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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Evolution of the helicopter

Evolution of the helicopter

Date: March 1, 1923
Creator: Balaban, K.
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

The factors that determine the minimum speed of an airplane

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The testing of aviation engines

The testing of aviation engines

Date: December 1, 1924
Creator: Dubois, R N
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack

Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack

Date: August 1, 1928
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J & Harris, Thomas A
Description: Force tests on a systematic series of wing systems over a range of angle of attack from minus forty-five degrees to plus ninety degrees are covered in this report. The investigation was made on monoplane and biplane wing models to determine the effects of variations of tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweepback, and airfoil profile.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Notes on the N.A.C.A. control force recorder

Date: July 1, 1923
Creator: Reeid, H J E
Description: Emphasized here is the desirability of using recording instruments in the investigation of the characteristics of airplanes with particular reference to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) control force recorder. Given here are photographs, records, and a description of the instrument developed by NACA for investigations on different types of aircraft. Described here is an instrument for recording control forces. At present, this control force recorder registers only the forces exerted on the stick. However, attachments are being designed to enable the forces on the rudder bar also to be recorded. The instrument in its final form will consist of three parts, namely, the recorder, the controller for the stick, and the controller for the rudder. The first two are in use now. The theory of operation is simple. In the controller, which is slipped over and fastened to the stick, are small electrical resistances which vary with the force applied to the handle. The recording apparatus then consists of suitable variable resistances properly connected to galvanometers whose deflections are proportional to the forces applied to the stick.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Notes on the theory of the accelerometer

Notes on the theory of the accelerometer

Date: May 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, E P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The art of writing scientific reports

The art of writing scientific reports

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: As the purpose of the report is to transmit as smoothly and as easily as possible, certain facts and ideas, to the average person likely to read it, it should be written in a full and simple enough manner to be comprehended by the least tutored, and still not be boring to the more learned readers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The comparison of well-known and new wing sections tested in the variable density wind tunnel

The comparison of well-known and new wing sections tested in the variable density wind tunnel

Date: May 1, 1925
Creator: Higgins, George J
Description: Three groups of airfoils have been tested in the variable density wind tunnel. The first group contains three airfoils. The second group is a systematic series of twenty-seven airfoils. The third group consists of several frequently used wing sections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The formation of ice upon exposed parts of an airplane in flight

The formation of ice upon exposed parts of an airplane in flight

Date: July 1, 1928
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & Mcavoy, Wm H
Description: In order to experimentally study the conditions leading to ice formation on aircraft surfaces, an aircraft was equipped with small auxiliary surfaces and aerodynamic shapes similar to struts, wires, Pitot heads, etc. This airplane was flown at an altitude where a temperature of 32 F was encountered, at such times as cloud formations could be found at the coincident altitude. Here it was discovered that ice formed rapidly in regard to quantity,character, shape, and rapidity of formation. An examination of this data, which confirms observations of pilots, indicates that the weight of ice collected can very possibly be sufficient to force the airplane to rapidly lose altitude on account of the increased loads. However, it is more evident that the malformation of the aerodynamic shapes may so increase the drag and reduce the lift so as to produce a loss of altitude even greater in consequence, the combination of the two working in the same direction having a double effect. Other adverse consequences are noted. The recommendation for the guidance of those who must encounter these conditions appears to lie entirely along the lines of avoidance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Date: January 1, 1922
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Langley Field wind tunnel apparatus

Date: October 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: The difficulties experienced in properly holding thin tipped or tapered airfoils while testing on an N.P.L. type aerodynamic balance even at low air speeds, and the impossibility of holding even solid metal models at the high speeds attainable at the National Advisory Committee's wind tunnel, necessitated the design of a balance which would hold model airfoils of any thickness and at speeds up to 150 m.p.h. In addition to mechanical strength and rigidity, it was highly desirable that the balance readings should require a minimum amount of correction and mathematical manipulation in order to obtain the lift and drag coefficients and the center of pressure. The balance described herein is similar to one in use at the University of Gottingen, the main difference lying in the addition of a device for reading the center of pressure directly, without the necessity of any correction whatsoever. Details of the design and operation of the device are given.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Similitude tests on wind sections

Similitude tests on wind sections

Date: March 1, 1921
Creator: Bacon, D L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tests of rotating cylinders

Tests of rotating cylinders

Date: December 1, 1924
Creator: Reid, Elliott G
Description: Tests were made in the no. 1 wind tunnel at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to determine the air forces acting on rotating cylinders with axes perpendicular to the direction of motion. One cylinder had a circular cross-section, the other that of a greek cross.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wall interference in closed type wind tunnels

