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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Advanced Confidential Report
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Compressibility Effects in Aeronautical Engineering
Compressible-flow research, while a relatively new field in aeronautics, is very old, dating back almost to the development of the first firearm. Over the last hundred years, researches have been conducted in the ballistics field, but these results have been of practically no use in aeronautical engineering because the phenomena that have been studied have been the more or less steady supersonic condition of flow. Some work that has been done in connection with steam turbines, particularly nozzle studies, has been of value, In general, however, understanding of compressible-flow phenomena has been very incomplete and permitted no real basis for the solution of aeronautical engineering problems in which.the flow is likely to be unsteady because regions of both subsonic and supersonic speeds may occur. In the early phases of the development of the airplane, speeds were so low that the effects of compressibility could be justifiably ignored. During the last war and immediately after, however, propellers exhibited losses in efficiency as the tip speeds approached the speed of sound, and the first experiments of an aeronautical nature were therefore conducted with propellers. Results of these experiments indicated serious losses of efficiency, but aeronautical engineers were not seriously concerned at the time became it was generally possible. to design propellers with quite low tip. speeds. With the development of new engines having increased power and rotational speeds, however, the problems became of increasing importance.
Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA Low-Drag Tapered Wing with Straight Trailing Edge and Simple Split Flaps, Special Report
An investigation was conducted in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel of a tapered wing with straight railing edge having NACA 66 series low-drag airfoil sections and equipped with full-span and partial-span simple split flaps. The airfoil sections used were the NACA 66,2-116 at the root and the 66,2-216 at the tip. The primary purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of the split flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of the tapered wing. Complete lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients were determined for the plain wing and for each flap arrangement through a Reynold number range of 2,600,000 to 4,600,000. The results of this investigation indicate that values of maximum lift coefficient comparable to values obtained on tapered wings with conventional sections and similar flap installations can be obtained from wings with the NACA low-drag sections. The increment of maximum lift due to the split flap was found to vary somewhat with Reynold number over the range investigated. The C(sub L)max of the wing alone is 1.49 at a Reynolds number of 4,600,000; whereas with the partial-span simple split flap it is 2.22 and with the full-span arrangement, 2.80. Observations of wool tufts on the wing indicate that the addition of split flaps did not appreciable alter the pattern of the stall; even though the stall did occur more abruptly than with the wing alone.
A profile-drag investigation in flight on an experimental fighter-type airplane the North American XP-51
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Radiator Design and Installation - II, Special Report
A mathematical analysis of radiator design has been made. The volume of the radiator using least total power has been expressed in a single formula which shows that the optimum radiator volume is independent of the shape of the radiator and which makes possible the construction of design tables that give the optimum radiator volume per 100-horsepower heat dissipation as a function of the speed, of the altitude, and of one parameter involving characteristics of the airplane. Although, for a given set of conditions, the radiator volume using the least total power is fixed, the frontal area, or the length of the radiator needs to be separately specified in order to satisfy certain other requirement such as the ability to cool with the pressure drop available while the airplane is climbing. In order to simplify the specification for the shape of the radiator and in order to reduce the labor involved in calculating the detailed performance of radiators, generalized design curves have been developed for determining the pressure drop, the mass flow of air, and the power expended in overcoming the cooling drag of a radiator from the physical dimensions of the radiator. In addition, a table is derived from these curves, which directly gives the square root of the pressure drop required for ground cooling as a function of the radiator dimensions, of the heat dissipation and of the available temperature difference. Typical calculations using the tables of optimum radiator volume and the design curves are given. The jet power that can be derived from the heated air is proportional to the heat dissipation and is approximately proportional to the square of the airplane speed and to the reciprocal of the absolute temperature of the atmosphere. A table of jet power, per 100 horsepower of heat dissipation at various airplane speeds and altitudes is presented.
Preliminary Low-Drag-Airfoil and Flap Data from Tests at Large Reynolds Numbers and Low Turbulence
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A Brief Study of the Speed Reduction of Overtaking Airplanes by Means of Air Brakes, Special Report
As an aid to airplane designers interested in providing pursuit airplanes with decelerating devices intended to increase the firing time when overtaking another airplane, formulas are given relating the pertinent distances and speeds in horizontal flight to the drag increase required. Charts are given for a representative parasite-drag coefficient from which the drag increase, the time gained, and the closing distance may be found. The charts are made up for three values of the ratio of the final speed of the pursuing airplane to the speed of the pursued airplane and for several values of the ratio of the speed of the pursued airplane to the initial speed of the pursuing airplane. Charts are also given indicating the drag increases obtainable with double split flaps and with conventional propellers. The use of the charts is illustrated by an example in which it is indicated that either double split flaps or, under certain ideal conditions, reversible propellers should provide the speed reductions required.
