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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Year: 1923
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Evolution of the helicopter

Evolution of the helicopter

Date: March 1, 1923
Creator: Balaban, K.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tests on air propellers in yaw

Tests on air propellers in yaw

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Description: This report contains the results of tests to determine the thrust (pull) and torque characteristics of air propellers in movement relative to the air in a line oblique to the line of the shaft, and specifically when such angle of obliquity is large, as in the case of helicopter flight with the propeller serving for both sustentation and traction.
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The decay of a simple eddy

The decay of a simple eddy

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Bateman, H
Description: The principal result obtained in this report is a generalization of Taylor's formula for a simple eddy. The discussion of the properties of the eddy indicates that there is a slight analogy between the theory of eddies in a viscous fluid and the quantum theory of radiation. Another exact solution of the equations of motion of viscous fluid yields a result which reminds one of the well-known condition for instability in the case of a horizontally stratified atmosphere.
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The six-component wind balance

The six-component wind balance

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Zahm, A F
Description: Dr. Zahm's report is a description of the six-component wind-tunnel balance in use at the Aerodynamic Laboratory, Washington Navy Yard. The description of the balance gives the mechanical details and the method of operation, and is accompanied by line drawings showing the construction of the balance. The balance is of particular interest, as it allows the model to be set up quickly and accurately in roll, pitch, and yaw, without stopping the wind. It is possible to measure automatically, directly, and independently the drag, cross-wind force, and lift; also the rolling, pitching, and yawing moments. It is also possible to make the balance self-recording.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Standard atmosphere

Standard atmosphere

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Gregg, Willis Ray
Description: This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.
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Analysis of stresses in German airplanes

Analysis of stresses in German airplanes

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Hoff, Wilhelm
Description: This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.
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Internal stresses in laminated construction

Internal stresses in laminated construction

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Heim, A L; Knauss, A C & Seutter, Louis
Description: This report reviews the procedure employed in an investigation of the sources and influence of internal stresses in laminated construction, and discusses the influence of shrinkage and swelling stresses caused by atmospheric conditions upon the tensile strength across grain in laminated construction with special reference to airplane propellers. The investigation covered three sources of internal stress, namely, the combination of plain-sawed and quarter-sawed material in the same construction, the gluing together of laminations of different moisture contents, and the gluing together of laminations of different densities. Glued specimens and free specimens, made up under various manufacturing conditions, were subjected to various climatic changes inducing internal stresses and then were tested.
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Experimental research on air propellers V

Experimental research on air propellers V

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Description: In previous reports on experimental research on air propellers, by W. F. Durand and E. P. Lesley, as contained in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics reports nos. 14, 30, and 64, the investigations were made progressively and each without reference to results given in preceding reports and covering only information relating to forms perhaps adjacent in geometrical form and proportion. This report is a review of the entire series of results of the preceding reports with a view of examining through graphical and other appropriate means the nature of the history of the characteristics of operation as related to the systematic variations in characteristics of forms, etc., through the series of such characteristics.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Damping coefficients due to tail surfaces in aircraft

Damping coefficients due to tail surfaces in aircraft

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Chu, Lynn
Description: The object of the investigation described in this report was to compare the damping coefficients of an airfoil as calculated from a knowledge of the static characteristics of the section with those obtained experimentally with an oscillation. The damping coefficients as obtained, according to the conventional notation, can be considered either as due to pitching or as due to yawing, the oscillation in these experiments being so arranged that the surfaces oscillate about a vertical axis. This is in reality the case when the influence is yawing about the standard Z-axis, but it can also be considered as a pitching motion when the model is so rigged that its standard Y-axis becomes vertical. The horizontal oscillation has the advantage of eliminating the gravity action and avoiding the use of counterweights, whose presence in the wind tunnel is undesirable because of their interference with the air flow. The real point of the investigation was to separate the damping due to rotation from that due to translation. By varying the distance between the center of pressure and the center of rotation on the oscillator, the variation of damping moment can be observed and the rotational and translational effects can be separated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Reeid, H J E
Description: Emphasized here is the desirability of using recording instruments in the investigation of the characteristics of airplanes with particular reference to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) control force recorder. Given here are photographs, records, and a description of the instrument developed by NACA for investigations on different types of aircraft. Described here is an instrument for recording control forces. At present, this control force recorder registers only the forces exerted on the stick. However, attachments are being designed to enable the forces on the rudder bar also to be recorded. The instrument in its final form will consist of three parts, namely, the recorder, the controller for the stick, and the controller for the rudder. The first two are in use now. The theory of operation is simple. In the controller, which is slipped over and fastened to the stick, are small electrical resistances which vary with the force applied to the handle. The recording apparatus then consists of suitable variable resistances properly connected to galvanometers whose deflections are proportional to the forces applied to the stick.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A study of airplane maneuvers with special reference to angular velocities

