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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with quarter-chord line swept back 60 degrees, aspect ratio 2, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section : transonic bump method
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58424/
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with quarter-chord line swept back 60 degrees, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section : transonic-bump method
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58370/
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with unswept quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 2, taper ratio 0.78, and NACA 65A004 airfoil section : transonic-bump method
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Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with unswept quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A004 airfoil section : transonic-bump method
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58473/
Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with unswept quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 4, taper ratio 0.6, and NACA 65A006 airfoil section
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58309/
Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I
The object of this report is to bring together the investigations of the various aerodynamic laboratories in this country and Europe upon the subject of aerofoils suitable for use as lifting or control surfaces on aircraft. The data have been so arranged as to be of most use to designing engineers and for the purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65743/
Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils II : continuation of report no. 93
This collection of data on aerofoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and date of test. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65774/
Aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft with reference to their use
Economic and design characteristics are examined in the design of airplanes and airships. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277393/
The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as affected by surface roughness
The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54195/
Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at high speeds
This report deals with an experimental investigation of the aerodynamical characteristics of airfoils at high speeds. Lift, drag, and center of pressure measurements were made on six airfoils of the type used by the air service in propeller design, at speeds ranging from 550 to 1,000 feet per second. The results show a definite limit to the speed at which airfoils may efficiently be used to produce lift, the lift coefficient decreasing and the drag coefficient increasing as the speed approaches the speed of sound. The change in lift coefficient is large for thick airfoil sections (camber ratio 0.14 to 0.20) and for high angles of attack. The change is not marked for thin sections (camber ratio 0.10) at low angles of attack, for the speed range employed. At high speeds the center of pressure moves back toward the trailing edge of the airfoil as the speed increases. The results indicate that the use of tip speeds approaching the speed of sound for propellers of customary design involves a serious loss in efficiency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65858/
The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at negative angles of attack
A number of airfoils, including 14 commonly used airfoils and 10 NACA airfoils, were tested through the negative angle-of-attack range in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds Number of approximately 3,000,000. The tests were made to supply data to serve as a basis for the structural design of airplanes in the inverted flight condition. In order to make the results immediately available for this purpose they are presented herein in preliminary form, together with results of previous tests of the airfoils at positive angles of attack. An analysis of the results made to find the variation of the ratio of the maximum negative lift coefficient to the maximum positive lift coefficient led to the following conclusions: 1) For airfoils of a given thickness, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to decrease as the mean camber is increased. 2) For airfoils of a given mean camber, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to increase as the thickness increases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54075/
Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils III : continuation of reports nos. 93 and 124
This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this is the one most suited for international use and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and date of test. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65832/
Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils IV : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, and 182
This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading Aerodynamic Laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65896/
Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils V : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, and 244
This collection of data on airfoils has been made from published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of tests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65940/
Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286
This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65970/
Aerodynamic characteristics of an 0.08-scale model of the Martin XB-51 Airplane at high subsonic speeds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58348/
Aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil-forebody swept flying-boat hull with a wing and tail swept back 51.3 degrees at the leading edge
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58380/
The aerodynamic characteristics of an aspect-ratio-20 wing having thick airfoil sections and employing boundary-layer control by suction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc56745/
Aerodynamic characteristics of anemometer cups
The static lift and drag forces on three hemispherical and two conical cups were measured over a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees to 180 degrees and a range of Reynolds Numbers from very small up to 400,000. The problems of supporting the cup for measurement and the effect of turbulence were also studied. The results were compared with those of other investigators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54422/
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Bodies at Supersonic Speeds: A Collection of Three Papers
The three papers collected here are: 'The Effect of Nose Shape on the Drag of Bodies of Revolution at Zero Angle of Attack.', 'Base Pressure on Wings and Bodies with Turbulent Boundary Layers', and 'Flow over Inclined Bodies'. The subject of the first paper is the drag of the nose section of bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The main object of the second paper is to summarize the prinicpal results of the many wind tunnel and free flight measurements of base pressure on both bodies of revolution and blunt trailing edge airfoils. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63969/
Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds
The aerodynamic characteristics of eight circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.5, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound have been determined in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The lower surface of each airfoil was plane; the upper surface was cylindrical. As compared with the measurements described in NACA-TR-319, the circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.95 and 1.08 times the speed of sound are more efficient than airfoils of the R. A. F. or Clark Y families. At a speed of 0.5 times the speed of sound, the thick circular-arc sections are extremely inefficient, but thin sections compare favorably with those of the R. A. F. family. A moderate round of the sharp edges changes the characteristics very little and is in many instances beneficial. The results indicate that the section of the blades of propellers intended for use at high tip-speeds should be of the circular-arc form for the outer part of the blade and should be changed gradually to the R. A. F. or Clark Y form as the hub is approached. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66021/
Aerodynamic characteristics of damping screens
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc55303/
The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel
Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66049/
Aerodynamic characteristics of flying-boat hulls having length-beam ratios of 20 and 30
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc57974/
Aerodynamic characteristics of four bodies of revolution showing some effects of afterbody shape and fineness ratio at free-stream Mach numbers from 1.50 to 1.99
The effects of fineness ratio (14.2 and 12.2) and boattailing on aerodynamic characteristics of four bodies of revolution at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 1.99 within a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees 10 degrees at an approximate Reynolds number of 35x10(superscript)6 based on body length were investigated. A comparison of experimental data with available theory is included. At zero angle of attack, fineness ratio has no appreciable effect on model characteristics while boattailing and boattail convergence significantly affect fore drag and base drag. At angle of attack the effects are singular. The theory presented by H. J. Allen is a significant improvement over linearized potential theory in predicting aerodynamic characteristics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58810/
The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms
Tests were made of four propellers, with diameters of 10 feet, having different blade plan forms. One propeller (Navy design no. 5868-r6) was of the usual present-day type and was used as a basis of comparison for the other three, which had unusual plan forms distinguished by the inward (toward the hub) location of the sections having the greatest blade width. It was found that propellers with points of maximum blade width occurring closer to the hub than on the present-day type of blade had higher peak efficiencies but lower take-off efficiencies. This results was found true for a "clean" liquid-cooled engine installation. It appears that some modification could be made to present plan forms which would produce propellers having more satisfactory aerodynamic qualities. The propellers with the inward location of the points of maximum blade width had lower thrust and power coefficients and stalled earlier than the present-day type. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66301/
Aerodynamic characteristics of four NACA airfoil sections designed for helicopter rotor blades
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc61378/
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Four Republic Airfoil Sections from Tests in Langley Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnels
Four airfoils sections, designed by the Republic Aviation Corporation for the root and tip sections of the XF-12 airplane, were tested in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnels to obtain their aerodynamic characteristics. Lift characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, 9,000,000, and 14,000,000, whereas drag characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers of 3,000,000, 6,000,000, and 9,000,000. Pressure distributions were obtained for one of the root sections for several angles of attack at a Reynolds number of 2,600,000. Comparison of the root section that appeared best from the tests with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic section has a higher maximum lift and higher calculated critical speeds, but a higher minimum drag. In addition, with standard roughness applied to the leading edge, the maximum lift of the Republic airfoil is lower than that of the NACA airfoil. Comparison of the Republic tip section with the corresponding NACA 65-series section shows the Republic airfoil has a lower maximum lift and a higher minimum drag than the NACA airfoil. The calculated critical speeds of the Republic section are slightly higher than those of the NACA section. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc64938/
Aerodynamic characteristics of four wings of sweepback angles 0 degree, 35 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees, NACA 65A006 airfoil section, aspect ratio 4, and taper ratio 0.6 in combination with a fuselage at high subsonic Mach numbers and Mach num
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58820/
The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections
Aerodynamic tests were made of seven full-scale 10-foot-diameter propellers of recent design comprising three groups. The first group was composed of three propellers having Clark y airfoil sections and the second group was composed of three propellers having R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections, the propellers of each group having 2, 3, and 4 blades. The third group was composed of two propellers, the 2-blade propeller taken from the second group and another propeller having the same airfoil section and number of blades but with the width and thickness 50 percent greater. The tests of these propellers reveal the effect of changes in solidity resulting either from increasing the number of blades or from increasing the blade width propeller design charts and methods of computing propeller thrust are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66298/
Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces
Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66348/
Aerodynamic characteristics of low-aspect-ratio wings at high supersonic Mach numbers
This paper presents some recently obtained data on the aerodynamic characteristics of low-aspect-ratio wings at supersonic Mach numbers of 4.04 and 6.9 and discusses some new methods of predicting the lift and drag of such wings. Data on lifting wings in the Mach number range above 2.5 are not plentiful and most of the available data may be found in NACA RM L51D17, NACA RM L51D30, NACA RM L52D15a, NACA RM L52K19, NACA RM L53D03, and NACA RM L53D30a. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62745/
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Low-aspect-ratio Wings at High Supersonic Mach Numbers
Aerodynamic characteristics of low-aspect-ratio wings at supersonic speeds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc52946/
Aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations with wings of low aspect ratio for various combinations of forebodies, afterbodies, and nose shapes for combined angles of attack and sideslip at a Mach number of 2.01
An investigation has been made in the Langley 4-by-4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a series of missile configurations having low-aspect-ratio wings at a Mach number of 2.01. The effects of wing plan form and size, length-diameter ratio, forebody and afterbody length, boattailed and flared afterbodies, and component force and moment data are presented for combined angles of attack and sideslip to about 28 degrees. No analysis of the data was made in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc63637/
Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 0012 airfoil section at angles of attack from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc56017/
Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section
