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**Decade:**1940-1949

**Year:**1943

**Serial/Series Title:**NACA Technical Memorandums

**Collection:**National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection

### The Coupling of Flexural Propeller Vibrations with the Torsional Crankshaft Vibrations

**Date:**December 1, 1943

**Creator:**Meyer, J.

**Description:**The exact mathematical treatment of the problem is possible by replacing the propeller blade by a homogeneous prismatic rod. Conclusions can them be drawn as to the behavior of an actual propeller, since tests on propeller blades have indicated a qualitative agreement with the homogeneous rod. The natural frequencies are determined and the stressing of the systems under the various vibration modes are discussed.

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### Determination of the Mass Moments and Radii of Inertia of the Sections of a Tapered Wing and the Center-of-Gravity Line along the Wing Span

**Date:**December 1, 1943

**Creator:**Savelyev, V. V.

**Description:**For computing the critical flutter velocity of a wing among the data required are the position of the line of centers of gravity of the wing sections along the span and the mass moments and radii of inertia of any section of the wing about the axis passing through the center of gravity of the section. A sufficiently detailed computation of these magnitudes even if the weights of all the wing elements are known, requires a great deal of time expenditure. Thus a rapid competent worker would require from 70 to 100 hours for the preceding computations for one wing only, while hundreds of hours would be required if all the weights were included. With the aid of the formulas derived in the present paper, the preceding work can be performed with a degree of accuracy sufficient for practical purposes in from one to two hours, the only required data being the geometric dimensions of the outer wing (tapered part), the position of its longerons, the total weight of the outer wing, and the approximate weight of the longerons, The entire material presented in this paper is applicable mainly to wings of longeron construction of the CAHI type and investigations ...

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### Experimental Investigation of a Model of a Two-Stage Turboblower

**Date:**April 1, 1943

**Creator:**Dovjik, s. & Polikovsky, W.

**Description:**In the present paper an investigation is made of two stages of a multistage turboblower having a vaneless diffuser behind the impeller and guide vanes at the inlet to the nest stage. The method employed was that of investigating the performance of the successive elements of the blower (the impeller, vaneless diffuser, ets.) whereby the kinematics of the flow through the blower could be followed and the pressure at the different points computed. The character of the flow and the physical significance of the loss coefficients could thereby be determined so as to secure the best agreement of the computed with the actual performance of the blower. Since the tests were carried out for various delivery volumes, the dependence of the coefficients on a number of factors (angle of attack, velocities, etc.) could be obtained. The distribution of the losses that occur during the transformation of dynamic pressure at the impeller exit into static pressure could be found and likewise the range within which the friction coefficient varies in the vaneless diffuser. With the aid of factors having a certain physical significance, the centrifugal blower could be computed on the basis of a more or less schematical consideration of the ...

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### Experimental Investigation of Impact in Landing on Water

**Date:**January 1, 1943

**Creator:**Kreps, R. L.

**Description:**The extent of agreement of the theoretical impact computations with the actual phenomenon has not as yet been fully clarified. There is on the one hand a certain imperfection in the theory (simplifying assumptions made) and on the other an insufficiency in the experimental data available. The object of our present paper is to show how far test results agree with the available approximate computation methods, to investigate in greater detail the physical nature of impact on water, and to perfect the experimental method of studying the phenomenon.

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### Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Flow Resistance for Streams of High Velocity

**Date:**December 1, 1943

**Creator:**Lelchuk, V. L.

**Description:**Problems of hydraulic flow resistance and heat transfer for streams with velocities comparable with acoustic have present great importance for various fields of technical science. Especially, they have great importance for the field of heat transfer in designing and constructing boilers.of the "Velox" type. In this article a description of experiments and their results as regards definition of the laws of heat transfer in differential form for high velocity air streams inside smooth tubes are given.

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### Heat Transfer of Airfoils and Plates

**Date:**April 1, 1943

**Creator:**Seibert, Otto

**Description:**The few available test data on the heat dissipation of wholly or partly heated airfoil models are compared with the corresponding data for the flat plate as obtained by an extension of Prandtl's momentum theory, with differentiation between laminar and turbulent boundary layer and transitional region between both, the extent and appearance of which depend upon certain critical factors. The satisfactory agreement obtained justifies far-reaching conclusions in respect to other profile forms and arrangements of heated surface areas. The temperature relationship of the material quantities in its effect on the heat dissipation is discussed as far as is possible at tk.e present state of research, and it is shown that the profile drag of heated wing surfaces can increase or decrease with the temperature increase depending upon the momentarily existent structure of the boundary layer.

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### Heat Transfer Over the Circumference of a Heated Cylinder in Transverse Flow

**Date:**October 1, 1943

**Creator:**Schmidt, Ernst & Wenner, Karl

**Description:**A method for recording the local heat-transfer coefficients on bodies in flow was developed. The cylinder surface was kept at constant temperature by the condensation of vapor except for a narrow strip which is heated separately to the same temperature by electricity. The heat-transfer coefficient at each point was determined from the electric heat output and the temperature increase. The distribution of the heat transfer along the circumference of cylinders was recorded over a range of Reynolds numbers of from 5000 to 426,000. The pressure distribution was measured at the same time. At Reynolds numbers up to around 100,000 high maximums of the heat transfer occurred in the forward stagnation point at and on the rear side at 180C, while at around 80 the heat-transfer coefficient on both sides of the cylinder behind the forward stagnation point manifested distinct minimums. Two other maximums occurred at around 115 C behind the forward stagnation point between 170,000 and 426,000. At 426,000 the heat transfer at the location of those maximums was almost twice as great as in the forward stagnation point, and the rear half of the cylinder diffused about 60 percent of the entire heat, The tests are compared with the ...

