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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Notes
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.
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The testing of aviation engines

The testing of aviation engines

Date: December 1, 1924
Creator: Dubois, R N
Description: None
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Theory of Lifting Surfaces, Part 2

Theory of Lifting Surfaces, Part 2

Date: August 1, 1920
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Description: A mathematical model is presented towards a theory of lifting and resistance on wings. It consists of a theory of multiplanes, conditions of flow at a great distance from the wing, lifting systems of minimum resistance, and free stream and stream limited by walls.
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Some effects of air flow on the penetration and distribution of oil sprays

Some effects of air flow on the penetration and distribution of oil sprays

Date: December 1, 1929
Creator: Rothrock, A M & Beardsley, E G
Description: Tests were made to determine the effects of air flow on the characteristics of fuel sprays from fuel injection valves. Curves and photographs are presented showing the airflow throughout the chamber and the effects of the air flow on the fuel spray characteristics. It was found that the moving air had little effect on the spray penetration except with the 0.006 inch orifice. The moving air did, however, affect the oil particles on the outside of the spray cone. After spray cut-off, the air flow rapidly distributed the atomized fuel throughout the spray chamber.
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Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack

Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack

Date: August 1, 1928
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J & Harris, Thomas A
Description: Force tests on a systematic series of wing systems over a range of angle of attack from minus forty-five degrees to plus ninety degrees are covered in this report. The investigation was made on monoplane and biplane wing models to determine the effects of variations of tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweepback, and airfoil profile.
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Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Reeid, H J E
Description: Emphasized here is the desirability of using recording instruments in the investigation of the characteristics of airplanes with particular reference to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) control force recorder. Given here are photographs, records, and a description of the instrument developed by NACA for investigations on different types of aircraft. Described here is an instrument for recording control forces. At present, this control force recorder registers only the forces exerted on the stick. However, attachments are being designed to enable the forces on the rudder bar also to be recorded. The instrument in its final form will consist of three parts, namely, the recorder, the controller for the stick, and the controller for the rudder. The first two are in use now. The theory of operation is simple. In the controller, which is slipped over and fastened to the stick, are small electrical resistances which vary with the force applied to the handle. The recording apparatus then consists of suitable variable resistances properly connected to galvanometers whose deflections are proportional to the forces applied to the stick.
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Notes on the theory of the accelerometer

Notes on the theory of the accelerometer

Date: May 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, E P
Description: None
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Tests of the N.P.L. airship models in the variable density wind tunnel

Tests of the N.P.L. airship models in the variable density wind tunnel

Date: September 1, 1927
Creator: Higgins, George J
Description: None
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Wind tunnel tests on airfoil boundary control using a backward opening slot

Wind tunnel tests on airfoil boundary control using a backward opening slot

Date: October 1, 1929
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Bamber, Millard J
Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of boundary layer control on the lift and drag of an airfoil equipped with a backward opening slot. Various slot locations, widths of opening, and pressures, were used. The tests were conducted in the Five-Foot Atmospheric Wind Tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The greatest increase in maximum lift was 96 per cent, the greatest decrease in minimum drag was 27 per cent, and the greatest increase in the ratio, maximum lift coefficient/minimum drag coefficient, was 151 per cent.
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Wind tunnel tests on an airfoil equipped with a split flap and a slot

Wind tunnel tests on an airfoil equipped with a split flap and a slot

Date: October 1, 1929
Creator: Bamber, Millard J
Description: The investigation described in this report is concerned with the changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil which are produced by a gauze-covered suction slot, located near the leading edge, and connected by an air passage to a split flap at the trailing edge. The tests were conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. At the larger values of lift coefficient where the action of the slot might be expected to be most effective, the pressure differences were such that the air flowed out of the slot rather than in through it, and in consequence, the maximum lift coefficient was decreased.
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Wind tunnel tests on a model of a monoplane wing with floating ailerons

Wind tunnel tests on a model of a monoplane wing with floating ailerons

Date: September 1, 1929
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Bamber, Millard J
Description: This report describes preliminary wind tunnel tests on a model of a monoplane wing equipped with wing tip floating ailerons. Lift and drag, as well as rolling and yawing moments, were measured.
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Resistance of streamline wires

Resistance of streamline wires

Date: March 1, 1928
Creator: Defoe, George L
Description: This note contains the results of tests to determine the resistance of four sizes of streamline wire. The investigation was conducted in the six-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made at various velocities and it was found that the resistance of streamline wires was considerably less than that of round wires of equivalent strength. Scale effect was also found since, with an increase of Reynolds Number, a decrease in the resistance coefficient was obtained.
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Resistance of a fifteen-centimeter disk

