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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
The testing of aviation engines

The testing of aviation engines

Date: December 1, 1924
Creator: Dubois, R N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Material compatibility with gaseous fluorine

Material compatibility with gaseous fluorine

Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Douglass, H. W. & Price, H. G., Jr.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Design of Airplane-engine Superchargers

The Design of Airplane-engine Superchargers

Date: October 1, 1937
Creator: Von Der Null, W.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Droplet Impingement and Ingestion by Supersonic Nose Inlet in Subsonic Tunnel Conditions

Droplet Impingement and Ingestion by Supersonic Nose Inlet in Subsonic Tunnel Conditions

Date: May 1, 1958
Creator: Gelder, Thomas F.
Description: The amount of water in cloud droplet form ingested by a full-scale supersonic nose inlet with conical centerbody was measured in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel. Local and total water impingement rates on the cowl and centerbody surfaces were also obtained. All measurements were made with a dye-tracer technique. The range of operating and meteorological conditions studied was: angles of attack of 0 deg and 4.2 deg, volume-median droplet diameters from about 11 to 20 microns, and ratios of inlet to free-stream velocity from about 0.4 to 1.8. Although the inlet was designed for supersonic (Mach 2.0) operation of the aircraft, the tunnel measurements were confined to a free-stream velocity of 156 knots (Mach 0.237). The data are extendable to other subsonic speeds and droplet sizes by dimensionless impingement parameters. Impingement and ingestion efficiencies are functions of the ratio of inlet to free-stream velocity as well as droplet size. For the model and range of conditions studied, progressively increasing the inlet velocity ratio from less than to greater than 1.0 increased the centerbody impingement efficiency and shifted the cowl impingement region from the inner- to outer-cowl surfaces, respectively. The ratio of water ingested by the inlet plane to that contained ...
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A Dye-Tracer Technique for Experimentally Obtaining Impingement Characteristics of Arbitrary Bodies and a Method for Determining Droplet Size Distribution

A Dye-Tracer Technique for Experimentally Obtaining Impingement Characteristics of Arbitrary Bodies and a Method for Determining Droplet Size Distribution

Date: March 1, 1955
Creator: VonGlahn, Uwe H.; Gelder, Thomas F. & Smyers, William H., Jr.
Description: A dye-tracer technique has been developed whereby the quantity of dyed water collected on a blotter-wrapped body exposed to an air stream containing a dyed-water spray cloud can be colorimetrically determined in order to obtain local collection efficiencies, total collection efficiency, and rearward extent of impingement on the body. In addition, a method has been developed whereby the impingement characteristics obtained experimentally for a body can be related to theoretical impingement data for the same body in order to determine the droplet size distribution of the impinging cloud. Several cylinders, a ribbon, and an aspirating device to measure cloud liquid-water content were used in the studies presented herein for the purpose of evaluating the dye-tracer technique. Although the experimental techniques used in the dye-tracer technique require careful control, the methods presented herein should be applicable for any wind tunnel provided the humidity of the air stream can be maintained near saturation.
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Effect of Ice and Frost Formations on Drag of NACA 65(sub 1) -212 Airfoil for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection

Effect of Ice and Frost Formations on Drag of NACA 65(sub 1) -212 Airfoil for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection

Date: June 1, 1953
Creator: Gray, V. H. & Von Glahn, U. H.
Description: The effects of primary and. runback icing and frost formations on the drag of an 8-foot-chord NACA 651-212 airfoil section were investigated over a range of angles of attack from 20 to 80 and airspeeds up to 260 miles per hour for icing conditions with liquid-water contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.4 grams per cubic meter and datum air temperatures of -30 to 30 F. The results showed that glaze-ice formations, either primary or runback, on the upper surface near the leading edge of the airfoil caused large and rapid increases in drag, especially at datum air temperatures approaching 32 F and in the presence of high rates of water catch. Ice formations at lower temperatures (rime ice) did not appreciably increase the drag coefficient over the initial (standard roughness) drag coefficient. Cyclic de-icing of the primary Ice formations on the airfoil leading-edge section permitted the drag coefficient to return almost to the bare airfoil drag value. Runback icing on the lower surface did not present a serious drag problem except when heavy spanwise ridges of runback ice occurred aft of the heatable area. Frost formations caused rapid and large increases in drag with incipient stalling of the airfoil.
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Effect of Ice Formations on Section Drag of Swept NACA 63A-009 Airfoil with Partial-Span Leading-Edge Slat for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection

Effect of Ice Formations on Section Drag of Swept NACA 63A-009 Airfoil with Partial-Span Leading-Edge Slat for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection

Date: March 15, 1954
Creator: VonGlahn, Uwe H. & Gray, Vernon H.
Description: The effects of primary and runback ice formations on the section drag of a 36 deg swept NACA 63A-009 airfoil section with a partial-span leading-edge slat were studied over a range of angles of attack from 2 to 8 deg and airspeeds up to 260 miles per hour for icing conditions with liquid-water contents ranging from 0.39 to 1.23 grams per cubic meter and datum air temperatures from 10 to 25 F. The results with slat retracted showed that glaze-ice formations caused large and rapid increases in section drag coefficient and that the rate of change in section drag coefficient for the swept 63A-009 airfoil was about 2-1 times that for an unswept 651-212 airfoil. Removal of the primary ice formations by cyclic de-icing caused the drag to return almost to the bare-airfoil drag value. A comprehensive study of the slat icing and de-icing characteristics was prevented by limitations of the heating system and wake interference caused by the slat tracks and hot-gas supply duct to the slat. In general, the studies showed that icing on a thin swept airfoil will result in more detrimental aerodynamic characteristics than on a thick unswept airfoil.
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Determination of rate, area, and distribution of impingement of of waterdrops on various airfoils from trajectories obtained on the differential analyzer

Determination of rate, area, and distribution of impingement of of waterdrops on various airfoils from trajectories obtained on the differential analyzer

Date: February 16, 1949
Creator: Guibert, A. G.; Janssen, E. & Robbins, W. M.
Description: None
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Effectiveness of Thermal-Pneumatic Airfoil-Ice-Protection System

Effectiveness of Thermal-Pneumatic Airfoil-Ice-Protection System

Date: April 13, 1951
Creator: Gowan, William H., Jr. & Mulholland, Donald R.
Description: Icing and drag investigations were conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel employing a combination thermal-pneumatic de-icer mounted on a 42-inch-chord NACA 0018 airfoil. The de-icer consisted of a 3-inch-wide electrically heated strip symmetrically located about the leading edge with inflatable tubes on the upper and lower airfoil surfaces aft of the heated area. The entire de-icer extended to approximately 25 percent of chord. A maximum power density of 9.25 watts per square inch was required for marginal ice protection on the airfoil leading edge at an air temperature of 00 F and an airspeed of 300 miles per hour. Drag measurements indicated, that without icing, the de-icer installation increased the section drag to approximately 140 percent of that of the bare airfoil; with the tubes inflated, this value increased to a maximum of approximately 620 percent. A 2-minute tube-inflation cycle prevented excessive ice formation on the inflatable area although small scattered residual Ice formations remained after inflation and were removed intermittently during later cycles. Effects of the time lag of heater temperatures after initial application of power and the insulating effect of ice formations on heater temperatures were also determined.
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Effects of surface roughness and extreme cooling on boundary-layer transition for 15 deg cone-cylinder in free flight at Mach numbers to 7.6

Effects of surface roughness and extreme cooling on boundary-layer transition for 15 deg cone-cylinder in free flight at Mach numbers to 7.6

Date: March 5, 1958
Creator: Rabb, L. & Krasnican, M. J.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

Date: May 1, 1948
Creator: Preston, G. Merritt & Blackman, Calvin C.
Description: A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted by the NACA to determine the effect of ice accretion on airplane performance. The maximum loss in propeller efficiency encountered due to ice formation on the propeller blades was 19 percent. During 87 percent of the propeller icing encounters, losses of 10 percent or less were observed. Ice formations on all of the components of the airplane except the propellers during one icing encounter resulted in an increase in parasite drag of the airplane of 81 percent. The control response of the airplane in this condition was marginal.
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Effects of extreme surface cooling on boundary-layer transition

Effects of extreme surface cooling on boundary-layer transition

Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Jack, J. R.; Wisniewski, R. J. & Diaconis, N. S.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Correlations Among Ice Measurements, Impingement Rates Icing Conditions, and Drag Coefficients for Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

Correlations Among Ice Measurements, Impingement Rates Icing Conditions, and Drag Coefficients for Unswept NACA 65A004 Airfoil

