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**Partner:**UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

**Decade:**1920-1929

**Collection:**National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection

### Commercial airplanes and seaplanes

**Date:**April 1, 1922

**Creator:**Royer, Etienne

**Description:**This report considers as the dominating characteristic, either the load carried, the speed, the radius of action, the fuel consumption, the activity of transport, or, lastly, the qualities of comfort and safety. The first four factors determine the theoretical efficiency, while the others determine its practical efficiency.

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### Comparison of model propeller tests with airfoil theory

**Date:**January 1, 1925

**Creator:**Durand, William F & Lesley, E P

**Description:**The purpose of the investigation covered by this report was the examination of the degree of approach which may be anticipated between laboratory tests on model airplane propellers and results computed by the airfoil theory, based on tests of airfoils representative of successive blade sections. It is known that the corrections of angles of attack and for aspect ratio, speed, and interference rest either on experimental data or on somewhat uncertain theoretical assumptions. The general situation as regards these four sets of corrections is far from satisfactory, and while it is recognized that occasion exists for the consideration of such corrections, their determination in any given case is a matter of considerable uncertainty. There exists at the present time no theory generally accepted and sufficiently comprehensive to indicate the amount of such corrections, and the application to individual cases of the experimental data available is, at best, uncertain. While the results of this first phase of the investigation are less positive than had been hoped might be the case, the establishment of the general degree of approach between the two sets of results which might be anticipated on the basis of this simpler mode of application seems to have been ...

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### Comparison of nonrigid and semirigid airships

**Date:**November 1, 1922

**Creator:**Stapfer,

**Description:**One of the main subjects of airship science consists in establishing cooperation between two vertical forces, the buoyancy of the air and the attraction of gravity. The mechanism for establishing this cooperation must have the minimum weight and offer the minimum head resistance. Starting with this principle, let us consider what improvements can be made in the present type of non-rigid airships.

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### Static stability of seaplane floats and hulls

**Date:**March 1, 1924

**Creator:**Diehl, W S

**Description:**Values of lateral and longitudinal metacentric heights for various seaplanes were calculated by means of approximate formulae derived here. The data are given in tabular form. Upon plotting these metacentric heights against the corresponding gross weights, it appears that the metacentric height is approximately a straight line function of the gross weight. For the lateral metacentric height GM = 13 + .002 W and for longitudinal metacentric height GM = 15 + .002 W, GM is in feet and the gross weight (W) is in pounds. Although only approximate, it is thought that the values indicated here are a reliable guide to current practice. It is recommended that the longitudinal and lateral metacentric heights be made equal and of the value given by GM = 15 = .002 W. The proper length or spacing required to satisfy the indicated value may then be obtained from substitution in the approximate formulae for metacentric height.

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### Mechanical aids to flight

**Date:**May 1, 1922

**Creator:**Warner, Edward P

**Description:**This report examines the great utility and safety of using instruments when flying. Instruments can be especially useful in conditions when the pilot has trouble spatially orienting himself.

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### Potentialities of the parachute

**Date:**August 1, 1922

**Creator:**Warner, Edward P

**Description:**The development of the parachute is presented as well as the future possibilities.

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### Accelerations in flight

**Date:**1921

**Creator:**Norton, F H & Allen, E T

**Description:**This report deals with the accelerations obtained in flight on various airplanes at Langley Field for the purpose of obtaining the magnitude of the load factors in flight and to procure information on the behavior of an airplane in various maneuvers. The instrument used in these tests was a recording accelerometer of a new type designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists of a flat steel spring supported rigidly at one end so that the free end may be deflected by its own weight from its neutral position by any acceleration acting at right angles to the plane of the spring. This deflection is measured by a very light tilting mirror caused to rotate by the deflection of the spring, which reflected the beam of light onto a moving film. The motion of the spring is damped by a thin aluminum vane which rotates with the spring between the poles of an electric magnet. Records were taken on landings and takeoffs, in loops, spins, spirals, and rolls.

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### Pressure distribution over a wing and tail rib of a VE-7 and of a TS airplane in flight

**Date:**January 1928

**Creator:**Crowley, J. W., Jr.

**Description:**This investigation was made to determine the pressure distribution over a rib of the wing and over a rib of the horizontal tail surface of an airplane in flight and to obtain information as to the time correlation of the loads occurring on these ribs. Two airplanes, VE-7 and TS, were selected in order to obtain the information for a thin and a thick wing section. In each case the pressure distribution was recorded for the full range of angle of attack in level flight and throughout violent maneuvers. The results show: (a) that the present rib load specifications in use by the Army Air Corps and the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, are in fair agreement with the loads actually occurring in flight, but could be slightly improved; (b) that there appears to be no definite sequence in which wing and tail surface ribs reach their respective maximum loads in different maneuvers; (c) that in accelerated flight, at air speeds less than or equal to 60 per cent of the maximum speed, the accelerations measured agree very closely with the theoretically possible maximum accelerations. In maneuvers at higher air speeds the observed accelerations were smaller than those theoretically possible. ...