A study of airplane maneuvers with special reference to angular velocities

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Reid, J E
Description: This investigation was undertaken by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of increasing our knowledge on the behavior of the airplane during various maneuvers and to obtain values of the maximum angular velocities and accelerations in flight. The method consisted in flying a JN4H airplane through various maneuvers while records were being taken of the control position, the air speed, the angular velocity and the acceleration along the Z axis. The results showed that the maximum angular velocity about the X axis of radians per second in a barrel roll. The maximum angular acceleration about the X axis of -2.10 radians per (second) to the 2nd power occurred in a spin, while the maximum about the Y axis was 1.40 radians per (second) to the 2nd power when pulling suddenly out of a dive. These results have direct application to the design of airplane parts, such as propeller shaft and instruments.
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A study of taking off and landing an airplane

A study of taking off and landing an airplane

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Carroll, T
Description: This report covers the results of an investigation carried on at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of discussing the various methods of effecting the take-off and the landing of an airplane, and to make a direct analysis of the control movements, the accelerations, and air speeds during these the maneuvers. The recording instruments developed at the laboratory were used in this test and the records obtained by them were made the basis for a comparative study of the two extreme methods of taking off (the tail-high and tail-low methods) and of various types of landings. The records should be of considerable value to a student pilot in enabling him to visualize the movements of the controls and the consequent effect upon the air speed and acceleration.
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The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

Date: September 1, 1923
Creator: Matthews, Robertson & Gardiner, A W
Description: Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Control in circling flight

Control in circling flight

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H & Allen, E T
Description: This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of developing instruments that would record the forces and positions of all three controls, and to obtain data on the behavior of an airplane in turns. All the work was done on a standard rigged JN4H (airplane no. 2 of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, report no. 70). It was found that the airplane was longitudinally unstable and nose heavy; that it was laterally unstable, probably due to too little dihedral; and that it was directionally unstable, due to insufficient fin area, this last being very serious, for in case of a loss of rudder control the airplane immediately whips into a spin from which there is no way of getting it out. On the other hand, it was found possible to fly quite satisfactorily with the rudder locked, and safely, though not so well, with the ailerons locked.
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Controllability and maneuverability of airplanes

Controllability and maneuverability of airplanes

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H & Brown, W G
Description: This investigation was conducted for the purpose of studying the behavior of the JN4H airplane in free flight under the action of its controls and from this to arrive at satisfactory definitions and coefficients for controllability and maneuverability. The method consisted in recording the angular velocity about the three axes, together with the air speed, control positions, and acceleration. (author).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Preliminary experiments to determine scale and slip-stream effects on a 1/24th size model of a JN4H biplane

Preliminary experiments to determine scale and slip-stream effects on a 1/24th size model of a JN4H biplane

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: This work was undertaken to obtain results on a small model of a complete airplane which might be used for comparison with corresponding tests made in full flight. Somewhat similar tests have been previously made at various other laboratories; but as certain discrepancies exist between corresponding tests in different tunnels, it has been deemed advisable to obtain a direct comparison for this particular installation. The present work covers tests on a one-twenty-fourth scale model at speeds varying from 6.7 m/sec. (15 m.p.h.) to 40.2 m/sec, (90 m.p.h.). A slip stream correction has been obtained by the use of a small belt-driven propeller mounted in front of the model, and force coefficients thus obtained are compared with the measurements of the same forces made in full flight on a geometrically similar airplane. This report gives lift, drag, and longitudinal moment values obtained in tests of a particularly accurate model over a wide range of speeds. A measure of the slip stream corrections on lift and drag forces was obtained by the use of a power-driven model propeller. Measurements were also made of forces and longitudinal moments for all angles from 0 degree to 360 degrees.
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The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane  I

The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane I

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This work was undertaken to determine as completely as possible the distribution of pressure over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane, and to analyze the relation of this pressure to the structural loads and the longitudinal stability. The investigation is divided into three parts, of which this the first. The first part of the investigation is for the purpose of determining the pressure distribution over two horizontal tail surfaces in uniform free flight; the second part to conduct tests of similar tail planes in the wind tunnel; and the third part to determine the pressure distribution on the horizontal tail surfaces during accelerated flight on the full-size airplane.
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The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane  III

