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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1920-1929
 Year: 1927
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Aero dopes and varnishes
Before proceeding to discuss the preparation of dope solutions, it will be necessary to consider some of the essential properties which should be possessed of a dope film, deposited in and on the surface of an aero fabric. The first is that it should tighten the material and second it should withstand weathering.
Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils IV : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, and 182
This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading Aerodynamic Laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
The aerodynamic characteristics of seven frequently used wing sections at full Reynolds number
This report contains the aerodynamic properties of the wing sections U.S.A. 5, U.S.A. 27, U.S.A. 35 A, U.S.A. 35 B, Clark Y, R.A.F. 15, and Gottingen 387, as determined at various Reynolds numbers up to an approximately full scale value in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It is shown that the characteristics of the wings investigated are affected greatly and in a somewhat erratic manner by variation of the Reynolds number. In general there is a small increase in maximum lift and an appreciable decrease in drag at all lifts.
Aerodynamic laboratory at Cuatro Vientos
This report presents a description of the design of the Cuatro Vientes wind tunnel.
Air cooling : an experimental method of evaluating the cooling effect of air streams on air-cooled cylinders
In this report is described an experimental method which the writer has evolved for dealing with air-cooled engines, and some of the data obtained by its means. Methods of temperature measurement and cooling are provided.
The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models
The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models are the subject of this report. The test consist in the determination of the lift, drag, and moment of each individual airfoil in each cellule, mostly with the same wing section. The magnitude of the gap and of the stagger is systematically varied; not, however, the decalage, which is zero throughout the tests. Certain check tests with a second wing section make the tests more complete and conclusions more convincing. The results give evidence that the present army and navy specifications for the relative lifts of biplanes are good. They furnish material for improving such specifications for the relative lifts of triplanes. A larger number of factors can now be prescribed to take care of different cases.
Airfoil lift with changing angle of attack
Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.
Annual report for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (12th).administrative report including Technical Reports nos. 233 to 256
Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the president, congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, bibliographies, and financial report.
Approximation method for determining the static stability of a monoplane glider
The calculations in this paper afford an approximate solution of the static stability. A derivation of the formulas for moment coefficient of a wing, moment coefficient of elevator, and the total moment of the combined wing and elevator and the moment coefficient with reference to the center of gravity are provided.
Approximations for column effect in airplane wing spars
The significance attaching to "column effect" in airplane wing spars has been increasingly realized with the passage of time, but exact computations of the corrections to bending moment curves resulting from the existence of end loads are frequently omitted because of the additional labor involved in an analysis by rigorously correct methods. The present report represents an attempt to provide for approximate column effect corrections that can be graphically or otherwise expressed so as to be applied with a minimum of labor. Curves are plotted giving approximate values of the correction factors for single and two bay trusses of varying proportions and with various relationships between axial and lateral loads. It is further shown from an analysis of those curves that rough but useful approximations can be obtained from Perry's formula for corrected bending moment, with the assumed distance between points of inflection arbitrarily modified in accordance with rules given in the report. The discussion of general rules of variation of bending stress with axial load is accompanied by a study of the best distribution of the points of support along a spar for various conditions of loading.
Avimeta three-engine commercial monoplane : type A.V.M. 132
This is an all metal aircraft, including the wing coverings. Both the framework and the sheet-metal coverings are Alferium, made by Schneider Co.
The Avro "Gosport," 504 R : a new training airplane
No Description
The Blackburn "Bluebird" "two-seat training and sport airplane
The Bluebird is a two seat, side by side biplane, designed primarily for training and pleasure flying.
The Boeing mail airplane
The Boeing Mail Airplane is a biplane with cloth covered wings of wood and wire construction, a top speed of 130 MPH, and a fuel capacity of 100 gallons in two tanks.
Building a full-size glider
The building and flying of a glider is possible for anyone who can use a few basic tools. This report presents some plans and techniques for building your own glider.