Effects of Direction of Propeller Rotation on the Longitudinal Stability of the 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XB-28 Airplane with Flaps Neutral, Special Report
The effects of direction of propeller rotation on factors affecting the longitudinal stability of the XB-28 airplane were measured on a 1/10-scale model in the 7- by 10-foot tunnel of the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The main effect observed was that caused by regions of high downwash behind the nacelles (power off as well as power on with flaps neutral). The optimum direction of propeller rotation, both propellers rotating up toward the fuselage, shifted this region off the horizontal tail and thus removed its destabilizing effect. Rotating both propellers downward toward the fuselage moved it inboard on the tail and accentuated the effect, while rotating both propellers right hand had an intermediate result. Comparisons are made of the tail effects as measured by force tests with those predicted from the point-by-point downwash and velocity surveys in the region of the tail. These surveys in turn are compared with the results predicted from available theory.
Study of Turning Performance of a Fighter-Type Airplane Particularly as Affected by Flaps and Increased Supercharging, Special Report
Results of a study to determine the effects on turning performance due to various assumed modifications to a typical Naval fighter airplane are presented. The modifications considered included flaps of various types, both part and full space, increased supercharging, and increased wing loading. The calculations indicated that near the low-speed end of the speed range, the turning performance, as defined by steady level turns at a given speed, would be improved to some extent by any of the flaps considered at altitudes up to about 25,000 feet. (If turning is not restricted to the conditions of no loss of speed or altitude, more rapid turning can, of course, be accomplished with the aid of flaps, regardless of altitude.) Fowler flaps and NACA slotted flaps appeared somewhat superior to split or perforated split flaps for maneuvering purposes, particularly if the flap position is not adjustable. Similarly, better turning performance should be realized with full-span than with part-span flaps. Turning performance over the lower half of the speed range would probably not be materially improved at any altitude by increased supercharging of the engine unless the propeller were redesigned to absorb the added power more effectively; with a suitable propeller the turning performance at high altitudes could probably be greatly improved with increased supercharging. A reduction in wing area with the aspect ratio held constant would result in impairment of turning performance over practically the entire speed range at all altitudes.
Preliminary Wind-Tunnel Tests of the Effect of Nacelles on the Characteristics of a Twin-Engine Bomber Model with Low-Drag Wing, Special Report
Tests were made in the NACA 19-foot pressure tunnel of a simplified twin-engine bomber model with an NACA low-drag wing primarily to obtain an indication of the effects of engine nacelles on the characteristics of the model both with and without simple split trailing-edge flaps. Nacelles with conventional-type cowlings representative of those used on an existing high-performance airplane and with NACA high-speed type E cowlings were tested. The tests were made without propeller slipstream. The aerodynamic effects of adding the nacelles to the low-drag wing were similar to the effects commonly obtained by adding similar nacelles to conventional wings. The maximum lift coefficient without flaps was slightly increased, but the increment in maximum lift due to deflecting the flaps was somewhat decreased. The stalling characteristics were improved by the presence of the nacelles. Addition of the nacelles had a destabilizing effect on the pitching moments, as is usual for nacelles that project forward of the wing. The drag increments due to the nacelles were of the usual order of magnitude, with the increment due to the nacelles with NACA type E cowlings approximately one-third less than that of the nacelles with conventional cowlings with built-in air scoops.
Flight Measurements of the Aileron Characteristics of a Grumman F4F-3 Airplane
The aileron characteristics of a Grumman F4F-3 airplane were determined in flight by means of NACA recording and indicating instruments. The results show that the ailerons met NACA minimum requirements for satisfactory control throughout a limited speed range. A helix angle of approximately 0.07 radian was produced with flaps down at speeds from 90 to 115 miles per hour indicated airspeed and with flaps up from 115 to 200 miles per hour. With flaps up at 90 miles per hour, the helix angle dropped to 0.055 radian; above 200 miles per hour heavy aileron stick forces seriously restricted maneuverability in roll.
