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 Decade: 1930-1939
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Special Report
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. IV - Manufacturing Irregularities, 5, Manufacturing Irregularities

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. IV - Manufacturing Irregularities, 5, Manufacturing Irregularities

Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Robinson, Russell G.
Description: Tests were made in the NACA 8-foot high speed wind tunnel of a metal-covered, riveted, 'service' wing of average workmanship to determine the aerodynamic effects of the manufacturing irregularities incident to shop fabrication. The wing was of 5-foot chord and of NACA 23012 section and was tested in the low-lift range at speeds from 90 to 450 miles per hour corresponding to Reynolds numbers from 4,000,000 to 18,000,000. At a cruising condition the drag of the service wing was 46% higher than the drag of a smooth airfoil, whereas the drag of an accurately constructed airfoil having the same arrangement of 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets and lap joints showed a 29% increase. The difference, or 17% of the smooth-wing drag, is apparently the drag caused by the manufacturing irregularities: sheet waviness, departures from true profile, and imperfect laps. the service wing, for one condition at least, showed a drag increase due to compressibility at a lower air speed than did the more accurate airfoil.
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The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag, 3, Roughness

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag, 3, Roughness

Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Hood, Manley J.
Description: Tests have been made in the N.A.C.A. 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel of the drag caused by roughness on the surface of an airfoil of N.A.C.A. 23012 section and 5-foot chord. The tests were made at speeds from 80 t o 500 miles per hour at lift coefficients from 0 to 0.30. For conditions corresponding to high-speed flight, the increase in the drag was 30 percent of the profile drag of the smooth airfoil for the roughness produced by spray painting and 63 percent for the roughness produced. by 0.0037-inch carborundum grains. About one-half the drag increase was caused by the roughness on the forward one-fourth of the airfoil. Sandpapering the painted surface with No. 400 sandpaper made it sufficiently smooth that the drag was no greater than when the surface was polished. In the lower part of the range investigated the drag due to roughness increased rapidly with Reynolds Number.
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Large-Scale Boundary-Layer Control Tests on Two Wings in the NACA 20-Foot Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Large-Scale Boundary-Layer Control Tests on Two Wings in the NACA 20-Foot Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Date: April 1, 1935
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B.
Description: Tests were made in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot wind tunnel on: (1) a wing, of 6.5-foot span, 5.5-foot chord, and 30 percent maximum thickness, fitted with large end plates and (2) a 16-foot span 2.67-foot chord wing of 15 percent maximum thickness to determine the increase in lift obtainable by removing the boundary layer and the power required for the blower. The results of the tests on the stub wing appeared more favorable than previous small-scale tests and indicated that: (1) the suction method was considerably superior to the pressure method, (2) single slots were more effective than multiple slots (where the same pressure was applied to all slots), the slot efficiency increased rapidly for increasing slot widths up to 2 percent of the wing chord and remained practically constant for all larger widths tested, (3) suction pressure and power requirements were quite low (a computation for a light airplane showed that a lift coefficient of 3.0 could be obtained with a suction as low as 2.3 times the dynamic pressure and a power expenditure less than 3 percent of the rated engine power), and (4) the volume of air required to be drawn off was quite high (approximately 0.5 cubic ...
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Tests in the Variable-Density Tunnel of Seven Tapered Wings Having N.A.C.A. 230 Mean Lines, Special Report

Tests in the Variable-Density Tunnel of Seven Tapered Wings Having N.A.C.A. 230 Mean Lines, Special Report

Date: August 1, 1937
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F.
Description: At the request of the Materiel Division of the Army Air Corps, seven tapered wings having sections based on the N.A,C.A. 230 mean line were tested in the variable-density wind tunnel, The characteristics of the wings are given.
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The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. II - Lap Joints, 2, Lap Joints

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. II - Lap Joints, 2, Lap Joints

Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Hood, Manley J.
Description: Tests have been made in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel of the drag caused by four types of lap joint. The tests were made on an airfoil of NACA 23012 section and 5-foot chord and covered in a range of speeds from 80 to 500 miles per hour and lift coefficients from 0 to 0.30. The increases in profile drag caused by representative arrangements of laps varied from 4 to 9%. When there were protruding rivet heads on the surface, the addition of laps increased the drag only slightly. Laps on the forward part of a wing increased the drag considerably more than those farther back.
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Notes on New French Commercial Airplanes

Notes on New French Commercial Airplanes

Date: April 4, 1935
Creator: unknown
Description: This document discusses the types of commercial planes ordered by Air France. Characteristics of the Wibault 670, the Dewoitine D.620, Bloch 300, and the Potez 620 airplanes are included. Pictures and diagrams of these aircraft are also included.
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Estimated Effect of Ring Cowl on the Climb and Ceiling of an Airplane, Special Report

Estimated Effect of Ring Cowl on the Climb and Ceiling of an Airplane, Special Report

Date: June 1, 1931
Creator: Louden, F. A.
Description: Although the application of a ring cowl to an airplane with an air-cooled engine increases the maximum L/D and the high speed to an appreciable extent, the performance in climb and ceiling is not increased as much as one would expect without analyzing the conditions. When a ring cowl is installed on an airplane, the propeller is set at a higher pitch to allow the engine to turn its rated r.p.m. at the increased high speed. V/nD is increased and the propeller efficiency at high speed is increased slightly. The ratio of r.p.m. at climbing speed, V(sub c) , to the r.p.m. at maximum speed, V (sub m) is dependent upon the ratio of V(sub c) to V(sub m). The increase in V(sub c) for all airplane with ring cowl i s not as great as the increase in V(sub m), so that the ratio V(sub c)/V(sub m) is less than for the airplane without ring. Consequently the r.p.m. and full throttle thrust power available are less at V(sub c) for the airplane with ring cowl and in spite of the increase in L/D due to the installation of the ring, the excess thrust power available for climbing is not ...
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Definition of Method of Measurement of Supporting and Control Surface Areas, Special Report

Definition of Method of Measurement of Supporting and Control Surface Areas, Special Report

Date: May 1, 1931
Creator: unknown
Description: Definitions of methods of measurements of supporting and control surface areas are presented. Methods for measuring the supporting surface, i.e., the wing area, and the control surfaces, i.e., the horizontal tail area, the vertical tail area, and the trailing control surface areas are defined. Illustrations of each of the areas are included.
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The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds, 1, Rivets and Spot Welds

The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds, 1, Rivets and Spot Welds

Date: February 1, 1938
Creator: Hood, Manley J.
Description: Tests have been conducted in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to determine the effect of exposed rivet heads and spot welds on wing drag. Most of the tests were made with an airfoil of 5-foot chord. The air speed was varied from 80 to 500 miles per hour and the lift coefficient from 0 to 0.30. The increases in the drag of the 5-foot airfoil varied from 6%, due to countersunk rivets, to 27%, due to 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets, with the rivets in a representative arrangement. The drag increases caused by protruding rivet heads were roughly proportional to the height of the heads. With the front row of rivets well forward, changes in spanwise pitch had negligible effects on drag unless the pitch was more than 2.5% of the chord. Data are presented for evaluating the drag reduction attained by removing rivets from the forward part of the wing surface; for example, it is shown that over 70% of the rivet drag is caused by the rivets on the forward 30% of the airfoil in a typical case.
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Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders

Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders

Date: December 1, 1931
Creator: Cassens, J.
Description: This paper presents a series of tables for the simple and more common types of girders, similar to the tables given in handbooks under the heading "Strength of Materials," for determining the moments, deflections, etc., of simple beams. Instead of the uniform cross section there assumed, the formulas given here apply only to girders of "uniform strength," i.e., it is assumed that a girder is so dimensioned that a given load subjects it to a uniform stress throughout its whole length. This principle is particularly applicable to very strong structures. Girders of uniform strength are the lightest girders conceivable, because any girder, all of whose members are stressed to the limit, can not be surpassed by a lighter girder, if the two girders have the same form. The weight G of a member of length l, cross section F and specific gravity gamma is: G = Flgamma.
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