Calculating thrust distribution and efficiency of air propellers
I am now proposing a method for the preliminary approximate calculation of the thrust distribution and efficiency of air propellers under any operating conditions. Our task becomes the following, namely, to determine the speed relations and the forces developed on a section with a given direction and velocity of the air current, a problem which can be solved with the aid of the momentum theory.
Caproni airplane Ca 73 (commercial) and Ca 73 ter (military)
The Caproni 73 is a biplane with medium thick wings, a rigid central section, and with each lateral extension forming a single cell and is powered by two 500 Isotta Fraschini "Asso" Engines.
Characteristics of a twin-float seaplane during take-off
This report presents the results of an investigation of the planing and get-away characteristics of three representative types of seaplanes, namely, single float, boat, and twin float. The experiments carried out on the single float and boat types have been reported on previously. This report covers the investigation conducted on the twin-float seaplane, the DT-2, and includes as an appendix, a brief summary of the results obtained on all three tests. At low-water speeds, 20 to 30 miles per hour, the seaplane trims by the stern and has a high resistance. Above these speeds the longitudinal control becomes increasingly effective until, with corresponding speeds of 56 to 46 miles per hour. It was further determined that an increase in the load caused little if any change in the water speed at which the maximum angle and resistance occurred, but that it did produce an increase in the maximum angle.
The Characteristics of the N.A.C.A 97, Clark Y, and N.A.C.A. M6 Airfoils with Particular Reference to the Angle of Attack
No abstract available.
Climbing efficiency of aircraft
The object of this report was to indicate that we frequently only make use of 50 percent of the maximum brake horsepower of the engine in taking off the ground, that this loss is not inevitable, and that the effort to get engines of low weight per horsepower by boosting revolutions is of very little use to bombers and commercial airplanes.
Combat and bombing airplane, Amiot 120 B 3
The Amiot 120 B 3 is designed as a French combat aircraft. It can accept a variety of engines, and is equipped with 2 machine guns as well as specialized bomb sights and other combat equipment.
A comparison of the take-off and landing characteristics of a number of service airplane
This investigation, which is a continuation of Technical Report 154, follows very closely the earlier methods and covers a number of service airplanes, whereas the previous report covered but one, the JN-4H. In addition to the air speed, acceleration, and control positions as given in report no. 154, information is here given regarding the distance run and the ground speed for the various airplanes during the two maneuvers.
The corrosion of magnesium and of the magnesium aluminum alloys containing manganese
The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.
The De Havilland "Tiger Moth"a low wing monoplane
With a speed of 186.5 M.P.H. and an operational altitude of 20,000 feet the De Havilland Tiger Moth has caused comment as it was introduced just before the King's Cup race of 1927. It is a single seater with unusual control configuration due to the cramped cockpit area.
Description of the NACA universal test engine and some test results
This report describes the 5-inch bore by 7-inch stroke single cylinder test engine used at the Langley Field Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in laboratory research on internal-combustion engine problems and presents some results of tests made therewith. The engine is arranged for variation over wide ranges, of the compression ratio and lift and timing of both inlet and exhaust valves while the engine is in operation. Provision is also made for the connection of a number of auxiliaries. These features tend to make the engine universal in character, and especially suited for the study of certain problems involving change in compression ratio, valve timing, and lift.
Determining the efficiency of atomization by its fineness and uniformity
Different methods of determining the size of fuel droplets in the atomization process are presented. The distribution of those drops is also presented in graphic form.
Determining the velocity distribution in the boundary layer of an airfoil fitted with a rotary cylinder
In the closer investigation of the results obtained from a wing model with a rotary cylinder mounted in its leading edge (NACA TM's 307 and 354), the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the surface of the model was determined by a hot-wire anemometer. The results confirmed the belief that the rotary cylinder had considerable effect on the air flow, but demonstrated the fact that the direct influence of the cylinder is confined to a very thin layer in immediate proximity to the surface.