Tests of an NACA 66,2-420 Airfoil of 5-Foot Chord at High Speed, Special Report
This report covers tests of a 5-foot model of the NACA 66,2-420 low-drag airfoil at high speeds including the critical compressibility speed. Section coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment, and extensive pressure-distribution data are presented. The section drag coefficient at the design lift coefficient of 0.4 increased from 0.0042 at low speeds to 0.0052 at a Mach number of 0.56 (390 mph at 25,000 ft altitude). The critical Mach number was about 0.60. The results cover a Reynold number range from 4 millions to 17 millions.
Wind-Tunnel Development of Ailerons for the Curtiss XP-60 Airplanem Special Report
An investigation was made in the LWAL 7- by 10-foot tunnel of internally balanced, sealed ailerons for the Curtiss XP-60 airplane. Ailerons with tabs and. with various amounts of balance were tested. Stick forces were estimated for several aileron arrangements including an arrangement recommended for the airplane. Flight tests of the recommended arrangement are discussed briefly in an appendix, The results of the wind-tunnel and flight tests indicate that the ailerons of large or fast airplanes may be satisfactorily balanced by the method developed.
Tests of a heated low-drag airfoil
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Tests of a Highly Cambered Low-Drag-Airfoil Section with a Lift-Control Flap, Special Report
Tests were made in the NACA two-dimensional low turbulence pressure tunnel of a highly cambered low-drag airfoil (NACA 65,3-618) with a plain flap designed for lift control. The results indicate that such a combination offers attractive possibilities for obtaining low profile-drag coefficients over a wide range of lift coefficients without large reductions of critical speed.
The Effect of Compressibility on the Growth of the Laminar Boundary Layer on Low-Drag Wings and Bodies
The development of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid is considered. Formulas are given for determining the boundary-layer thickness and the ratio of the boundary-layer Reynolds number to the body Reynolds number for airfoils and bodies of revolution. It i s shown that the effect of compressibility will profoundly alter the Reynolds number corresponding to the upper limit of the range of the low-drag coefficients . The available data indicate that for low-drag and high critical compressibility speed airfoils and bodies of revolution, this effect is favorable.
NACA Radio Ground-Speed System for Aircraft, Special Report
A method that utilizes the Doppler effect on radio signals for determining the speed of an airplane and the distance traveled by the airplane has been developed and found to operate satisfactorily. In this method, called the NACA radio ground-speed system, standard readily available radio equipment is used almost exclusively and extreme frequency stability of the transmitters is not necessary. No complicated equipment need be carried in the airplane, as the standard radio transmitter is usually adequate. Actual flight tests were made in which the method was used and the results were consistent with calibrated air speed indications and stop-watch measurements. Inasmuch as the fundamental accuracy of the radio method is far better than either of the checking systems used, no check was made on the limitations of the accuracy.
Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Compressibility on the Maximum Lift Coefficient, Special Report
Preliminary data are presented on the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with Mach number. The data were obtained from tests in the 8-foot high-speed tunnel of three NACA 16-series airfoils of 1-foot chord. Measurements consisted primarily of pressure-distribution measurements in order to illustrate the nature of the phenomena. It was found that the maximum lift coefficient of airfoils is markedly affected by compressibility even at Mach numbers as low as 0.2. At high Mach numbers pronounced decrease of the maximum lift coefficient was found. The magnitude of the effects of compressibility on the maximum lift coefficient and the low speeds at which these effects first appear indicate clearly that consideration of the take-off thrust for propellers will give results seriously in error if these considerations are based on the usual low-speed maximum-lift-coefficient data generally used.
Determination of Flight Paths of an SBD-1 Airplane in Simulated Diving Attacks, Special Report
An investigation has been made to determine the motions of and the flight paths describe by a Navy dive-bombing airplane in simulated diving attacks. The data necessary to evaluate these items, with the exception of the atmospheric wind data, were obtained from automatic recording instruments installed entirely within the airplane. The atmospheric wind data were obtained from the ground by the balloon-theodolite method. The results of typical dives at various dive angles are presented in the form of time histories of the motion of the airplane as well as flight paths calculated with respect to still air and with respect to the ground.
Observations of compressibility phenomena in flight
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Physical data on certain alloys for high temperature applications
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Flight tests of an all-movable vertical tail on the Fairchild XR2K-1 airplane
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Wind tunnel tests of ailerons at various speeds I : ailerons of 0.20 airfoil chord and true contour with 0.35 aileron-chord extreme blunt nose balance on the NACA 66,2-216 airfoil
Hinge-moment, lift, and pressure-distribution measurements were made in the two-dimensional test section of the NACA stability tunnel on a blunt-nose balance-type aileron on an NACA 66,2-216 airfoil at speeds up to 360 miles per hour corresponding to a Mach number of 0.475. The tests were made primarily to determine the effect of speed on the action of this type of aileron. The balance-nose radii of the aileron were varied from 0 to 0.02 of the airfoil chord and the gap width was varied from 0.0005 to 0.0107 of the airfoil chord. Tests were also made with the gap sealed.
