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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine
This report provides a description of the Benz 300 H.P. aircraft engine containing 12 cylinders placed at a 60° angle. It includes a detailed description of the development of the constructional points, particularly the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods, as well as the engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system. There are seven pages of illustrative figures at the end of the report.
Propeller design I : practical application of the blade element theory
This report is the first of a series of four on propeller design and contains a description of the blade elements or modified Drzewiecke theory as used in the Bureau of Aeronautics, U.S. Navy Department. Blade interference corrections are used which were taken from R.& M. NO. 639 of the British Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The airfoil characteristics used were obtained from tests of model propellers, not from tests of model wings.
An investigation of the characteristics of steel diaphragms for automatic fuel-injection valves
This research on steel diaphragms was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, as a part of a general investigation on fuel injection engines for aircraft. The work determined the load-deflection, load- deformation and hysteresis characteristics for single diaphragms having thicknesses from 0.00s inch to 0.012 inch, and for similar diaphragms tested in multiple having total thicknesses from 0.012 inch to 0.180 inch. The elastic limit loads and deflections, and rupture points of single diaphragms were also determined. Some work was done on diaphragms having central orifices in order to determine the effect of orifice diameter upon the load deflection characteristics.
The calculation of wing float displacement in single-float seaplanes
No Description
A load factor formula
The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.
Wall interference in closed type wind tunnels
A series of tests has been conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in the variable density wind tunnel on several airfoils of different sizes and sections to determine the effect of tunnel wall interference and to determine a correction which can be applied to reduce the error caused thereby. The use of several empirical corrections was attempted with little success. The Prandtl theoretical correction gives the best results and its use is recommended for correcting closed wind tunnel results to conditions of free air.
Is there any available source of heat energy lighter than gasoline?
No Description
The installation and correction of compasses in airplanes
The saving of time that results from flying across country on compass headings is beginning to be widely recognized. At the same time the general use of steel tube fuselages has made a knowledge of compass correction much more necessary than was the case when wooden fuselages were the rule. This paper has been prepared primarily for the benefit of the pilot who has never studied navigation and who does not desire to go into the subject more deeply than to be able to fly compass courses with confidence. It also contains material for the designer who wishes to install his compasses with the expectation that they may be accurately corrected.
Welding of high chromium steels
A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.
The velocity distribution caused by an airplane at the points of a vertical plane containing the span
A formula for the computation of the vertical velocity component on all sides of an airplane is deduced and discussed. The formation is of value for the interpretation of such free flight tests where two airplanes fly alongside each other to facilitate observation.
Tension experiments on diaphragm metals
Strips of german silver, steel, copper, duralumin, nickel and brass were tested in tension in an apparatus in which the change in deflection with time was measured by means of an interferometer. This change in deflection with time caused by the application and removal of a load is defined as "drift" and "recovery," respectively. It was measured in the time interval from approximately 5 seconds to 5 hours after loading. The data are given in a series of graphs in which the drift and recovery are plotted against time. The proportional drift and recovery in five hours are given for a number of the tests, and in addition are shown graphically for nickel and steel.
Large German airship stations
No Description
Tests of artificial flight at high altitudes
If we wish to form an accurate idea of the extraordinary progress achieved in aeronautics, a comparison must be made of the latest altitude records and the figures regarded as highest attainable limit some ten years ago. It is desirable, for two reasons, that we should be able to define the limit of the altitudes that can be reached without artificial aid. First, to know to what extent the human body can endure the inhalation of rarified air. Second, the mental capacity of the aviator must be tested at high altitudes and the limit known below which he is able to make reliable observations without being artificially supplied with oxygen. A pneumatic chamber was used for the most accurate observations.
Shape and strength of seaplane under-structures with special regard to seaworthiness
This report presents experiments and calculations for the purpose of determining the landing gear requirements upon the water. Moving pictures are given which furnish data and also may give both the magnitude and direction of the forces acting. Different classes of seaplanes are examined and proposals for calculation instructions are given.
High efficiency of seaplanes
A table is presented which includes data for calculating the index of efficiency. The author uses this data to conclude that seaplanes cannot be considered inferior to terrestrial airplanes.
Preliminary calculation of cylinder dimensions for aircraft engines
It is extremely important in building aircraft engines to determine the requisite cylinder dimensions as accurately as possible, in order that the weight required for a given power shall not be excessive. This report presents a calculation method that depends on the air requirement of the fuel.
Calculation of wing spars
The author presents a comparison and combination of the numerical and geometrical determinations of the maximum M, when calculating the maximum bay moment.
Glossary of terms used in flying boat hull construction
No Description
Calculation of wing spars
A simplified formula for calculating wing spars is presented.
