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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Year: 1921
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.
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Diagrams of airplane stability

Diagrams of airplane stability

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Batemen, H
Description: In this report a study is made of the effect on longitudinal and lateral oscillations of an airplane of simultaneous variations in two resistance derivatives while the remainder of the derivatives are constant. The results are represented by diagrams in which the two variable resistance derivatives are used as coordinates, and curves are plotted along which the modulus of decay of a long oscillation has a constant value. The same type of analysis is also carried out for the stability of the parachute. In discussing the stability of the helicopter it is concluded that the gyroscopic effect on stability will be greater than in the case of the airplane.
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Analysis of wing truss stresses including the effect of redundancies

Analysis of wing truss stresses including the effect of redundancies

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Warner, E P & Miller, R G
Description: Airplane wing trusses are generally designed to contain redundant members (stagger wires and external drag wires) which, according to common practice, are not taken into account in calculations, so as to simplify the stress analysis by rendering the structure statically determinate. A more accurate method, in which the redundancies are included, involves a solution by means of Castigliano's method of least work. For the purpose of demonstrating the practical application of the method of least work this report presents examples for stresses of several cases of loading worked out for a structure similar to that of the Curtiss JN-4h. Case 1 was taken as the condition of velocity of 100 miles per hour combined with the angle of attack of maximum lift. Case 1a assumed the same loading but neglected the distortion of wooden members in the least-work analysis. So little error was involved in case 1a that this simplified method was employed for each succeeding case. Case 2 assumed a diving speed of 120 miles per hour and an angle of attack of no lift. Case 3 was worked out for the conditions imposed by the sand load recommended in NACA technical note no. 6.
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The efficiency of small bearings in instruments of the type used in aircraft

The efficiency of small bearings in instruments of the type used in aircraft

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This report deals with the construction and properties of bearings and pivots for use in instruments. The static and running friction for both thrust and radial loads was determined for a number of conical pivots and cylindrical and ball bearings. The static rocking friction was also measured for several conical and ball bearings under a heavy load, especially to determine their suitability for use in N. P. L. (National Physical Laboratory) type wind tunnel balance. In constructing conical pivots and sockets it was found that the pivots should be hardened and highly polished, preferably with a revolving lap, and that the sockets should be made by punching with a hardened and polished punch. It was found that for a light load the conical pivots give less friction than any other type, and their wearing qualities when hardened are excellent. Very small ball bearings are unsatisfactory because the proportional accuracy of the balls and races is not high enough to insure smooth running. For rocking pivots under heavy loads it was found that a ball-and-socket bearing, consisting of a hemispherical socket and a sphere of smaller diameter concentric with it, with a row of small balls resting between the two, was ...
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Moisture resistant finishes for airplane woods

Moisture resistant finishes for airplane woods

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Dunlap, M E
Description: This report describes briefly a series of experiments made at the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, to determine the comparative moisture resistance of linseed oil, impregnation treatments, condensation varnishes, oil varnishes, enamels, cellulose varnishes, rubber, electroplated and sprayed metal coatings, and metal-leaf coatings when applied to wood. All coatings except rubber and electroplated metal coatings, which were not developed sufficiently to make them practical, admitted moisture in varying degrees. The most effective and most practical coating was found to be that of aluminum leaf.
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Data on the design of plywood for aircraft

Data on the design of plywood for aircraft

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Elmendorf, Armin
Description: This report makes available data which will aid the designer in determining the plywood that is best adapted to various aircraft parts. It gives the results of investigations made by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service at Madison, Wisconsin, for the Army and Navy Departments, and is one of a series of reports on the use of wood in aircraft prepared by the Forest Products Laboratory for publication by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The object of the study was to determine, through comprehensive tests, the mechanical and physical properties of plywood and how these properties vary with density, number, thickness, arrangement of the plies and direction of grain of the plies.
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Wind tunnel studies in aerodynamic phenomena at high speed