Date: February 1, 1958
Creator: Gray, Vernon H.
Description: An empirical relation has been obtained by which the change in drag coefficient caused by ice formations on an unswept NACA 65AO04 airfoil section can be determined from the following icing and operating conditions: icing time, airspeed, air total temperature, liquid-water content, cloud droplet impingement efficiencies, airfoil chord length, and angles of attack. The correlation was obtained by use of measured ice heights and ice angles. These measurements were obtained from a variety of ice formations, which were carefully photographed, cross-sectioned, and weighed. Ice weights increased at a constant rate with icing time in a rime icing condition and at progressively increasing rates in glaze icing conditions. Initial rates of ice collection agreed reasonably well with values predicted from droplet impingement data. Experimental droplet impingement rates obtained on this airfoil section agreed with previous theoretical calculations for angles of attack of 40 or less. Disagreement at higher angles of attack was attributed to flow separation from the upper surface of the experimental airfoil model.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack

Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack

Date: August 1, 1928
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J & Harris, Thomas A
Description: Force tests on a systematic series of wing systems over a range of angle of attack from minus forty-five degrees to plus ninety degrees are covered in this report. The investigation was made on monoplane and biplane wing models to determine the effects of variations of tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweepback, and airfoil profile.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wind-Tunnel Investigation at a Mach Number of 2.01 of the Aerodynamic Characteristics in Combined Angles of Attack and Sideslip of Several Hypersonic Missile Configurations with Various Canard Controls

Wind-Tunnel Investigation at a Mach Number of 2.01 of the Aerodynamic Characteristics in Combined Angles of Attack and Sideslip of Several Hypersonic Missile Configurations with Various Canard Controls

Date: March 10, 1958
Creator: Robinson, R. B.
Description: An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of several hypersonic missile configurations with various canard controls for an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg to about 28 deg at sideslip angles of about 0 deg and 4 deg at a Mach number of 2.01 has been made in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel. The configurations tested were a body alone which had a ratio of length to diameter of 10, the body with a 10 deg flare, the body with cruciform fins of 5 deg or 15 deg apex angle, and a flare-stabilized rocket model with a modified Von Karman nose. Various canard surfaces for pitch control only were tested on the body with the 10 deg flare and on the body with both sets of fins. The results indicated that the addition of a flared afterbody or cruciform fins produced configurations which were longitudinally and directionally stable. The body with 5 deg fins should be capable of producing higher normal accelerations than the flared body. A l l of the canard surfaces were effective longitudinal controls which produced net positive increments of normal force and pitching moments which progressively decreased with increasing angle of attack.
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Tabulated Pressure Data for a Series of Controls on a 40 Deg Sweptback Wing at Mach Numbers of 1.61 and 2.01

Tabulated Pressure Data for a Series of Controls on a 40 Deg Sweptback Wing at Mach Numbers of 1.61 and 2.01

Date: November 8, 1957
Creator: Lord, D. R.
Description: An investigation has been made at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01 and Reynolds numbers of 1.7 x l0(exp 6) and 3.6 x l0(exp 6) to determine the pressure distributions over a swept wing with a series of 14 control configurations. The wing had 40 deg of sweep of the quarter-chord line, an aspect ratio of 3.1, and a taper ratio of 0.4. Measurements were made at angles of attack from 0 deg to +/- 15 deg for control deflections from -60 deg to 60 deg. This report contains tabulated pressure data for the complete range of test conditions.
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Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Reeid, H J E
Description: Emphasized here is the desirability of using recording instruments in the investigation of the characteristics of airplanes with particular reference to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) control force recorder. Given here are photographs, records, and a description of the instrument developed by NACA for investigations on different types of aircraft. Described here is an instrument for recording control forces. At present, this control force recorder registers only the forces exerted on the stick. However, attachments are being designed to enable the forces on the rudder bar also to be recorded. The instrument in its final form will consist of three parts, namely, the recorder, the controller for the stick, and the controller for the rudder. The first two are in use now. The theory of operation is simple. In the controller, which is slipped over and fastened to the stick, are small electrical resistances which vary with the force applied to the handle. The recording apparatus then consists of suitable variable resistances properly connected to galvanometers whose deflections are proportional to the forces applied to the stick.
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Notes on the theory of the accelerometer

Notes on the theory of the accelerometer

Date: May 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, E P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comparison of Several Methods of Cyclic De-Icing of a Gas-Heated Airfoil