Abacus giving the variation of the mean pressure of an aviation engine as a function of its speed of rotation
Comparing the results of the calculations for computing the mean pressure of an aviation engine for any number of revolutions, with those of experiment, the writer, by numerous examples, shows the perfect agreement between them. This report will show that, by means of a special abacus, an engineer can instantly plot the characteristics of an engine.
On the elementary relation between pitch, slip, and propulsive efficiency
The author examines the current theory on the importance of reducing slip in airplane propellers. The author feels an exaggerated importance is attached to this supposition and feels that the increase in friction by an increase in propeller area or number of revolutions can't be discounted.
The Oehmichen Peugeot helicopter
The first flights of the Oehmichen helicopter are detailed as well as various aspects of the construction.
The coupling of engines
This report examines the idea of coupling numerous engines together to turn a single propeller, which the author feels would free aircraft design from the problems of multi-engine and propeller design.
The Goebel rotary engine
This report presents a table of specifications of the rotary engine and a very brief description of some of the notable features such as the exhaust valves controlled by means of a fixed cam gear.
Commercial aviation in Germany : past and future
This review of commercial aviation includes postal delivery, package transport, and passenger transport. Both airplanes and airships are covered in this review.
The law relating to air currents
In the subdivided wing section profile, the diagram of the current is entirely changed and the harmful formation of eddies is avoided through premature deflection. Pressure equalization does not occur between the upper and under sides. This report presents a discussion of the various laws relating to wing design with the conclusion being that lift increases with more acute angles of attack.
Experience with geared propeller drives for aviation engines
I. The development of the gear wheels: (a) bending stresses; (b) compressive stresses; (c) heating; (d) precision of manufacture. II. General arrangement of the gearing. III. Vibration in the shaft transmission. An overview is given of experience with geared propeller drives for aviation engines. The development of gear wheels is discussed with emphasis upon bending stresses, compressive stresses, heating, and precision in manufacturing. With respect to the general arrangement of gear drives for airplanes, some principal rules of mechanical engineering that apply with special force are noted. The primary vibrations in the shaft transmission are discussed. With respect to vibration, various methods for computing vibration frequency and the influence of elastic couplings are discussed.
Tests of the Daimler D-IVa engine at a high altitude test bench
Reports of tests of a Daimler IVa engine at the test-bench at Friedrichshafen, show that the decrease of power of that engine, at high altitudes, was established, and that the manner of its working when air is supplied at a certain pressure was explained. These tests were preparatory to the installation of compressors in giant aircraft for the purpose of maintaining constant power at high altitudes.
Italian and French experiments on wind tunnels
Given here are the results of experiments conducted by Colonel Costanzi of the Italian Army to determine the influence of the surrounding building in which a wind tunnel was installed on the efficiency of the installation, and how the efficiency of the installation was affected by the design of the tunnel. Also given are the results of a series of experiments by Eiffel on 34 models of tunnels of different dimensions. This series of experiments was started in order to find out if, by changing the shape of the nozzle or of the diffuser of the large tunnel at Auteuil, the efficiency of the installation could be improved.
Notes on specifications for French airplane competitions
Given here are the rules officially adopted by the Aeronautical Commission of the Aero Club of France for a flight competition to be held in France in 1920 at the Villacoublay Aerodrome. The prize will be awarded to the pilot who succeeds in obtaining the highest maximum and lowest minimum speeds, and in landing within the shortest distance.
The determination of the effective resistance of a spindle supporting a model airfoil
An attempt was made to determine the effect of spindle interference on the lift of the airfoil by measuring moments about the axis parallel to the direction of air flow. The values obtained are of the same degree as the experimental error, and for the present this effect will be neglected. The results obtained using a U.S.A. 15 wing (plotted here) show that the correction is nearly constant from 0 degrees to 10 degrees incidence and that at greater angles its value becomes erratic. At such angles, however, the wing drag is so high that the spindle correction and its attendant errors become relatively small and unimportant.
Loads and calculations of army airplanes
By comparing airplanes of known strength that have resisted all the usual and even extreme air loads with those that under like conditions were found to be insufficiently strong, the researchers, aided by scientific investigations, developed standards which are satisfactory for the calculation of airplane structures. Given here are standards applicable to loads on wing trusses, load factors for use in stress analysis, load factors required in sand testing, loads on control surfaces, loads on wing ribs, loads on landing gear, and rigidity of materials.
Progress made in the construction of giant airplanes in Germany during the war
The construction of giant airplanes was begun in Germany in August, 1914. The tables annexed here show that a large number of airplanes weighing up to 15.5 tons were constructed and tested in Germany during the War, and it is certain that no other country turned out airplanes of this weight nor in such large numbers. An examination of the tables shows that by the end of the War all the manufacturers had arrived at a well-defined type, namely an airplane of about 12 tons with four engines of 260 horsepower each. The aircraft listed here are discussed with regard to useful weight and aerodynamic qualities.
