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 Serial/Series Title: NACA Special Report
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Experimental Determination of Exhaust Gas Thrust, Special Report

Experimental Determination of Exhaust Gas Thrust, Special Report

Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Voss, Fred
Description: This investigation presents the results of tests made on a radial engine to determine the thrust that can be obtained from the exhaust gas when discharged from separate stacks and when discharged from the collector ring with various discharge nozzles. The engine was provided with a propeller to absorb the power and was mounted on a test stand equipped with scales for measuring the thrust and engine torque. The results indicate that at full open throttle at sea level, for the engine tested, a gain in thrust horsepower of 18 percent using separate stacks, and 9.5 percent using a collector ring and discharge nozzle, can be expected at an air speed of 550 miles per hour.
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Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears, Special Report

Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears, Special Report

Date: September 1, 1937
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur
Description: In many installations of castering rubber-tired wheels there is a tendency for the wheel to oscillate violently about the spindle axis. This phenomenon, popularly called 'shimmy,' has occurred in some airplane tail wheels and has been corrected in two ways: first by the application of friction in the spindles of the tail wheels; and, second, by locking the wheels while taxiing at high speeds. Shimmy is common with the large wheels used as nose wheels in tricycle landing gears and, since it is impossible to lock the wheels, friction in the nose-wheel spindle has been the sole means of correction. Because the nose wheel is larger than the conventional tail wheel and usually carries a greater load, the larger amounts of spindle friction necessary to prevent shimmy are objectionable. the present paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the problem of the stability of castering wheels for airplane landing gears. On the basis of simplified assumptions induced from experimental observations, a theoretical study has been made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called 'kinematic shimmy' and is compared quantitatively with the results of model experiments. Experimental checks, using a ...
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Study of Turning Performance of a Fighter-Type Airplane Particularly as Affected by Flaps and Increased Supercharging, Special Report

Study of Turning Performance of a Fighter-Type Airplane Particularly as Affected by Flaps and Increased Supercharging, Special Report

Date: June 1, 1942
Creator: Wetmore, J. W.
Description: Results of a study to determine the effects on turning performance due to various assumed modifications to a typical Naval fighter airplane are presented. The modifications considered included flaps of various types, both part and full space, increased supercharging, and increased wing loading. The calculations indicated that near the low-speed end of the speed range, the turning performance, as defined by steady level turns at a given speed, would be improved to some extent by any of the flaps considered at altitudes up to about 25,000 feet. (If turning is not restricted to the conditions of no loss of speed or altitude, more rapid turning can, of course, be accomplished with the aid of flaps, regardless of altitude.) Fowler flaps and NACA slotted flaps appeared somewhat superior to split or perforated split flaps for maneuvering purposes, particularly if the flap position is not adjustable. Similarly, better turning performance should be realized with full-span than with part-span flaps. Turning performance over the lower half of the speed range would probably not be materially improved at any altitude by increased supercharging of the engine unless the propeller were redesigned to absorb the added power more effectively; with a suitable propeller the turning ...
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Flight Tests of Exhaust Gas Jet Propulsion, Special Report

Flight Tests of Exhaust Gas Jet Propulsion, Special Report

Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Pnkel, Benjamin & Turner, L. Richard
Description: Flight test s were conducted on the XP-41 airplane, equipped with a Pratt & Whitney R1830-19, 14-cylinder, air-cooled engine, to determine the increase in flight speed obtainable by the use of individual exhaust stacks directed rearwardly to obtain exhaust-gas thrust. Speed increases up to 18 miles per hour at 20,000 feet altitude were obtained using stacks having an exit area of 3.42 square inches for each cylinder. A slight increase in engine power and decrease in cylinder temperature at a given manifold pressure were obtained with the individual stacks as compared with a collector-ring installation. Exhaust-flame visibility was quite low, particularly in the rich range of fuel-air ratios.
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Full-Scale Tests of 4- and 6-Blade, Single- and Dual-Rotating Propellers, Special Report

Full-Scale Tests of 4- and 6-Blade, Single- and Dual-Rotating Propellers, Special Report

Date: August 1, 1940
Creator: Biermann, David & Hartman, Edwin P.
Description: Test of 10-foot diameter, 4- and 6-blade single- and dual-rotating propellers were conducted in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel. The propellers were mounted at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners to house the hub portions. The effect of a symmetrical wing mounted in the slipstream was investigated. The blade angles investigated ranged from 20 degrees to 65 degrees; the latter setting corresponds to airplane speeds of over 500 miles per hour. The results indicate that dual-rotating propellers were from 0 to 6% more efficient than single-rotating ones; but when operating in the presence of a wing the gain was reduced about one-half. Other advantages of dual-rotating propellers were found to include greater power absorption and greater efficiency at the low V/nD operating range of high pitch propellers.
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Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report

Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report

Date: October 1, 1940
Creator: Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P. & Pepper, Edward
Description: Wind-tunnel tests of several propeller, cuff, and spinner combinations were conducted in the 20 foot propeller-research tunnel. Three propellers, which ranged in diameter from 8.4 to 11.25 feet, were tested at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners of two diameters. The tests covered a blade angle range from 20 deg to 65 deg. The effect of spinner diameter and propeller cuffs on the characteristics of one propeller was determined. Test were also conducted using a propeller which incorporated aerodynamically good shank sections and using one which incorporated the NACA 16 series sections for the outer 20 percent of the blades. Compressibility effects were not measured, owing to the low testing speeds. The results indicated that a conventional propeller was slightly more efficient when tested in conjunction with a 28 inch diameter spinner than with a 23 inch spinner, and that cuffs increased the efficiency as well as the power absorption characteristics. A propeller having good aerodynamic shanks was found to be definitely superior from the efficiency standpoint to a conventional round-shank propeller with or without cuffs; this propeller would probably be considered structurally impracticable, however. The propeller incorporating the NACA 16 series sections at the tims were ...
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Notes on Factors Affecting Geometrical Arrangement of Tricycle-Type Landing Gear

Notes on Factors Affecting Geometrical Arrangement of Tricycle-Type Landing Gear

Date: April 1, 1937
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Kantrowitz, A. R.
Description: The effects of the geometrical arrangement of tricycle landing gears on various characteristics of an airplane equipped with such landing gear is discussed. The characteristics discussed include directional stability, overturning tendencies, steering and ground handling, shimmy, takeoff, and porpoising. The conclusions are summarized in a table.
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Investigation in the 7-By-10 Foot Wind Tunnel of Ducts for Cooling Radiators Within an Airplane Wing, Special Report

Investigation in the 7-By-10 Foot Wind Tunnel of Ducts for Cooling Radiators Within an Airplane Wing, Special Report

Date: July 1, 1938
Creator: Harris, Thomas A. & Recant, Isidore G.
Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord wing model with a duct to house a simulated radiator suitable for a liquid-cooled engine. The duct was expanded to reduce the radiator losses, and the installation of the duct and radiator was made entirely within the wing to reduce form and interference drag. The tests were made using a two-dimensional flow set-up with a full-span duct and radiator. Section aerodynamic characteristics of the basic airfoil are given and also curves showing the characteristics of the various duct-radiator combinations. An expression for efficiency, the primary criterion of merit of any duct, and the effect of the several design parameters of the duct-radiator arrangement are discussed. The problem of throttling is considered and a discussion of the power required for cooling is included. It was found that radiators could be mounted in the wing and efficiently pass enough air for cooling with duct outlets located at any point from 0.25c to 0.70c from the wing leading edge on the upper surface. The duct-inlet position was found to be critical and, for maximum efficiency, had to be at the stagnation point of the airfoil and to change ...
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The Transition Phase in the Take-Off of an Airplane, Special Report

The Transition Phase in the Take-Off of an Airplane, Special Report

Date: December 1, 1937
Creator: Wetmore, J. W.
Description: An investigation was undertaken to determine the character and importance of the transition phase between the ground run and steady climb in the takeoff of an airplane and the effects of various factors on this phase and on the airborne part of the takeoff as a whole. The information was obtained from a series of step-by-step integrations, which defined the motion of the airplane during the transition and which were based on data derived from actual takeoff tests of a Verville AT airplane. Both normal and zoom takeoffs under several loading and takeoff speed conditions were considered. The effects of a moderate wind with a corresponding wind gradient and the effect of proximity of the ground were also investigated. The results show that, for normal takeoffs, the best transition was realized at the lowest possible takeoff speed. Moreover, this speed gave the shortest overall takeoff distance for normal takeoffs. Zoom takeoffs required a shorter overall takeoff run than normal takeoffs, particularly with a heavy landing, if the obstacle to be cleared was sufficiently high (greater than 50 feet); no advantage was indicated to the airplane with a light loading if the height to be cleared was less. The error resulting ...
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The Torsional and Bending Deflection of Full-Scale Duralumin Propeller Blades under Normal Operating Conditions, Special Report

The Torsional and Bending Deflection of Full-Scale Duralumin Propeller Blades under Normal Operating Conditions, Special Report

Date: March 1, 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P. & Biermann, David
Description: The torsional deflection of the blades of three full-scale duralumin propellers operating under various loading conditions was measured by a light-beam method. Angular bending deflections were also obtained as an incidental part of the study. The deflection measurements showed that the usual present-day type of propeller blades twisted but a negligible amount under ordinary flight conditions. A maximum deflection of about 1/10th of a degree was found at V/nD of 0.3 and a smaller deflection at higher values of V/nD for the station at 0.70 radius. These deflections are much smaller than would be expected from earlier tests, but the light-beam method is considered to be much more accurate than the direct-reading transit method used in the previous tests.
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