Wind-tunnel tests of ailerons at various speeds II : ailerons of 0.20 airfoil chord and true contour with 0.60 aileron-chord sealed internal balance on the NACA 66,2-216 airfoil
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Determination of general relations for the behavior of turbulent boundary layers
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Flight measurements of compressibility effects on a three-blade thin Clark Y propeller operating at constant advance-diameter ratio and blade angle
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NACA Mach number indicator for use in high-speed tunnels
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Wind-tunnel investigation of control-surface characteristics XIII : various flap overhangs used with a 30-percent-chord flap in an NACA 66-009 airfoil
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Wind tunnel tests of ailerons at various speeds IV : ailerons of 0.20 airfoil chord and true contour with 0.35 aileron-chord extreme blunt-nose balance on the NACA 23012 airfoil
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Calculated and measured turning performance of a Navy F2A-3 airplane as affected by the use of flaps
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Effects of mean-line loading on the aerodynamic characteristics of some low-drag airfoils
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Notes on the effect of surface distortions on the drag and critical Mach number of airfoils
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Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Low-Drag Airfoil Section with a Double Slotted Flap
Tests were made of an 0.309-chord double-slotted flap on an NACA 65, 3-118, a equals 1.0 airfoil section to determine drag, lift, and pitching-moment characteristics for a range of flap deflections. Results indicate that combination of a low-drag airfoil and a double-slotted flap, of which the two parts moved as a single unit, gave higher maximum lift coefficients than have been obtained with plain, split, or slotted flaps on low-drag airfoils. Pitching moments were comparable to those obtained with other high-lift devices on conventional airfoils for similar lift coefficients.
Wind-tunnel tests of ailerons at various speeds III : ailerons of 0.20 airfoil chord and true contour with 0.35-aileron-chord Frise balance on the NACA 23012 airfoil
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Lift and drag data for 30 pusher-propeller shaft housings on an NACA 65,3-018 airfoil section
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Wind tunnel tests of ailerons at various speeds V : pressure distributions over the NACA 66,2-216 and NACA 23012 airfoils with various balances on 0.20-chord ailerons
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A comparison at high speed of the aerodynamic merits of models of medium bombers having thickened wing roots and having wings with nacelles
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Investigation of flow in an axially symmetrical heated jet of air
The work done under this contract falls essentially into two parts: the first part was the design and construction of the equipment and the running of preliminary tests on the 3-inch jet, carried out by Mr. Carl Thiele in 1940; the second part consisting in the measurement in the 1-inch jet flow in an axially symmetrical heated jet of air. (author).
Preliminary aerodynamic and structural tests showing the effect of compressive load on the fairness of a low-drag wing specimen with chordwise hat-section stiffeners
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Wind-tunnel data on the aerodynamic characteristics of airplane control surfaces
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Wind-tunnel investigation of control-surface characteristics XV : various contour modifications of a 0.30-airfoil-chord plain flap on an NACA 66(215)-014 airfoil
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Collection of balanced-aileron test data
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Effect of tilt of the propeller axis on the longitudinal-stability characteristics of single-engine airplanes
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The theory of propellers IV : thrust, energy, and efficiency formulas for single- and dual-rotating propellers with ideal circulation distribution
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Wind-tunnel investigation of ailerons on a low-drag airfoil I : the effect of aileron profile
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Wind-tunnel investigation of ailerons on a low-drag airfoil II : the effect of thickened and beveled trailing edges
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Comparison of calculated and experimental propeller characteristics for four-, six-, and eight-blade single-rotating propellers
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A Concise Theoretical Method for Profile-Drag Calculation; Advance Report
In this report a method is presented for the calculation of the profile drag of airfoil sections. The method requlres only a knowledge of the theoretical velocity distribution and can be applied readily once this dlstribution is ascertained. Comparison of calculated and experimental drag characteristics for several airfoils shows a satisfactory agreement. Sample calculatlons are included.
Considerations of wake-excited vibratory stress in a pusher propeller
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The determination of span load distribution at high speeds by use of high-speed wind-tunnel section data
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Flight investigation of boundary-layer control by suction slots on an NACA 35-215 low-drag airfoil at high Reynolds numbers
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