Wall interference in closed type wind tunnels

Date: March 1, 1927
Creator: Higgins, George J
Description: A series of tests has been conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, in the variable density wind tunnel on several airfoils of different sizes and sections to determine the effect of tunnel wall interference and to determine a correction which can be applied to reduce the error caused thereby. The use of several empirical corrections was attempted with little success. The Prandtl theoretical correction gives the best results and its use is recommended for correcting closed wind tunnel results to conditions of free air.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A warning concerning the take-off with heavy load

A warning concerning the take-off with heavy load

Date: July 1, 1927
Creator: Reid, Elliott G & Carroll, Thomas
Description: A successful take-off can be made with an airplane so heavily loaded that it cannot climb to a height greater than the span of its wings. The explanation is that the power required to maintain level flight at an altitude of the order of the wing span may be as much as 50 per cent greater than that necessary when the airplane is just clear of the ground. The failure of heavily loaded airplanes to continue climbing at the rate attained immediately after the actual take-off is a grave hazard and has resulted in great risk or catastrophe in three notable cases which are cited.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A study of static stability of airships

A study of static stability of airships

Date: September 1, 1924
Creator: Rizzo, Frank
Description: The first section deals with the theoretical side of statical stability of airships in general. The second section deals with preliminary tests of the model and experiments for the determination of effects due to change of tail area, aspect ratio, tail form, and tail thickness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An altitude chamber for the study and calibration of aeronautical instruments

An altitude chamber for the study and calibration of aeronautical instruments

Date: November 1, 1925
Creator: Reid, J E & Kirchner, Otto E
Description: The design and construction of an altitude chamber, in which both pressure and temperature can be varied independently, was carried out by the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of studying the effects of temperature and pressure on aeronautical research instruments. Temperatures from +20c to -50c are obtained by the expansion of CO2from standard containers. The chamber can be used for the calibration of research instruments under altitude conditions simulating those up to 45,000 feet. Results obtained with this chamber have a direct application in the design and calibration of instruments used in free flight research.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mass distribution and performance of free flight models

Mass distribution and performance of free flight models

Date: October 1, 1927
Creator: Scherberg, Max & Rhode, R V
Description: This note deals with the mass distribution and performance of free flight models. An airplane model which is to be used in free flight tests must be balanced dynamically as well as statically, e.g., it must not only have a given weight and the proper center of gravity but also a given ellipsoid of inertia. Equations which relate the motions of an airplane and its model are given. Neglecting scale effect, these equations may be used to predict the performance of an airplane, under the action of gravity alone, from data obtained in making dropping tests of a correctly balanced model.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Notes on longitudinal stability and balance

Notes on longitudinal stability and balance

Date: April 1, 1920
Creator: Warner, E P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A mechanical device for illustrating airplane stability

A mechanical device for illustrating airplane stability

Date: December 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F H
Description: An instrument is described which will illustrate completely in a qualitative sense the longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane. The instrument is primarily of use for the lecture room, but it is hoped that ultimately it will be possible to obtain quantitative results from it.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

Date: September 1, 1923
Creator: Matthews, Robertson & Gardiner, A W
Description: Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

Date: February 1, 1925
Creator: Matthews, Robertson
Description: Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pressure distribution on the nose of an airship in circling flight

Pressure distribution on the nose of an airship in circling flight

Date: August 1, 1925
Creator: Fairbanks, Karl J
Description: In recent tests on the pressures occurring on the envelope and control surfaces of the naval airship C-7, it was noted that the pressures on the nose of the airship, while flying in level circling flight, were symmetrically distributed. Such a condition can only occur when the nose of the airship is pointed directly into the wind, and to accomplish this in circling flight, the axis of the airship must then be parallel to the direction of the motion of the nose. The question was raised as to whether the same conditions occur generally on all airships in circling flight. It appears that airships flying in a constant, level, circling flight path will generally head very closely into the wind, and any deviation will be so slight that the distribution of pressure over the nose will be but slightly, if at all, changed from a symmetrical distribution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pressure distribution on wing ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes in flight

Pressure distribution on wing ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes in flight

Date: October 1, 1927
Creator: Rhode, R V
Description: This paper is the first of a series of notes, each of which presents the complete results of pressure distribution tests made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, on single-wing ribs of the VE-7 and TS airplanes for a particular condition of flight. The level flight results are presented here in the form of curves and show the comparison between the pressure distribution over a representative thin wing, R.A.F.-15, and a moderately thick wing, U.S.A.-27, throughout the range of angle of attack.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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