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### Characteristics of a single float seaplane during take-off

**Date:**January 1925

**Creator:**Crowley, J. W., Jr. & Ronan, K. M.

**Description:**At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field is investigating the get-away characteristics of an N-9H, a DT-2, and an F-5l, as representing, respectively, a single float, a double float, and a boat type of seaplane. This report covers the investigation conducted on the N-9H. The results show that a single float seaplane trims aft in taking off. Until a planing condition is reached the angle of attack is about 15 degrees and is only slightly affected by controls. When planing it seeks a lower angle, but is controllable through a widening range, until at the take-off it is possible to obtain angles of 8 degrees to 15 degrees with corresponding speeds of 53 to 41 M. P. H. or about 40 per cent of the speed range. The point of greatest resistance occurs at about the highest angle of a pontoon planing angle of 9 1/2 degrees and at a water speed of 24 M. P. H.

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### Characteristics of a boat type seaplane during take-off

**Date:**January 1926

**Creator:**Crowley, J. W. & Ronan, K. M.

**Description:**This report, on the planing and get-away characteristics of the F-5-L, gives the results of the second of a series of take-off tests on three different seaplanes conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the suggestion of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department. The single-float seaplane was the first tested and the twin-float seaplane is to be the third. The characteristics of the boat type were found to be similar to the single float, the main difference being the increased sluggishness and relatively larger planing resistance of the larger seaplane. At a water speed of 15 miles per hour the seaplane trims aft to about 12 degrees and remains in this angular position while plowing. At 2.25 miles per hour the planing stage is started and the planing angle is immediately lowered to about 10 degrees. As the velocity increases the longitudinal control becomes more effective but over control will produce instability. At the get-away the range of angle of attack is 19 degrees to 11 degrees with velocities from the stalling speed through about 25 per cent of the speed range.

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### Investigation of slipstream velocity

**Date:**January 1925

**Creator:**Crowley, J. W., Jr.

**Description:**These experiments were made at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, to investigate the velocity of the air in the slipstream in horizontal and climbing flight to determine the form of expression giving the slipstream velocity in terms of the airspeed of the airplane. The method used consisted in flying the airplane both on a level course and in climb at full throttle and measuring the slipstream velocity at seven points in the slipstream for the whole speed range of the airplane in both conditions. In general the results show that for both condition, horizontal and climbing flights, the slipstream velocity v subscript 3 and airspeed v can be represented by straight lines and consequently the equations are of the form: v subscript s = mv+b where m and b are constant. (author).

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### Forces on airships in gusts

**Date:**January 1925

**Creator:**Burgess, C. P.

**Description:**In this report it is shown that determining the instantaneous angle of pitch, the acceleration of the gust is as important as its maximum velocity or yaw. Hitherto it has been assumed that the conditions encountered in gusts could be approximately represented by considering the airship to be at an instantaneous angle of yaw or pitch (according to whether the gust is horizontal or vertical), the instantaneous angle being tan to the (-1) power (v/v), where v is the component of the velocity of the gust at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the ship, and v is the speed of the ship. An expression is derived for this instantaneous angle in terms of the speed and certain aerodynamic characteristics of the airship, and of the maximum velocity and the acceleration of the gust, and the application of the expression to the determination of the forces on the ship is illustrated by numerical examples.

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### Reduction of observed airplane performance to standard conditions

**Date:**January 1929

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report shows how the actual performance of an airplane varies with air temperature when the pressure is held constant. This leads to comparatively simple methods of reducing observed data to standard conditions. The new methods which may be considered exact for all practical purposes, have been used by the Navy Department for about a year, with very satisfactory results. The report also contains a brief historical review of the important papers which have been published on the subject of performance reduction, and traces the development of the standard atmosphere. (author).

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### The effect of flight path inclination on airplane velocity

**Date:**January 1927

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in order to supply a systematic study of the relations between the flight velocity V and its horizontal component V subscript H, in power glides. Curves of V and V subscript H plotted against the inclination of the flight path 0 are given, together with curves which show the maximum values of V subscript H and the corresponding values of 0. Curves are also given showing the effect of small departures from the horizontal in high speed performance testing.

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### Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

**Date:**January 1924

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.