The direct measurement of engine power on an airplane in flight with a hub type dynamometer
This report describes tests made to obtain direct measurements of engine power in flight. Tests were made with a Bendemann hub dynamometer installed on a modified DH-4 Airplane, Liberty 12 Engine, to determine the suitability of this apparatus. This dynamometer unit, which was designed specially for use with a liberty 12 engine, is a special propeller hub in which is incorporated a system of pistons and cylinders interposed between the propeller and the engine crankshaft. The torque and thrust forces are balanced by fluid pressures, which are recorded by instruments in the cockpit. These tests have shown the suitability of this type of hub dynamometer for measurement of power in flight and for the determination of the torque and power coefficients of the propeller. (author).
Discussion of the results of the boundary-layer tests of an airfoil fitted with a rotary cylinder
The results of the velocity measurements in the boundary layer described in NACA-TM 411 are here discussed in greater detail. The measurements made were of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of an airfoil model fitted with a rotary cylinder and were undertaken for the purpose of obtaining a closer insight into the phenomena observed in experimenting with this model.
The distribution of loads between the wings of a biplane having decalage
It is known that in a biplane the load is not distributed equally between the wings. The presence of one wing will affect the lift characteristics of the other wings. A designer must know the total load that each wing carries in order that he may design an adequate structure. The purpose here is to determine the distribution of loads between the wings of a biplane at various angles of decalage, when the gap/chord ratio is one, and there is no stagger. The effective lift of each wing was first investigated, using the vortex theory, and later by wind tunnel experiments. The results are given in tabular form.
Distribution of pressure over model of the upper wing and aileron of a Fokker D-VII airplane
This report describes tests made for the purpose of determining the distribution of pressure over a model of the tapered portion of the upper wing and the aileron of a Fokker D-VII Airplane. Normal pressures were measured simultaneously at 74 points distributed over the wing and aileron. Tests were made throughout the useful range of angles of attack with aileron setting ranging from -20 degrees to +20 degrees. The results are presented graphically. It was found that the pressure distribution along the chord is in general similar to that of thick tapered airfoils previously tested. The maximum resultant pressure recorded was five times the dynamic pressure. The distribution of the air load along the span may be assumed to be uniform for design purposes. Aileron displacements affect the pressures forward to the leading edge of the wing and may increase the air load on the outer portion of the wing by a considerable amount. With the wing at large angles of attack, the overhanging portion of the aileron creates usually a burble flow and therefore a large drag. The balance reduces the control stick forces at small angles of attack for all aileron displacements. At large angles of attack it does this for small displacements only. With the airplane at its maximum speed, an angle of attack of 18 degrees, and a down aileron displacement of 20 degrees, the bending moment tending to break off the overhanging portion of the aileron will be greater than that caused by a uniform static load of 35 pounds per square foot.
The "Dornier Mercury" commercial airplane with B.M.W. VI 600 HP. engine
The Dornier Mercury (Merkur) is an outgrowth of the Dornier Komet. It is designed as a passenger aircraft with the Alpine routes in mind. Its fuselage is made of steel for high stressed parts and duraluminum for all others. It can also be outfitted as a seaplane.
Dornier "Superwal" commercial seaplane with : two Rolls-Royce "Condor" 600 HP. engines
In November 1926, an exhibition flight of the Dornier giant flying boat was made for 3/4 of an hour. It was a larger version of the Dornier Wal, with a stepped hull, and wing stubs for lateral stability. It has a range of 1200 miles and is outfitted for baggage and 8 passengers.
Drag measurements of two thin wing sections at different index values
It is stated that the index value 6000, as found in normal tests of wing sections with a 20 cm chord, falls in the same region where the transition of laminar to turbulent flow takes place on thin flat plates. It is to be expected that slightly cambered, thin wing sections will behave similarly. The following test of two such wing sections were made for the purpose of verifying this supposition.
Drag measurements on a Junkers wing section : application of the Betz Method to the results of comparative tests made on a model and on an airplane in flight
The comparison of model tests in flight can be based on the result of such measurements. They are very important from the aerodynamical point of view, as they lead to useful conclusions regarding the behavior of the wing, its best shape and the conformity of theoretical and actual flow. Although there still remains a certain prejudice against such measurements, I have still attempted to make these comparative tests in order to inspire confidence in their reliability.
