You limited your search to:

  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Pressure distribution on wing ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes in flight
This paper is the first of a series of notes, each of which presents the complete results of pressure distribution tests made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, on single-wing ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes for a particular condition of flight. The level flight results are presented here in the form of curves and show the comparison between the pressure distribution over a representative thin wing, R.A.F.-15, and a moderately thick wing, U.S.A.-27, throughout the range of angle of attack.
Note on the air forces on a wing caused by pitching.
The following contains information on the air forces on a wing produced by it's pitching at a finite rate of angular velocity. The condition of smooth flow at the region of the trailing edge is maintained. The wing then experiences the same lift as if moving with the momentary velocity of the rear edge.
Airfoil lift with changing angle of attack
Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.
Mass distribution and performance of free flight models
This note deals with the mass distribution and performance of free flight models. An airplane model which is to be used in free flight tests must be balanced dynamically as well as statically, e.g., it must not only have a given weight and the proper center of gravity but also a given ellipsoid of inertia. Equations which relate the motions of an airplane and its model are given. Neglecting scale effect, these equations may be used to predict the performance of an airplane, under the action of gravity alone, from data obtained in making dropping tests of a correctly balanced model.
Experiments with fabrics for covering airplane wings
No Description
The comparison of well-known and new wing sections tested in the variable density wind tunnel
Three groups of airfoils have been tested in the variable density wind tunnel. The first group contains three airfoils. The second group is a systematic series of twenty-seven airfoils. The third group consists of several frequently used wing sections.
The estimation of airplane performance from wind tunnel tests on conventional airplane models
Calculations of the magnitude of the correction factors and the range of their variations for wind tunnel models used in making aircraft performance predictions were made for 23 wind tunnel models. Calculated performances were compared with those actually determined for such airplanes as have been built and put through flight test. Except as otherwise noted, all the models have interplane struts and diagonal struts formed to streamwise shape. Wires were omitted in all cases. All the models were about 18 inches in span and were tested in a 4-foot wind tunnel. Results are given in tabular form.
The drift of an aircraft guided towards it's destination by directional receiving of radio signals transmitted from the ground
Following a curved path increases the distance to be flown, and a type of radio navigation that forces the adoption of such a path is therefore less efficient than one that marks out a definite straight line between the point of departure and the intended destination, and holds the airplane to that line. To determine the loss of efficiency resulting from curvature of the path, calculations were made for two particular cases by the method of step-by-step integration. The calculations were based on the assumption that the pilot makes straightforward use of his radio for navigation and makes no allowance for drift. Results are given in tabular form for two airplanes flying 200 miles at 100 mph, one with a cross wind of 50 mph wind across course, and the other with a 20 mph wind across course. It is shown that the following of the curved path increases the time of flight and the air distance flown by 17 percent and 2.5 percent in the two cases.
Propeller design: extension of test data on a family of model propellers by means of the modified blade element theory II
This report is the second of a series of four on propeller design, and describes the method used to extend the data obtained from tests on a family of thirteen model propellers to include all propellers of the same form likely to be met in practice. This necessitates the development of a method of propeller analysis which when used to calculate the powers and efficiencies gives results which check the tests throughout their range.
Determination of the value of wood for structural purposes
No Description
Experience with geared propeller drives for aviation engines
I. The development of the gear wheels: (a) bending stresses; (b) compressive stresses; (c) heating; (d) precision of manufacture. II. General arrangement of the gearing. III. Vibration in the shaft transmission. An overview is given of experience with geared propeller drives for aviation engines. The development of gear wheels is discussed with emphasis upon bending stresses, compressive stresses, heating, and precision in manufacturing. With respect to the general arrangement of gear drives for airplanes, some principal rules of mechanical engineering that apply with special force are noted. The primary vibrations in the shaft transmission are discussed. With respect to vibration, various methods for computing vibration frequency and the influence of elastic couplings are discussed.
Tests of the Daimler D-IVa engine at a high altitude test bench
Reports of tests of a Daimler IVa engine at the test-bench at Friedrichshafen, show that the decrease of power of that engine, at high altitudes, was established, and that the manner of its working when air is supplied at a certain pressure was explained. These tests were preparatory to the installation of compressors in giant aircraft for the purpose of maintaining constant power at high altitudes.
Italian and French experiments on wind tunnels
Given here are the results of experiments conducted by Colonel Costanzi of the Italian Army to determine the influence of the surrounding building in which a wind tunnel was installed on the efficiency of the installation, and how the efficiency of the installation was affected by the design of the tunnel. Also given are the results of a series of experiments by Eiffel on 34 models of tunnels of different dimensions. This series of experiments was started in order to find out if, by changing the shape of the nozzle or of the diffuser of the large tunnel at Auteuil, the efficiency of the installation could be improved.