Wind tunnel studies in aerodynamic phenomena at high speed

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Caldwell, F W & Fales, E N
Description: A great amount of research and experimental work has been done and fair success obtained in an effort to place airplane and propeller design upon an empirical basis. However, one can not fail to be impressed by the apparent lack of data available toward establishing flow phenomena upon a rational basis, such that they may be interpreted in terms of the laws of physics. With this end in view it was the object of the authors to design a wind tunnel differing from the usual type especially in regard to large power and speed of flow. This report describes the wind tunnel at Mccook Field and gives the results of experiments conducted in testing the efficiency of the wind tunnel.
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Experimental research on air propellers  IV

Experimental research on air propellers IV

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Durand, W F & Lesley, E P
Description: This report states the results of investigations made upon numerous propeller models at the request of the Subcommittee on Aerodynamics, and contains valuable data for those interested in the design of air propellers.
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The art of writing scientific reports

The art of writing scientific reports

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: As the purpose of the report is to transmit as smoothly and as easily as possible, certain facts and ideas, to the average person likely to read it, it should be written in a full and simple enough manner to be comprehended by the least tutored, and still not be boring to the more learned readers.
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Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Date: October 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: The difficulties experienced in properly holding thin tipped or tapered airfoils while testing on an N.P.L. type aerodynamic balance even at low air speeds, and the impossibility of holding even solid metal models at the high speeds attainable at the National Advisory Committee's wind tunnel, necessitated the design of a balance which would hold model airfoils of any thickness and at speeds up to 150 m.p.h. In addition to mechanical strength and rigidity, it was highly desirable that the balance readings should require a minimum amount of correction and mathematical manipulation in order to obtain the lift and drag coefficients and the center of pressure. The balance described herein is similar to one in use at the University of Gottingen, the main difference lying in the addition of a device for reading the center of pressure directly, without the necessity of any correction whatsoever. Details of the design and operation of the device are given.
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Similitude tests on wind sections

Similitude tests on wind sections

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: None
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A mechanical device for illustrating airplane stability

A mechanical device for illustrating airplane stability

Date: December 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: An instrument is described which will illustrate completely in a qualitative sense the longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane. The instrument is primarily of use for the lecture room, but it is hoped that ultimately it will be possible to obtain quantitative results from it.
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Torsion of wing trusses at diving speeds

Torsion of wing trusses at diving speeds

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Miller, Roy G
Description: The purpose of this report is to indicate what effect the distortion of a typical loaded wing truss will have upon the load distribution. The case of high angle of incidence may be dismissed immediately from consideration as the loads on the front and rear trusses are balanced, and consequently there will be little angular distortion. A given angular distortion will have the maximum effect upon load distribution in the region of the angle of no-lift, because the slope of the lift curve is highest here, and it is here that the greatest angular distortion will occur, because the load on the front truss acts downward while the load on the rear truss acts upward.
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An investigation on the effect of raked wing tips

An investigation on the effect of raked wing tips

Date: November 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: This investigation was carried out by request of the United States Air Service in the wind tunnel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The results are here published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics as it is thought that they may be of general interest. Wings of the R.A.F. 6 section are tested with various angles of rake, and it is found that although rake has very little effect, a positive or negative rake of 30 degrees is the best.
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The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane II

The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane II

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H & Bacon, D L
Description: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the results obtained upon model tail surfaces can be used to accurately predict loads upon the full-sized tail; and also to find the distribution of load when large elevator angles are used, as the loads from such angles can not be obtained readily in free flight. The method consisted in using a metal horizontal tail surface inside of which small air passages, connecting with a series of holes in the surface, led the pressure off from the tail in rubber tubes. In this way the pressure at each of these holes was measured by a manometer at several angles of attack and several to the loading under similar conditions in the full-sized airplane and the manner of distribution is quite similar in the two cases when there is no slip stream.
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Calculation of wing spars

Calculation of wing spars

Date: August 1, 1921
Creator: Muller-Breslau, H
Description: The author presents a comparison and combination of the numerical and geometrical determinations of the maximum M, when calculating the maximum bay moment.
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The calculated performance of airplanes equipped with supercharging engines