Resistance of a fifteen-centimeter disk

Date: December 1, 1926
Creator: Shoemaker, James M
Description: None
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The comparison of well-known and new wing sections tested in the variable density wind tunnel

The comparison of well-known and new wing sections tested in the variable density wind tunnel

Date: May 1, 1925
Creator: Higgins, George J
Description: Three groups of airfoils have been tested in the variable density wind tunnel. The first group contains three airfoils. The second group is a systematic series of twenty-seven airfoils. The third group consists of several frequently used wing sections.
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A dangerous seaplane landing condition

A dangerous seaplane landing condition

Date: May 1, 1928
Creator: Carroll, Thomas
Description: A peculiar phenomena in seaplane landing is observed and reported. The seaplane having executed a normal fast landing at low incidence, a forward movement of the control stick effected an unusual condition in that the seaplane left the water suddenly in an abnormal attitude. The observations describing this phenomena are offered as a warning against possible accident and as a conjectural cause of seaplane landing accidents of a certain kind.
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The formation of ice upon airplanes in flight

The formation of ice upon airplanes in flight

Date: August 1, 1929
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Mcavoy, William H
Description: This report describes the atmospheric conditions under which ice is formed upon the exposed parts of airplanes in flight. It identifies the formation found under different conditions, and describes some studies of preventative means.
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The formation of ice upon exposed parts of an airplane in flight

The formation of ice upon exposed parts of an airplane in flight

Date: July 1, 1928
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Mcavoy, Wm H
Description: In order to experimentally study the conditions leading to ice formation on aircraft surfaces, an aircraft was equipped with small auxiliary surfaces and aerodynamic shapes similar to struts, wires, Pitot heads, etc. This airplane was flown at an altitude where a temperature of 32 F was encountered, at such times as cloud formations could be found at the coincident altitude. Here it was discovered that ice formed rapidly in regard to quantity,character, shape, and rapidity of formation. An examination of this data, which confirms observations of pilots, indicates that the weight of ice collected can very possibly be sufficient to force the airplane to rapidly lose altitude on account of the increased loads. However, it is more evident that the malformation of the aerodynamic shapes may so increase the drag and reduce the lift so as to produce a loss of altitude even greater in consequence, the combination of the two working in the same direction having a double effect. Other adverse consequences are noted. The recommendation for the guidance of those who must encounter these conditions appears to lie entirely along the lines of avoidance.
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Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Date: January 1, 1922
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: None
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Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Date: October 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: The difficulties experienced in properly holding thin tipped or tapered airfoils while testing on an N.P.L. type aerodynamic balance even at low air speeds, and the impossibility of holding even solid metal models at the high speeds attainable at the National Advisory Committee's wind tunnel, necessitated the design of a balance which would hold model airfoils of any thickness and at speeds up to 150 m.p.h. In addition to mechanical strength and rigidity, it was highly desirable that the balance readings should require a minimum amount of correction and mathematical manipulation in order to obtain the lift and drag coefficients and the center of pressure. The balance described herein is similar to one in use at the University of Gottingen, the main difference lying in the addition of a device for reading the center of pressure directly, without the necessity of any correction whatsoever. Details of the design and operation of the device are given.
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Similitude tests on wind sections

Similitude tests on wind sections

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: None
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The variation in pressures in the cockpit fan airplane in flight

The variation in pressures in the cockpit fan airplane in flight

Date: November 1, 1928
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Mcavoy, Wm H
Description: The results of an investigation to determine the pressures in the open cockpit of a Vought VE-7 airplane are given. The observed values are small and the effect upon instruments is inconsiderable.
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The use of wheel brakes on airplanes

The use of wheel brakes on airplanes

Date: July 1, 1929
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Defrance, Smith J
Description: The results of tests to determine the effect of wheel brakes on the landing run of an airplane under conditions of load and at various wind velocities are presented.
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Tests of four racing type airfoils in the twenty-foot propeller research tunnel

Tests of four racing type airfoils in the twenty-foot propeller research tunnel

Date: September 1, 1929
Creator: Weick, Fred E
Description: Tests were made on four racing type airfoils in order to determine the high speed characteristics of the wings.
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Tests of rotating cylinders

Tests of rotating cylinders

Date: December 1, 1924
Creator: Reid, Elliott G
Description: Tests were made in the no. 1 wind tunnel at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to determine the air forces acting on rotating cylinders with axes perpendicular to the direction of motion. One cylinder had a circular cross-section, the other that of a greek cross.
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