Relation of rib spacing to stress in wing planes
The stress relations to the fabric and the rib consequent upon a change of spacing between ribs in a wing plane are discussed. Considering the wing plane as a static structure, and ignoring the question of aerodynamic efficiency, it appears that the unit stress in the rib and fabric will remain constant for constant p if the linear dimensions of both rib and fabric are increased alike, viz., if wing and fabric remain geometrically similar. Since the bulge and the structural dimensions remain geometrically similar, the whole distended plane remains so, and hence should have the same pressure distribution and efficiency. If therefore the Burgess rule of making the rib spacing always one-fifth of the chord of the plane be valid, it must be valid for all others that are mechanically similar in structure and covering.
Soaring flight in Guinea
The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.
The effect of longitudinal moment of inertia upon dynamic stability
Free flight tests were carried out to show whether the longitudinal oscillations of a standard S.E.5A airplane are noticeably affected if its longitudinal moment of inertia is increased. These oscillations were taken by means of a self-recording instrument, the airplane having first its ordinary moment of inertia and then one increased by 14 percent. The period of oscillation was slightly longer after the increase of the moment of inertia, but the damping was not affected. Presented here are test results from an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring loaded, automatic injection valve was used. It was centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5-inch by 7-inch engine. A series of fuel injection valve nozzles with different arrangements of round orifices were tested, starting with orifices so small that impingement on the combustion chamber walls was impossible and increasing beyond the start of impingement. a :A table and curves are presented showing the performance of the engine with different nozzles. The test results are discussed, and some probable reasons given for the variation in performance with different nozzles on the basis of spray distribution.
Airplane performance as influenced by the use of a supercharged engine
The question of the influence of a supercharged engine on airplane performance is treated here in a first approximation, but one that gives an exact idea of the advantage of supercharging. Considered here is an airplane that climbs first with an ordinary engine, not supercharged, and afterwards climbs with a supercharged engine. The aim is to find the difference of the ceilings reached in the two cases. In the case of our figure, the ceiling from 25,000 feet is increased to 37,000 feet, the supercharging maintaining the power only up to 20,000 feet. This makes, in comparison with an engine without supercharging, an increase of about 50 percent.
Notes on the design of supercharged and overdimensioned aircraft engines
No Description
Static testing and proposed standard specifications
Static tests fall into two groups, the first of which is designed to load all members of the structure approximately in accordance with the worst loads which they carry in flight, while the second is directed to the testing of specific members which are suspected of weakness and which are difficult to analyze mathematically. The nature of the loading in the second type is different for every different test, but the purpose of the first is defined clearly enough to permit the adoption of some standard set of loading specifications, at least for airplanes of normal design. Here, an attempt is made to carry through an analysis leading to such a standard, the goal being the determination of a load which will simultaneously impose on every member of the airplane structure a stress equal to the worst it will carry in flight.
Notes on longitudinal stability and balance
No Description
Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus
No Description
Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts
For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.
A preliminary investigation of a new method for testing aerofoils in free flight
This report is a description of a new method of testing aerofoils in free flight devised by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The method consists in lowering below a flying airplane a large inverted aerofoil on three small steel wires in such a way that the lift on the aerofoil always keeps the wires tight. The resultant force is measured by the tension in the wires, and the direction of the resultant by the amount the wing trails backwards. A test was made on an aerofoil of the N.A.C.A. #64 section, 6 ft. in span and the results are compared with a similar section tested in the wind tunnel. This investigation indicates that by the use of suitable recording apparatus aerofoils may be accurately and conveniently tested at a Reynolds number, a velocity and a degree of turbulence, comparable with that on the full-sized airplane. Satisfactory experiments were also made in trailing a sphere and a streamlined body on single wires.
Variation in the number of revolutions of air propellers
No Description
Experiments with fabrics for covering airplane wings, to determine effect of method of installation
No Description
Notes on the construction and testing of model airplanes
Here, it is shown that the construction of an airplane model can and should be simplified in order to obtain the most reliable test data. General requirements for model construction are given, keeping in mind that the general purpose of wind tunnel tests on a model airplane is to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics, the static balance, and the efficiency of controls for the particular combination of wings, tail surfaces, fuselage, and landing gear employed in the design. These parts must be exact scale reproductions. Any appreciable variation from scale reproduction must be in the remaining parts of the model, i.e., struts, wires, fittings, control horns, radiators, engines, and the various attachments found exposed to the wind in special airplanes. Interplane bracing is discussed in some detail.