The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane III

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H & Brown, W G
Description: This report contains the results of an investigation of the distribution of pressure over the tail surfaces of a full-sized airplane during accelerated flight for the purpose of determining the magnitude of the tail and fuselage stresses in maneuvering. As the pressures in accelerated flight change in value with great rapidity, it was found that the liquid manometer used in the first part of this investigation would not be at all suitable under these conditions; so it was necessary to design and construct a new manometer containing a large number of recording diaphragm gauges for these measurements. Sixty openings on the tail surfaces were connected to this manometer and continuous records of pressures for each pair of holes were taken during various maneuvers. There were also recorded, simultaneously with the pressures, the normal acceleration at the center of gravity and the angular position of all the controls. The present investigation consisted in measuring on a standard rigged JN4H airplane the distribution of pressure over the whole of the horizontal tail surfaces while the airplane was being put through maneuvers as violently as it was thought safe, including spinning and pulling out of dives.
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Pressure distribution over the rudder and fin of an airplane in flight

Pressure distribution over the rudder and fin of an airplane in flight

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H & Brown, W G
Description: This investigation was carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of determining the loads which occur on the vertical tail surfaces in flight. The method consisted in measuring the pressures simultaneously at 28 points on the rudder and fin by means of a recording multiple manometer. The results show that the maximum load encountered in stunting was 7 pounds per square foot on the rudder and fin, and it is probable that this might rise to 10 pounds per square foot in a violent barrel roll; but in steady flight the average loads do not exceed 0.6 pound per square foot. The maximum load on the rudder and fin may occur at the same instant as the maximum load on the horizontal tail surfaces and the maximum normal acceleration. The torsional moment about the axis of the fuselage due to the rudder and fin may rise as high as 250 foot-pound. The results obtained from this investigation have a direct application to the design of the rudder, fin, and fuselage.
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Pressure distribution over thick airfoils - model tests

Pressure distribution over thick airfoils - model tests

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H & Bacon, D L
Description: This investigation was undertaken to study the distribution of loading over thick wings of various types. The unloading on the wing was determined by taking the pressure at a number of holes on both the upper and lower surfaces of a model wing in the wind tunnel. The results from these tests show, first, that the distribution of pressure over a thick wing of uniform section is very little different from that over a thin wing; second, that wings tapering either in chord or thickness have the lateral center of pressure, as would be expected, slightly nearer the center of the wings; and, third, that wings tapering in plan form and with a section everywhere proportional to the center section may be considered to have a loading at any point which is proportional to the chord when compared to a wing with a similar constant section. These tests confirm the belief that wings tapering both in thickness and plan form are of considerable structural value because the lateral center of pressure is thereby moved toward the center of the span.
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Influences in the selection of a cycle for small high speed engines running on solid or airless injection with compression ignition

Influences in the selection of a cycle for small high speed engines running on solid or airless injection with compression ignition

Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Matthews, Robertson
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Model supports and their effects on the results of wind tunnel tests

Model supports and their effects on the results of wind tunnel tests

Date: February 1, 1923
Creator: Bacon, David L
Description: The airflow about a model while being tested is often sufficiently affected by the model support to lead to erroneous conclusions unless appropriate corrections are used. In this paper some new material on the subject is presented, together with a review of the airfoil support corrections used in several other laboratories.
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The N.A.C.A. recording tachometer and angle of attack recorder

The N.A.C.A. recording tachometer and angle of attack recorder

Date: August 1, 1923
Creator: Reid, H J E
Description: This note contains photos and descriptions of airplane flight apparatus for use in conjunction with a recording galvanometer. In measuring the angle of attack a variable resistance is used, being controlled by a vane in the airstream. Thus it is only necessary to measure the change of resistance.
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Practical stability and controllability of airplanes

Practical stability and controllability of airplanes

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: The effect of the characteristics of an airplane on balance, stability, and controllability, based on free flight tests, is discussed particularly in respect to the longitudinal motion. It is shown that the amount of longitudinal stability can be varied by changing the position of the center of gravity or by varying the aspect ratio of the tail plane, and that the stability for any particular air speed can be varied by changing the camber of the tail plane. It is found that complete longitudinal stability may be obtained even when the tail plane is at all times a lifting surface. Empirical values are given for the characteristics of a new airplane for producing any desired amount of stability and control, or to correct the faults of an airplane already constructed. (author).
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