The photographic recording of small motions
Methods and equipment for recording small and sometimes rapid motions by photographic means are described, and the efficacy of photographic recording in such instances is evaluated. The optical system consisting of the light source, the mirror or prism for transmitting motion to the emergent beam, and a means of bringing the rays into focus on the film are discussed. Attention is given to the critical issue of mirror mounting. The film holder and the driving motor for the recording drum are described in detail. The authors conclude that the optical methods they describe are far more satisfactory than the recording pen, in compactness, in high natural period, and in elimination of friction. Costs are similar to mechanical methods. The development and reproduction of the record is an added complication, but the ease of duplicating the records is a decided advantage.
The problem of the turbo-compressor
In terminating the study of the adaptation of the engine to the airplane, we will examine the problem of the turbo-compressor,the first realization of which dates from the war; this will form an addition to the indications already given on supercharging at various altitudes. This subject is of great importance for the application of the turbo-compressor worked by the exhaust gases. As a matter of fact, a compressor increasing the pressure in the admission manifold may be controlled by the engine shaft by means of multiplication gear or by a turbine operated by the exhaust gas. Assuming that the increase of pressure in the admission manifold is the same in both cases, the pressure in the exhaust manifold would be greater in the case in which the compressor is worked by the exhaust gas and there would result a certain reduction of engine power which we must be able to calculate. On the other hand , if the compressor is controlled by the engine shaft, a certain fraction of the excess power supplied is utilized for the rotation of the compressor. In order to compare the two systems, it is there-fore necessary to determine the value of the reduction of power due to back pressure when the turbine is employed.
Remarks on the Pressure Distribution over the Surface of an Ellipsoid, Moving Translationally Through a Perfect Fluid
This note, prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, contains a discussion of the pressure distribution over ellipsoids when in translatory motion through a perfect fluid. An easy and convenient way to determine the magnitude of the velocity and of the pressure at each point of the surface of an ellipsoid of rotation is described. The knowledge of such pressure distribution is of great practical value for the airship designer. The pressure distribution over the nose of an airship hull is known to be in such good agreement with the theoretical distribution as to permit basing the computation of the nose stiffening structure on the theoretical distribution of pressure.
On the distribution of lift along the span of an airfoil with displaced ailerons
The effect of an aileron displacement on the distribution of the lift along the span is computed for an elliptic wing of aspect ratio 6 for three conditions. The lift distribution caused by the aileron displacement is uniform and extends normally beyond the inner end of the ailerons. Hence, the displacement of an aileron with constant chord length may bring about passing the stalling point of the adjacent wing sections, if these were near this point before. Hence, such ailerons can become ineffective at low speeds. Tapering the aileron towards the inside suggests itself as a remedy.
Pressure distribution on the nose of an airship in circling flight
In recent tests on the pressures occurring on the envelope and control surfaces of the naval airship C-7, it was noted that the pressures on the nose of the airship, while flying in level circling flight, were symmetrically distributed. Such a condition can only occur when the nose of the airship is pointed directly into the wind, and to accomplish this in circling flight, the axis of the airship must then be parallel to the direction of the motion of the nose. The question was raised as to whether the same conditions occur generally on all airships in circling flight. It appears that airships flying in a constant, level, circling flight path will generally head very closely into the wind, and any deviation will be so slight that the distribution of pressure over the nose will be but slightly, if at all, changed from a symmetrical distribution.
Micarta propellers I : materials
Here, values for tension, compression edgewise of laminations, and transverse flatwise of laminations are given for Micarta made with various kinds of sheet material. The corresponding values for white oak are given for comparison. It was found by destructive and service tests that Micarta made with a good grade of cotton duck will give satisfactory service with most designs. In propellers having detachable blades, it is desirable that the root of the blade be of a small cross section to decrease the weight of the metal hub. Here the use of the special fabric or wood veneer offers advantages due to greater tensile strength. These materials, especially the wood veneer, produce stiffer blades than duck. This is also a value in controllable and reversible pitch designs where it is desirable that the plan form of the blades be symmetrical.
Structural weight of aircraft as affected by the system of design
Various details of design or arrangement of the parts of airplane structures are shown and discussed, the use of these devices having resulted in the production of structures of adequate strength, yet of a weight less than one-half of the usual construction.
Micarta Propellers II : method of construction
The methods used in manufacturing Micarta propellers differ considerably from those employed with wood propellers on account of the hardness of the materials. The propellers must be formed accurately to size in a mold and afterwards balanced without the customary trimming of the material from the tips. Described here are the pressing and molding processes, filing, boring, balancing, and curing.