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### Relative efficiency of direct and geared drive propellers

**Date:**January 1924

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report is an extension of NACA-TR-168 and has been prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to show the relative values of various direct and geared drives. It is well known that in general a geared-down propeller has higher efficiency than a direct-drive propeller, but the literature on this subject does not present the data in such form that the aeronautical engineer can readily visualize the effect of gearing. This report has been prepared to show the actual net gain or loss in maximum efficiency due to the use of various modifications of the conventional two-bladed, direct-drive propeller. (author).

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### The general efficiency curve for air propellers

**Date:**January 1924

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report presents a formula which may be used to obtain a "general efficiency curve" in addition to the well-known maximum efficiency curve. These two curves, when modified somewhat by experimental data, enable performance calculations to be made without detailed knowledge of the propeller. The curves may also be used to estimate the improvement in efficiency due to reduction gearing, or to judge the performance of a new propeller design.

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### Two practical methods for the calculation of the horizontal tail area necessary for a statically stable airplane

**Date:**January 1929

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report is concerned with the problem of calculation of the horizontal tail area necessary to give a statically stable airplane. Two entirely different methods are developed, and reduced to simple formulas easily applied to any design combination. Detailed instructions are given for use of the formulas, and all calculations are illustrated by examples. The relative importance of the factors influencing stability is also shown. (author).

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### Charts for graphical estimation of airplane performance

**Date:**January 1925

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report contains a series of charts which were developed in order to simplify the estimation of airplane performance. Charts are given for estimating propeller diameter and efficiency, maximum speed, initial rate of climb, absolute ceiling, service ceiling, climb in 10 minutes, time to climb to any altitude, maximum speed at any altitude, and endurance. A majority of these charts are based on the equations given in NACA Technical Report no. 173. Plots of pressure and density against altitude in standard air are also given for convenience. It must be understood that the charts giving propeller diameter, maximum speed, initial rate of climb, absolute ceiling, and speeds at altitudes are approximations subject to considerable error under certain conditions. These particular charts should not be used as a substitute for detailed calculations when accuracy is required, as, for example, in military proposals. (author).

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### The application of propeller test data to design and performance calculations

**Date:**January 1925

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report is a study of a test data on a family of Durand's propellers (nos. 3, 7, 11, 82, 113, 139), which is fairly representative of conventional design. The test data are so plotted that the proper pitch and diameters for any given set of conditions are readily obtained. The same data are plotted in other forms which may be used for calculating performance when the ratio of pitch to diameter is known. These new plots supply a means for calculating the performance, at any altitude, of airplanes equipped with normal or supercharged engines. The coefficients used and the methods of plotting adopted in this report coordinate the results of a few tests into complete families of curves covering the entire range of p/d ordinarily used. This method of analyzing test data enables an investigator to plan tests systematically and leads to useful application of test data.

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### Standard atmosphere - tables and data

**Date:**January 1926

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**Detailed tables of pressures and densities are given for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet. In addition to the tables the various data pertaining to the standard atmosphere have been compiled in convenient form for ready reference. This report is an extension of NACA-TR-147.

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### Bending moments, envelope, and cable stresses in non-rigid airships

**Date:**January 1923

**Creator:**Burgess, C. P.

**Description:**This report describes the theory of calculating the principal stresses in the envelope of a nonrigid airship used by the Bureau of Aeronautics, United States Navy. The principal stresses are due to the gas pressure and the unequal distribution of weight and buoyancy, and the concentrated loads from the car suspension cables. The second part of the report deals with the variations of tensions in the car suspension cables of any type of airship, with special reference to the rigid type, due to the propeller thrust or the inclination of the airship longitudinally.

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### Reliable formulae for estimating airplane performance and the effects of changes in weight, wing area, or power

**Date:**January 1924

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S.

**Description:**This report contains the derivation and the verification of formulae for predicting the speed range ratio, the initial rate of climb, and the absolute ceiling of an airplane. Curves used in the computation are given in NACA-TR-171. Standard formulae for service ceiling, time of climb, cruising range, and endurance are also given in the conventional forms.

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### The reduction of airplane flight test data to standard atmosphere conditions

**Date:**January 1926

**Creator:**Diehl, Walter S. & Lesley, E. P.

**Description:**This report was prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in order to supply the need of practical methods of reducing observed performance to standard conditions with a minimum of labor. The first part gives a very simple approximate method of reducing performance in climb, and is particularly adapted to work not requiring extreme accuracy. The second part gives a somewhat more elaborate and more accurate method which is well suited to general flight test reduction. The third part gives the conventional method of calibrating air-speed indicators and reducing the indicated speeds to true air speeds. An appendix gives working tables and charts for the standard atmosphere. (author).

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