Comparison of Several Methods of Cyclic De-Icing of a Gas-Heated Airfoil

Date: June 22, 1953
Creator: Gray, Vernon H. & Bowden, Dean T.
Description: Several methods of cyclic de-icing of a gas-heated airfoil were investigated to determine ice-removal characteristics and heating requirements. The cyclic de-icing system with a spanwise ice-free parting strip in the stagnation region and a constant-temperature gas-supply duct gave the quickest and most reliable ice removal. Heating requirements for the several methods of cyclic de-icing are compared, and the savings over continuous ice prevention are shown. Data are presented to show the relation of surface temperature, rate of surface heating, and heating time to the removal of ice.
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Compatibility of Metals with Liquid Fluorine at High Pressures and Flow Velocities

Compatibility of Metals with Liquid Fluorine at High Pressures and Flow Velocities

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Schmidt, H. W.
Description: No abstract available.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comparison of Heat Transfer from Airfoil in Natural and Simulated Icing Conditions

Comparison of Heat Transfer from Airfoil in Natural and Simulated Icing Conditions

Date: September 1, 1951
Creator: Gelder, Thomas F. & Lewis, James P.
Description: An investigation of the heat transfer from an airfoil in clear air and in simulated icing conditions was conducted in the NACA Lewis 6- by 9-foot icing-research tunnel in order to determine the validity of heat-transfer data as obtained in the tunnel. This investiation was made on the same model NACA 65,2-016 airfoil section used in a previous flight study, under similar heating, icing, and operating conditions. The effect of tunnel turbulence, in clear air and in icingwas indicated by the forward movement of transition from laminar to turbulent heat transfer. An analysis of the flight results showed the convective heat transfer in icing to be considerably different from that measured in clear air and. only slightly different from that obtained in the icing-research tunnel during simulated icing.
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Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of area suction on the laminar boundary layer over an NACA 64A010 airfoil

Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of area suction on the laminar boundary layer over an NACA 64A010 airfoil

Date: April 26, 1948
Creator: Braslow, A. L.; Visconti, F. & Burrows, D. L.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Preliminary Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Performance of Republic F-105 Wing-Root Inlet Configurations at Various Angles of Attack and a Mach Number of 2.01

Preliminary Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Performance of Republic F-105 Wing-Root Inlet Configurations at Various Angles of Attack and a Mach Number of 2.01

Date: January 15, 1957
Creator: Kouyoumjian, W. L.
Description: A 1/13-scale model of the forebody of the Republic F-105 with twin-duct wing-root inlets was tested in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel through a range of angle of attack from -4 deg to 15 deg at a Mach number of 2.01 and a Reynolds number of approximately 3.4 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The tests were made with four configurations which incorporated varying amounts of sweep and stagger of the inlet leading edges, modifications to the areas of the boundary-layer diverter floor plate, and modifications to the area of the boundary-layer diverter bleed slots. The highest overall pressure recovery at an angle of attack of 0 deg (average total-pressure recovery, 0.84 mass-flow ratio, 0.98) was achieved with configuration having an inlet leading-edge sweep angle of 58 deg with no leading-edge stagger. Stagger was found to improve the angle-of- attack performance, but at a sacrifice in inlet efficiency for an angle of attack of 0 deg. The boundary-layer diverter floor height, of the order of one boundary-layer thickness, was satisfactory for bypassing the fuselage boundary layer. The boundary-layer diverter-plate bleed slots were effective in increasing the total-pressure recovery of the inlet. The total-pressure-recovery contour plots, taken at the ...
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Analysis of a Pneumatic Probe for Measuring Exhaust-Gas Temperatures with Some Preliminary Experimental Results

Analysis of a Pneumatic Probe for Measuring Exhaust-Gas Temperatures with Some Preliminary Experimental Results

Date: May 21, 1952
Creator: Scadron, Marvin D.
Description: A pneumatic probe based on continuity of mass flow through two restrictions separated by a cooling chamber was constructed to measure gas temperature at and beyond the limit of thermocouples. This probe consisted of a subsonic flat-plate orifice for the first restriction and a sonic-flow converging-diverging nozzle for the second restriction. The effect of variation in gas constants on the calibration is examined for common engine-exhaust gases. A high-temperature wind tunnel that allowed calibration of the probe at temperatures up to 2000 deg R and. Mach numbers up to 0.8 is described. Agreement to better than 30 deg R between pneumatic probe indication and the indication of a rake of radiation shielded thermocouples indicates that extrapolation of the calibration to higher temperatures is possible with fair accuracy.
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