The simplifying assumptions, reducing the strict application of classical hydrodynamics to practical aeronautical computations
No Description
Wind tunnel tests of fuselages and windshields
The tests described herein were made in 1918, in the old four-foot wind tunnel at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at the request of the Engineering Division of the U.S. Army Air Service. The results were given circulation only in official circles at that time. The interest of the work appears sufficient to justify its wider distribution even at this very late date.
Some tables of the factor of apparent additional mass
This note, prepared for publication by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, is a collection of the tables of the factor of apparent mass that have been published up to now. The theory of the motion of solids in a perfect fluid is of the greatest value for the study of most aerodynamic problems, and the additional apparent mass of an immersed solid is the most important characteristic for such theoretical numerical computations. It will therefore be helpful to have the most important values of the apparent mass - for some elementary cases - collected in a convenient form.
Propeller scale effect and body interference
This note shows that the main part of the discrepancy between full flight propeller performance and the performance of models in a wind tunnel is due to a scale effect, and that a minor part is caused by body interference. Analyses are made of propeller performances on several standard airplanes, and the actual brake horsepower compared with the power as calculated from model test data. The calculated power is based on that absorbed by a wind tunnel propeller model which is geometrically similar to the full scale propeller and is operating under the same ratio of V/nD.
Model supports and their effects on the results of wind tunnel tests
The airflow about a model while being tested is often sufficiently affected by the model support to lead to erroneous conclusions unless appropriate corrections are used. In this paper some new material on the subject is presented, together with a review of the airfoil support corrections used in several other laboratories.
Tests on an airplane model, AEG D I of the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesellschft, A-G, airplane construction section conducted at the Gottingen Model Testing Laboratory for Aerodynamics
Tests were carried out in the small wind tunnel of the Gottingen establishment on a complete model of the AEG D I airplane. The agreement between the model and the complete airplane applies particularly to the wings, which have ribs cut out of sheet metal and built up in exactly the same manner as in the actual airplane. Various series of tests were carried out with this model in which one or the other of the control surfaces were adjusted to various angles, while the others remained in their neutral positions. During the first three series of tests, the stabilizer was set at a positive angle of 3 degrees, 45' relative to the axis of the engine crankshaft, after which further tests at a 6 degree 30' we made. Finally, the model was tested with the tail group removed. With the elevators set in the prescribed positions, the lift, the drag, and the moments about an axis passing through the center of gravity and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry were measured. All three sets of readings are given as absolute coefficients. Where one of the other control surfaces was deflected from its normal position, the moment produced by that adjustment of the surface was also measured.
The air propeller, its strength and correct shape
It is possible to give a propeller such a shape that, under given conditions, viz., a definite speed of revolution and flying speed, the bending stresses in the blades will assume quite an insignificant magnitude.
Determination of climbing ability
The vertical distribution of the pressure, temperature, and density of the atmosphere varies from day to day. Thus, rates of climb on different days cannot be compared directly, but must be corrected with reference to a standard rate of diminution of air density with increasing altitude. The following problem, therefore, has to be solved. An airplane has climbed on a certain day under prevailing atmospheric conditions as shown by the barograph. How would the same airplane climb in a standard atmosphere? This problem has already been dealt with by Everling, using the monthly and yearly mean of the vertical temperature distribution. Von Mises solved the problem by arithmetical methods. Here, conditions are examined which shorten or lengthen the climbing time. In establishing the corrected barogram, computation seems more practical than graphical treatment. The basis of the answer to the question answered here is summed up in the remark that lift, drag, propeller thrust, and torque and engine power depend only on the density of the air and do not change with the pressure and temperature, provided that the density remains constant.
Wind tunnel tests of five strut sections in yaw
In the first series of wind tunnel tests, the drag and cross wing force of all the struts were measured at a wind speed of 30 mph and at angles of yaw from 0 degrees to 20 degrees. To determine the magnitude of the VL effect, each strut was tested at zero yaw and at a series of speeds ranging from 15 to 38 mph. Although designed as fairings for cables, part of these sections gave such high crosswind forces that they seemed to have possibilities as airfoils. Therefore, the lift (identical with the crosswind force) and drag coefficients were recalculated for four sections on the basis of broadside area to make them comparable with wing coefficients. The general conclusion that the best fineness ratio for a strut is a function of the Reynolds number, decreasing steadily as that quality increases, has of course been reached many times, both by theory and experiment. It was confirmed here once more, and the effect of form on sensitiveness to VL is also strikingly shown. It seems probable that this effect of form is largely due to interaction between the nose and tail, and to the influence which the form of the nose exerts over the whole flow around the strut.