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### Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers

**Date:**September 1, 1943

**Creator:**Reichardt, H.

**Description:**The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material ...

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### The Heat Transfer to a Plate in Flow at High Speed

**Date:**May 1, 1943

**Creator:**Eckert, E. & Drewitz, O.

**Description:**The heat transfer in the laminar boundary layer of a heated plate in flow at high speed can be obtained by integration of the conventional differential equations of the boundary layer, so long as the material values can be regarded as constant. This premise is fairly well satisfied at speeds up to about twice the sonic speed and at not excessive temperature rise of the heated plate. The general solution of the equation includes Pohlhausen's specific cases of heat transfer to a plate at low speeds and of the plate thermometer. The solution shows that the heat transfer coefficient at high speed must be computed with the same equation as at low speed, when it is referred to the difference of the wall temperature of the heated plate in respect to its "natural temperature." Since this fact follows from the linear structure of the differential equation describing the temperature field, it is equally applicable to the heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer.

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### Periodic Heat Transfer at Small Pressure Fluctuations

**Date:**September 1, 1943

**Creator:**Pfriem, H.

**Description:**The effect of cyclic gas pressure variations on the periodic heat transfer at a flat wall is theoretically analyzed and the differential equation describing the process and its solution for relatively. Small pressure fluctuations developed, thus explaining the periodic heat cycle between gas and wall surface. The processes for pure harmonic pressure and temperature oscillations, respectively, in the gas space are described by means of a constant heat transfer coefficient and the equally constant phase angle between the appearance of the maximum values of the pressure and heat flow most conveniently expressed mathematically in the form of a complex heat transfer coefficient. Any cyclic pressure oscillations, can be reduced by Fourier analysis to harmonic oscillations, which result in specific, mutual relationships of heat-transfer coefficients and phase angles for the different harmonics.

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### Piezoelectric Instruments of High Natural Frequency Vibration Characteristics and Protection Against Interference by Mass Forces

**Date:**February 1, 1943

**Creator:**Gohlka, Werner

**Description:**The exploration of the processes accompanying engine combustion demands quick-responding pressure-recording instruments, among which the piezoelectric type has found widespread use because of its especially propitious properties as vibration-recording instruments for high frequencies. Lacking appropriate test methods, the potential errors of piezoelectric recorders in dynamic measurements could only be estimated up to now. In the present report a test method is described by means of which the resonance curves of the piezoelectric pickup can be determined; hence an instrumental appraisal of the vibration characteristics of piezoelectric recorders is obtainable.

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### Piston Ring Pressure Distribution

**Date:**December 1, 1943

**Creator:**Kuhn, M.

**Description:**The discovery and introduction of the internal combustion engine has resulted in a very rapid development in machines utilizing the action of a piston. Design has been limited by the internal components of the engine, which has been subjected to ever increasing thermal and mechanical stresses, Of these internal engine components, the piston and piston rings are of particular importance and the momentary position of engine development is not seldom dependent upon the development of both of the components, The piston ring is a well-known component and has been used in its present shape in the steam engine of the last century, Corresponding to its importance, the piston ring has been a rich field for creative activity and it is noteworthy that in spite of this the ring has maintained its shape through the many years. From the many and complicated designs which have been suggested as a packing between piston and cylinder wall hardly one suggestion has remained which does not resemble the original design of cast iron rectangular ring.

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### Pressure Distribution in Nonuniform Two-Dimensional Flow

**Date:**January 1, 1943

**Creator:**Schwabe, M.

**Description:**In an attempt to follow the time rate of change of the processes in turbulent flows by quantitative measurements the measurement of the pressure is often beset with insuperable difficulties for the reason that the speeds and hence the pressures to be measured are often very small. On the other hand, the measurement of very small pressures requires, at least, considerable time, so that the follow-up of periodically varying processes is as goad as impossible. In order to obviate these difficulties a method, suggested by Prof. Prandtl, has been developed by which the pressure distribution is simply determined from the photographic flow picture. This method is described and proved on a worked-out example. It was found that quantitatively very satisfactory results can be achieved.

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### Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

**Date:**June 1, 1943

**Creator:**Muehlner, E.

**Description:**Chemical reactions can demonstrably occur in a fuel-air mixture compressed in the working cylinder of an Otto-cycle (spark ignition) internal-combustion engine even before the charge is ignited by the flame proceeding from the sparking plug. These are the so-called "prelinminary reactions" ("pre-flame" combustion or oxidation), and an exact knowledge of their characteristic development is of great importance for a correct appreciation of the phenomena of engine-knock (detonation), and consequently for its avoidance. Such reactions can be studied either in a working engine cylinder or in a combustion bomb. The first method necessitates a complicated experimental technique, while the second has the disadvantage of enabling only a single reaction to be studied at one time. Consequently, a new series of experiments was inaugurated, conducted in a motored (externally-driven) experimental engine of mixture-compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and measurable thermometrically.

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### Tail Buffeting

**Date:**February 1, 1943

**Creator:**Abdrashitov, G.

**Description:**An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

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### Theoretical Determination of Axial Fan Performance

**Date:**April 1, 1943

**Creator:**Struve, E.

**Description:**The report presents a method for the computation of axial fan characteristics. The method is based on the assumption that the law of constancy of the circulation along the blade holds, approximately, for all fan conditions for which the blade elements operate at normal angles of attack (up to the stalling angles). Pressure head coefficient K(sub a) and power coefficient K(sub u) for the force components in the axial and tangential directions, respectively, and analogous to the lift and drag coefficients C(sub y) and C(sub x) are conveniently introduced.

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### Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds

**Date:**December 1, 1943

**Creator:**Frankl, F. & Voishel, V.

**Description:**In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

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