Reduction in efficiency of propellers due to slipstream
In the slipstream behind a propeller there is a considerable amount of kinetic energy which has been imparted to it by the engine without producing any corresponding propeller thrust. The increased absorption of power reduces the propeller efficiency. Attention has been previously directed to this question by Bendemann and Madelung and other writers. Their contribution serves to verify a simple method of calculating the reduction in the propeller efficiency due to the slip stream. That method of calculation is given here. Explanations and examples are given for as single propeller and for two propellers mounted in tandem.
Compressive strength of tapered airplane struts
No Description
The N.A.C.A. recording tachometer and angle of attack recorder
This note contains photos and descriptions of airplane flight apparatus for use in conjunction with a recording galvanometer. In measuring the angle of attack a variable resistance is used, being controlled by a vane in the airstream. Thus it is only necessary to measure the change of resistance.
Notes on specifications for French airplane competitions
Given here are the rules officially adopted by the Aeronautical Commission of the Aero Club of France for a flight competition to be held in France in 1920 at the Villacoublay Aerodrome. The prize will be awarded to the pilot who succeeds in obtaining the highest maximum and lowest minimum speeds, and in landing within the shortest distance.
The determination of the effective resistance of a spindle supporting a model airfoil
An attempt was made to determine the effect of spindle interference on the lift of the airfoil by measuring moments about the axis parallel to the direction of air flow. The values obtained are of the same degree as the experimental error, and for the present this effect will be neglected. The results obtained using a U.S.A. 15 wing (plotted here) show that the correction is nearly constant from 0 degrees to 10 degrees incidence and that at greater angles its value becomes erratic. At such angles, however, the wing drag is so high that the spindle correction and its attendant errors become relatively small and unimportant.
Loads and calculations of army airplanes
By comparing airplanes of known strength that have resisted all the usual and even extreme air loads with those that under like conditions were found to be insufficiently strong, the researchers, aided by scientific investigations, developed standards which are satisfactory for the calculation of airplane structures. Given here are standards applicable to loads on wing trusses, load factors for use in stress analysis, load factors required in sand testing, loads on control surfaces, loads on wing ribs, loads on landing gear, and rigidity of materials.
Progress made in the construction of giant airplanes in Germany during the war
The construction of giant airplanes was begun in Germany in August, 1914. The tables annexed here show that a large number of airplanes weighing up to 15.5 tons were constructed and tested in Germany during the War, and it is certain that no other country turned out airplanes of this weight nor in such large numbers. An examination of the tables shows that by the end of the War all the manufacturers had arrived at a well-defined type, namely an airplane of about 12 tons with four engines of 260 horsepower each. The aircraft listed here are discussed with regard to useful weight and aerodynamic qualities.
The photographic recording of small motions
Methods and equipment for recording small and sometimes rapid motions by photographic means are described, and the efficacy of photographic recording in such instances is evaluated. The optical system consisting of the light source, the mirror or prism for transmitting motion to the emergent beam, and a means of bringing the rays into focus on the film are discussed. Attention is given to the critical issue of mirror mounting. The film holder and the driving motor for the recording drum are described in detail. The authors conclude that the optical methods they describe are far more satisfactory than the recording pen, in compactness, in high natural period, and in elimination of friction. Costs are similar to mechanical methods. The development and reproduction of the record is an added complication, but the ease of duplicating the records is a decided advantage.
The problem of the turbo-compressor
In terminating the study of the adaptation of the engine to the airplane, we will examine the problem of the turbo-compressor,the first realization of which dates from the war; this will form an addition to the indications already given on supercharging at various altitudes. This subject is of great importance for the application of the turbo-compressor worked by the exhaust gases. As a matter of fact, a compressor increasing the pressure in the admission manifold may be controlled by the engine shaft by means of multiplication gear or by a turbine operated by the exhaust gas. Assuming that the increase of pressure in the admission manifold is the same in both cases, the pressure in the exhaust manifold would be greater in the case in which the compressor is worked by the exhaust gas and there would result a certain reduction of engine power which we must be able to calculate. On the other hand , if the compressor is controlled by the engine shaft, a certain fraction of the excess power supplied is utilized for the rotation of the compressor. In order to compare the two systems, it is there-fore necessary to determine the value of the reduction of power due to back pressure when the turbine is employed.
Regulations governing the issuance of certificates of airworthiness of aircraft in France
These regulations, approved by the Under Secretary of State for Aeronautics, in a ministerial decree 1124/2a, Feb. 19, 1923, cancels the regulations of Aug. 31, 1920, and supplements the decree of Aug. 14, 1920, fixing the conditions under which certificates of airworthiness may be issued,in conformity with Article 5 of said decree.