Duralumin and its corrosion
The types of corrosion and factors of corrosion of duralumin are investigated. Salt water is the most common of the corroding media with which designers have to contend in using duralumin in aircraft and ships.
Duralumin - defects and failures
It is proposed in this paper to identify some of the defects and failures in duralumin most frequently encountered by the aircraft industry with a view to indicate their importance. The defects and failures in duralumin may be classified into the following groups: 1) defects produced during manufacture; 2) defects produced during fabrication; 3) corrosion and erosion; and 4) fatigue failures. Only the first two will be covered in this report.
Duralumin welding
Gas and electric welding of duralumin are discussed.
Dyle and Bacalan metal monoplane, D.B. 10 : night bomber - equipped with two 420 HP. Jupiter engines
The D.B. 10 is manufactured of duraluminum and special high resistance steel. It can be used as a passenger aircraft or as a bomber.
The effect of flight path inclination on airplane velocity
This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in order to supply a systematic study of the relations between the flight velocity V and its horizontal component V subscript H, in power glides. Curves of V and V subscript H plotted against the inclination of the flight path 0 are given, together with curves which show the maximum values of V subscript H and the corresponding values of 0. Curves are also given showing the effect of small departures from the horizontal in high speed performance testing.
Effects of roughness on airfoils
We will here report on the effects of coarsely roughening not only the pressure side but also the suction or upper side of airfoils, as the first group of a larger series of experiments.
Effects of streamline curvature on lift of biplanes
This report concerns, first, the determination of the lift of a wing which is situated in a curvilinear flow; and second, to calculate the curvature which one wing of a biplane produces in the vicinity of the other.
Electrical characteristics of spark generators for automotive ignition
This paper reports the results of an extensive program of measurements on 11 ignition systems differing widely in type. The results serve primarily to give representative data on the electric and magnetic constants of such systems, and on the secondary voltage produced by them under various conditions of speed, timing, shunting resistance, etc. They also serve to confirm certain of the theoretical formulas which have been proposed to connect the performance of such systems with their electrical constants, and to indicate the extent to which certain simplified model circuits duplicate the performance of the actual apparatus.
Experiments on airfoils with aileron and slot
The present report contains the results of a few experiments on three airfoils to which the rear portions, having chords respectively 1/4, 1/3, and 2/5 of the total chords, are hinged so as to form ailerons, especial attention being given to the shape of the slot between the aileron and the main portion of the aileron.
Experiments on airfoils with trailing edge cut away
Airfoils with their trailing edge cut away are often found on aircraft, as the fins on the hulls of flying boats and the central section of the wings for affording better visibility. It was therefore of some interest to discover the effect of such cutaways on the lift and drag and on the position of the center of pressure. For this purpose, systematic experiments were performed on two different airfoils, a symmetrical airfoil and an airfoil of medium thickness, with successive shortenings of their chords.
Experiments with three horizontal empennages
The main objective of these experiments was to determine how the air forces on the whole empennage are affected by varying the size of the elevator without changing the size of the whole empennage. The secondary objective was to determine how the magnitude of the air forces acting on the elevator (or the elevator moments) are affected by varying the angle of attack of the whole empennage, or of the elevator alone.
The Fairchild "all-purpose" cabin monoplane
The Fairchild "all-purpose" is a 4 seater with a large luggage compartment, good visibility, and can be configured for surveying work. It is rated at 200 HP. at 1800 R.P.M., but can deliver over 220 HP.
Fiat C.R. 20 pursuit airplane
The Fiat C.R. 20 has an all metal frame covered with fireproof fabric, except for the area near the engines, which is covered in duraluminum. It is armed with 4 machine guns and is capable of 280 KPH.
Flap gear for airplanes : a new scheme in which variation is automatic
A variable flap gear, which would function automatically and require no attention during flight appeared to be an attractive idea even in its early stages of development. The advantages of variable camber are described as well as the designs of these automatic flaps.
Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics
This report gives the pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. For the cases treated the concordance of theory and measurement is so close as to make a resume of results desirable. Incidentally formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given, some being new forms for ready use derived in a previous paper. (author).