The calculated performance of airplanes equipped with supercharging engines

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Kemble, E C
Description: In part one of this report are presented the theoretical performance curves of an airplane engine equipped with a supercharging compressor. In predicting the gross power of a supercharging engine, the writer uses temperature and pressure correction factors based on experiments made at the Bureau of Standards (NACA report nos. 45 and 46). Means for estimating the temperature rise in the compressor are outlined. Part two of this report presents an estimation of the performance curves of an airplane fitted with a supercharging engine. A supercharging installation suitable for commercial use is described, and it is shown that with the use of the compressor a great saving in fuel and a considerable increase in carrying capacity can be effected simultaneously. In an appendix the writer derives a theoretical formula for the correction of the thrust coefficient of an airscrew to offset the added resistance of the airplane due to the slip-stream effect.
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Statical longitudinal stability of airplanes

Statical longitudinal stability of airplanes

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Warner, Edward P
Description: This report, which is a continuation of the "Preliminary report on free flight testing" (report no. NACA-TR-70), presents a detailed theoretical analysis of statical stability with free and locked controls and also the results of many free flight test on several types of airplanes. In developing the theory of stability with locked controls an expression for pitching moment is derived in simple terms by considering the total moment as the sum of the moments due to wings and tail surface. This expression, when differentiated with respect to angle of incidence, enables an analysis to be made of the factors contributing to the pitching moment. The effects of slipstream and down wash are also considered and it is concluded that the C. G. Location has but slight effect or stability, and that stability is much improved by increasing the efficiency of the tail surfaces, which may be done by using an "inverted" tail plane. The results of free flight tests with locked controls are discussed at length and it is shown that the agreement between the experimental results and theory is very satisfactory. The theory of stability with free controls is not amendable to the simple mathematical treatment used in the ...
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The optical wing aligning device of the Langley Field tunnel

The optical wing aligning device of the Langley Field tunnel

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H & Bacon, D L
Description: Described here is a convenient and accurate method of aligning the wing chord with the airflow. The device was developed to permit rapid and accurate alignment of airfoils and models with the airstream passing through the tunnel. It consists of three main parts: a projector, a reflector, and a target. The arrangement, which is shown in a figure, has proven satisfactory in operation. It is far better than the old method of sighting across a long batten, as the operator of a balance may see the target and correctly judge the accuracy of his alignment. Whereas the old method required two operators and several minutes time to align to within 1/10 degree, this method enables one operator to align a wing to within 1/100 of a degree in a few seconds. This method also has the advantage of being able to measure the angle of the wing while the tunnel is running. Thus, the true angle of incidence is shown.
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The determination of the effective resistance of a spindle supporting a model airfoil

The determination of the effective resistance of a spindle supporting a model airfoil

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Davidson, W E & Bacon, D L
Description: An attempt was made to determine the effect of spindle interference on the lift of the airfoil by measuring moments about the axis parallel to the direction of air flow. The values obtained are of the same degree as the experimental error, and for the present this effect will be neglected. The results obtained using a U.S.A. 15 wing (plotted here) show that the correction is nearly constant from 0 degrees to 10 degrees incidence and that at greater angles its value becomes erratic. At such angles, however, the wing drag is so high that the spindle correction and its attendant errors become relatively small and unimportant.
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Lift theory of supporting surfaces : second article

Lift theory of supporting surfaces : second article

Date: September 1, 1921
Creator: Von Mises, R
Description: None
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The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

Date: January 1921
Creator: Heller, A.
Description: This report provides a description of the Benz 300 H.P. aircraft engine containing 12 cylinders placed at a 60° angle. It includes a detailed description of the development of the constructional points, particularly the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods, as well as the engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system. There are seven pages of illustrative figures at the end of the report.
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Tin soldering of aluminum and its alloys

Tin soldering of aluminum and its alloys

Date: October 1, 1921
Creator: Gallo, Gino
Description: A method is presented for soldering aluminum to other metals. The method adopted consists of a galvanic application to the surface of the light-metal parts to be soldered, of a layer of another metal, which, without reacting electrolytically on the aluminum, adheres strongly to the surface to which it is applied, and is, on the other hand, adapted to receive the soft solder. The metal found to meet the criteria best was iron.
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Distant-compass

Distant-compass

Date: June 1, 1921
Creator: Friedensburg, Walter & Miner, D M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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