A short method of calculating torsional stresses in an airplane fuselage
This report deals with an investigation carried out in the Civil Engineering Laboratory of the University of California, to determine the accuracy of existing methods of computing the stresses in an airplane fuselage when subjected to torsion, and to derive a simple approximate formula for the rapid calculation of these stresses.
A method of determining the dimensions and horsepower of an airship for any given performance
A simple and easily applied method of calculating the dimensions and horsepower necessary for an airship to have any given performance is described and illustrated by examples. The method includes means for estimating the changes in performance or in size when modifications or new features are introduced into a design, involving increase or saving in weights, or changes in resistance or propulsive efficiency.
A study of static stability of airships
The first section deals with the theoretical side of statical stability of airships in general. The second section deals with preliminary tests of the model and experiments for the determination of effects due to change of tail area, aspect ratio, tail form, and tail thickness.
Determination of the lift and drag characteristics of an airplane in flight
Flight tests to determine lift and drag characteristics are discussed. A review is given of the fundamental principles on which the tests are based and on the forces acting on an airplane in the various conditions of steady flight. Glide with and without propeller thrust and the relation between angle of attack and the indicated airspeed for different conditions of steady flight are discussed. The glide test procedure and the problem of the propeller are discussed.
Air flow investigation for location of angle of attack head on a JN4h airplane
The technical staff of the NACA at Langley Field, has made a series of free flight tests with a JN4h airplane in order to find the best place for an instrument for measuring the angle of attack. A "neutral zone" was found where the air remains either at rest relative to the undisturbed air beyond the influence of the airplane, or is set in motion parallel to the motion of the airplane. This zone is about midway between the two wings and slightly in front of, or at the vertical plane through the leading edges of the wings but the exact position as well as the outlines of the zone varies considerably as the conditions of flight change.
Testing airplane fabrics
The following considerations determine the strength of airplane fabrics: 1. maximum air forces acting on the surfaces (including local stresses); 2. tensions produced in the fabrics, in the directions of both warp and filling; 3. factor of safety required. The question of the permissible depression of the fabric as affecting the aerodynamic requirements in regard to the maintenance of shape of the section, the tenacity and extensibility of the layer of dope, its strength and its permeability to water is almost as important.
High altitude flying
This note investigates the effect of high altitude or low atmospheric pressure upon the operation of an engine and the effect of the low pressure and lack of oxygen and of the very low temperatures upon the pilot and upon the performance of the airplane itself.
Standardization and aerodynamics
No Description
Note on the pressure distribution over the hull of elongated airships with circular cross section
This note, prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, contains the demonstration that the pressure around the circular cross section of an elongated airship, plotted against the diameter of symmetry, can be expected to be represented by a straight line.
The logarithmic polar curve-it's theory and application to the predetermination of airplane performance
The logarithmic polar curve has for several years been used by the most prominent aerodynamical laboratories as well as by airplane manufacturers in Europe. To show more clearly the practical application of the polar curve, a series of examples are given with suggestions for solution. After a discussion of the theory and the practical application of the polar curve, the following problems are discussed: climbing flight, speed at various altitudes, and the characteristics of two seater observation airplanes of recent design.
Sixth meeting of the members of the German Scientific Association for Aeronautics
No Description
Resume of the theory of naval and aerial propulsive propellers and of airplanes in the rectilinear flight
Though dissimilar, these two subjects have been united because they have some points in common. The computation of the movement of an airplane can only be correctly established if we are in a position to know exactly the thrust and resisting torque of the propeller for the various values of slip, which may vary greatly according to circumstance. The first part of the work concerns propellers and introduces as a fundamental variable, the true slip (delta) with respect to the effective pitch, which is the advance per revolution of the propeller corresponding to no thrust. The second part deals with characteristic curves of an airplane.
The 1000 HP traffic airplane of the Zeppelin Works in Staaken
No Description
Recent efforts and experiments in the construction of aviation engines
It became evident during World War I that ever-increasing demands were being placed on the mean power of aircraft engines as a result of the increased on board equipment and the demands of aerial combat. The need was for increased climbing efficiency and climbing speed. The response to these demands has been in terms of lightweight construction and the adaptation of the aircraft engine to the requirements of its use. Discussed here are specific efforts to increase flying efficiency, such as reduction of the number of revolutions of the propeller from 1400 to about 900 r.p.m. through the use of a reduction gear, increasing piston velocity, locating two crankshafts in one gear box, and using the two-cycle stroke. Also discussed are improvements in the transformation of fuel energy into engine power, the raising of compression ratios, the use of super-compression with carburetors constructed for high altitudes, the use of turbo-compressors, rotary engines, and the use of variable pitch propellers.