Report presents the results of an investigation of the general aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils, each equipped with a 0.20c external flap of NACA 23012 section. The tests were made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot and variable-density wind tunnels and covered a range of Reynolds numbers that included values corresponding to those for landing conditions of a wide range of airplanes. Besides a determination of the variation of lift and drag characteristics with position of the flap relative to the main airfoil, complete aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil-flap combination with a flap hinge axis selected to give small hinge moments were measured in the two tunnels. Some measurements of air loads on the flap itself in the presence of the wing were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66231/
Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA RM-10 missile in 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.49 to 1.98 I : presentation and analysis of pressure measurements (stabilizing fins removed)
Experimental investigation of flow about a slender body of revolution (NACA RM-10 missile) aligned and inclined to a supersonic stream was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.49 to 1.98 at a Reynolds number of approximately 30,000,000. Boundary-layer measurements at zero angle of attack are correlated with subsonic formulations for predicting boundary-layer thickness and profile. Comparison of pressure coefficients predicted by theory with experimental values showed close agreement at zero angle of attack and angle of attack except over the aft leeward side of body. At angle of attack, pitot pressure measurements in plane of model base indicated a pair of symmetrically disposed vortices on leeward side of body. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58512/
Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA RM-10 missile in 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.49 to 1.98 II : presentation and analysis of force measurements
Experimental investigation of aerodynamic forces acting on body of revolution (NACA RM-10 missile) with and without stabilizing fins was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.49 to 1.98 at angles of attack from 0 to 9 degrees and at Reynolds number of approximately 30,000,000. Comparison of experimental lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients and center of pressure location for body alone is made with linearized potential theory and a semiempirical method. Results indicate that aerodynamic characteristics were predicted more accurately by semiempirical method than by potential theory. Breakdown of measured drag coefficients into components of friction, pressure, and base-pressure drag is presented for body alone at zero angle of attack. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58428/
Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA RM 10 missile in 8 by 6 foot supersonic wind tunnel at Mach numbers from 1.49 to 1.98. III : analysis of force distribution at angle of attack (stabilizing fins removed)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58664/
The aerodynamic characteristics of seven frequently used wing sections at full Reynolds number
This report contains the aerodynamic properties of the wing sections U.S.A. 5, U.S.A. 27, U.S.A. 35 A, U.S.A. 35 B, Clark Y, R.A.F. 15, and Gottingen 387, as determined at various Reynolds numbers up to an approximately full scale value in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It is shown that the characteristics of the wings investigated are affected greatly and in a somewhat erratic manner by variation of the Reynolds number. In general there is a small increase in maximum lift and an appreciable decrease in drag at all lifts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65886/
Aerodynamic characteristics of several 6-percent-thick airfoils at angles of attack from 0 degrees to 20 degrees at high subsonic speeds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc57708/
Aerodynamic characteristics of several airfoils of low aspect ratio
This paper presents the results of wind-tunnel tests of several airfoils of low aspect ratio. The airfoils included three circular Clark Y airfoils with different amounts of dihedral, two Clark Y airfoils with slots in their portions, and three flat-plate airfoils. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; pitching moment characteristics of one of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; and lift characteristics of the flat-plate airfoils are included. The results reveal a definite improvement of lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics with increase in dihedral of the circular Clark Y wing. Lift characteristics near the stall were found to depend markedly on the shape of the extreme tip but were not greatly affected by slots through the after portion of the airfoils. Changes in plan form of the flat-plate airfoils gave erroneous indications of the effect to be expected from changes in plan form of an airfoil of Clark Y section. The minimum drag characteristics of the circular Clark Y airfoils were found to be substantially the same as for a Clark Y airfoil of conventional aspect ratio. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54189/
Aerodynamic characteristics of several flap-type trailing-edge controls on a trapezoidal wing at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc60498/
Aerodynamic characteristics of several jet-spoiler controls on a 45 degree sweptback wing at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc64160/
Aerodynamic characteristics of several modifications of a 0.45-scale model of the vertical tail of the Curtiss XP-62 airplane
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc62683/
Aerodynamic characteristics of several NACA airfoil sections at seven Reynolds numbers from 0.7 x 10(exp 6) to 9.0 x 10(exp 6)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc57956/
Aerodynamic characteristics of several tip controls on a 60 degree wing at a Mach number of 1.61
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc60096/
The aerodynamic characteristics of six commonly used Airfoils over a large range of positive and negative angles of attack
This paper presents the results of tests of six commonly used airfoils: the CYH, the N-22, the C-72, the Boeing 106, and the Gottingen 398. The lifts, drags, and pitching moments of the airfoils were measured through a large range of positive and negative angles of attack. The tests were made in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at a large Boeing 106, and the Gottingen 398 airfoils, the negative maximum lift coefficients were found to be approximately half the positive; but for the M-6 and the CYH, which have less effective values were, respectively, 0.8 and 0.6 of the positive values. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc54048/
The aerodynamic characteristics of six full-scale propellers having different airfoil sections
Wind-tunnel tests are reported of six 3-blade 10-foot propellers operated in front of a liquid-cooled engine nacelle. The propellers were identical except for blade airfoil sections, which were: Clark y, R.A.F. 6, NACA 4400, NACA 2400-34, NACA 2rsub200, and NACA 6400. The range of blade angles investigated extended for 15 degrees to 40 degrees for all propellers except the Clark y, for which it extended to 45 degrees. The results showed that the range in maximum efficiency between the highest and lowest values was about 3 percent. The highest efficiencies were for the low-camber sections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66308/
Aerodynamic characteristics of tapered wings having aspect ratios of 4, 6, and 8, quarter-chord lines swept back 45 degrees, and NACA 63(sub 1)A012 airfoil sections : transonic-bump method
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc58773/