreciably toward the trailing edge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65321/
Airplane superchargers
Discussed here are the principles and operation of aircraft engine superchargers used to maintain and increase engine power as aircraft encounter decreases in the density of air as altitude rises. Details are given on the design and operation of the centrifugal compressors. A method is given for calculating the amount of power needed to drive a compressor. The effects of the use of a compressor on fuel system operation and design are discussed. Several specific superchargers that were in operation are described. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53723/
The airplane tensiometer
Certain parts of an airplane are subjected not only to the stresses imposed by the aerodynamic or flying load, but also to the initial stresses, caused by the tension in the stay and drift wires. Report describes a tensiometer that measures such stresses which is simple in construction, accurate, and easily and quickly operated even by inexperienced persons. Two sizes of the instrument are available. One is suitable for wires up to one-fourth inch in diameter and the other for wires from one-fourth to three-eights inch in diameter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65652/
Airplanes in horizontal curvilinear flight
War airplanes require not only high speed and the ability to climb rapidly, but also the ability to transverse sharp curves quickly. Here, an attempt is made to give a simple method of calculating horizontal curvilinear flight. A method for determining the area of the aileron and rubber surfaces are also indicated. The discussion given here applies primarily to single and two-seater airplanes, although it can be extended to larger airplanes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53837/
An airship slide rule
This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65812/
Albatros commercial Airplane L 73
The Albatros was a two engine commercial biplane carrying 2 pilots, eight passengers, and 160 KG of baggage. The framework is metal, the wings having plywood and fabric over the steel tubing. The L 73 was the first 2 engine biplane to be made in Germany. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62075/
The Albatros L 72A : a German newspaper carrier with slotted wings
The Albatros 72A is a normal tractor biplane specifically designed to deliver newspapers by dropping them overboard in bundles for ground transport to pick up. It has a 42 ft. wingspan, and a 220 HP B.M.W. engine. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61239/
Albert TE-1 training airplane
The TE-1 is designed for the economical training of pilots and is a single seat parasol cantilever monoplane. It is nearly entirely made of wood, using a 40 HP. air-cooled Salmson A.D. 9 engine, and weighs 255 kg empty. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279464/
Albessard "Triavion" Airplane (French) : A Two-Seat Tandem Monoplane
Autostability is the watchword of this tandem monoplane. The tandem design causes a natural flat flight pattern. It can also land and take off from very short runways. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65096/
All-metal Junkers airplane, type F 13
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc57541/
Alloys similar to duralumin made in other countries than Germany
Attempts by other countries to develop patents for alloys similar to duralumin are presented. Duralumin is aluminum alloyed with 3.5-4.5% copper, 0.5% magnesium, and 0.25-1% of manganese. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc59195/
An altitude chamber for the study and calibration of aeronautical instruments
The design and construction of an altitude chamber, in which both pressure and temperature can be varied independently, was carried out by the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of studying the effects of temperature and pressure on aeronautical research instruments. Temperatures from +20c to -50c are obtained by the expansion of CO2from standard containers. The chamber can be used for the calibration of research instruments under altitude conditions simulating those up to 45,000 feet. Results obtained with this chamber have a direct application in the design and calibration of instruments used in free flight research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53888/
The altitude effect on air speed indicators
The object of this report is to present the results of a theoretical and experimental study of the effect, on the performance of air speed indicators, of the different atmospheric conditions experienced at various altitudes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65760/