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 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail flying-boat hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes

Aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail flying-boat hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes

Date: January 1, 1953
Creator: Riebe, John M & Naeseth, Rodger L
Description: An investigation was made in the Langley 300 mph 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a refined deep-step planing-tail hull with various forebody and afterbody shapes. For comparison, tests were made on a streamline body simulating the fuselage of a modern transport airplane. The results of the tests, which include the interference effects of a 21-percent-thick support wing, indicated that for corresponding configurations the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 7 had lower minimum drag coefficients than the hull models incorporating a forebody with a length-beam ratio of 5. Longitudinal and lateral stability was generally about the same for all hull models tested and about the same as that of a conventional hull.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of a slotted Clark y wing as affected by the auxiliary airfoil position

The aerodynamic characteristics of a slotted Clark y wing as affected by the auxiliary airfoil position

Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J & Shortal, Joseph A
Description: Aerodynamic force tests on a slotted Clark Y wing were conducted in a vertical wind tunnel to determine the best position for a given auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. A systematic series of 100 changes in location of the auxiliary airfoil were made to cover all the probable useful ranges of slot gap, slot width, and slot depth. The results of the investigation may be applied to the design of automatic or controlled slots on wings with geometric characteristics similar to the wing tested. The best positions of the auxiliary airfoil were covered by the range of the tests, and the position for desired aerodynamic characteristics may easily be obtained from charts prepared especially for the purpose.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Platt, Robert C
Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I

Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils I

Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: unknown
Description: The object of this report is to bring together the investigations of the various aerodynamic laboratories in this country and Europe upon the subject of aerofoils suitable for use as lifting or control surfaces on aircraft. The data have been so arranged as to be of most use to designing engineers and for the purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils II : continuation of report no. 93

Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils II : continuation of report no. 93

Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: unknown
Description: This collection of data on aerofoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and date of test.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at high speeds

Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at high speeds

Date: January 1, 1925
Creator: Briggs, L. J.; Hull, G. F. & Dryden, H. L.
Description: This report deals with an experimental investigation of the aerodynamical characteristics of airfoils at high speeds. Lift, drag, and center of pressure measurements were made on six airfoils of the type used by the air service in propeller design, at speeds ranging from 550 to 1,000 feet per second. The results show a definite limit to the speed at which airfoils may efficiently be used to produce lift, the lift coefficient decreasing and the drag coefficient increasing as the speed approaches the speed of sound. The change in lift coefficient is large for thick airfoil sections (camber ratio 0.14 to 0.20) and for high angles of attack. The change is not marked for thin sections (camber ratio 0.10) at low angles of attack, for the speed range employed. At high speeds the center of pressure moves back toward the trailing edge of the airfoil as the speed increases. The results indicate that the use of tip speeds approaching the speed of sound for propellers of customary design involves a serious loss in efficiency.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils III : continuation of reports nos. 93 and 124

Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils III : continuation of reports nos. 93 and 124

Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: unknown
Description: This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this is the one most suited for international use and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and date of test.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils IV : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, and 182

Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils IV : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, and 182

Date: January 1, 1927
Creator: unknown
Description: This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading Aerodynamic Laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils V : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, and 244

Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils V : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, and 244

Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: unknown
Description: This collection of data on airfoils has been made from published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of tests.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286

Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286

Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: unknown
Description: This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds

Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds

Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Briggs, L. J. & Dryden, H. L.
Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of eight circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.5, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound have been determined in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The lower surface of each airfoil was plane; the upper surface was cylindrical. As compared with the measurements described in NACA-TR-319, the circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.95 and 1.08 times the speed of sound are more efficient than airfoils of the R. A. F. or Clark Y families. At a speed of 0.5 times the speed of sound, the thick circular-arc sections are extremely inefficient, but thin sections compare favorably with those of the R. A. F. family. A moderate round of the sharp edges changes the characteristics very little and is in many instances beneficial. The results indicate that the section of the blades of propellers intended for use at high tip-speeds should be of the circular-arc form for the outer part of the blade and should be changed gradually to the R. A. F. or Clark Y form as the hub is approached.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N
Description: Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms

The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms

Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David
Description: Tests were made of four propellers, with diameters of 10 feet, having different blade plan forms. One propeller (Navy design no. 5868-r6) was of the usual present-day type and was used as a basis of comparison for the other three, which had unusual plan forms distinguished by the inward (toward the hub) location of the sections having the greatest blade width. It was found that propellers with points of maximum blade width occurring closer to the hub than on the present-day type of blade had higher peak efficiencies but lower take-off efficiencies. This results was found true for a "clean" liquid-cooled engine installation. It appears that some modification could be made to present plan forms which would produce propellers having more satisfactory aerodynamic qualities. The propellers with the inward location of the points of maximum blade width had lower thrust and power coefficients and stalled earlier than the present-day type.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections

The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections

Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David
Description: Aerodynamic tests were made of seven full-scale 10-foot-diameter propellers of recent design comprising three groups. The first group was composed of three propellers having Clark y airfoil sections and the second group was composed of three propellers having R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections, the propellers of each group having 2, 3, and 4 blades. The third group was composed of two propellers, the 2-blade propeller taken from the second group and another propeller having the same airfoil section and number of blades but with the width and thickness 50 percent greater. The tests of these propellers reveal the effect of changes in solidity resulting either from increasing the number of blades or from increasing the blade width propeller design charts and methods of computing propeller thrust are included.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces

Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces

Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Katzoff, S
Description: Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section

Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Platt, Robert C & Abbott, Ira H
Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of the general aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils, each equipped with a 0.20c external flap of NACA 23012 section. The tests were made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot and variable-density wind tunnels and covered a range of Reynolds numbers that included values corresponding to those for landing conditions of a wide range of airplanes. Besides a determination of the variation of lift and drag characteristics with position of the flap relative to the main airfoil, complete aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil-flap combination with a flap hinge axis selected to give small hinge moments were measured in the two tunnels. Some measurements of air loads on the flap itself in the presence of the wing were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of seven frequently used wing sections at full Reynolds number

The aerodynamic characteristics of seven frequently used wing sections at full Reynolds number

Date: January 1, 1927
Creator: Munk, Max M & Miller, Elton W
Description: This report contains the aerodynamic properties of the wing sections U.S.A. 5, U.S.A. 27, U.S.A. 35 A, U.S.A. 35 B, Clark Y, R.A.F. 15, and Gottingen 387, as determined at various Reynolds numbers up to an approximately full scale value in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. It is shown that the characteristics of the wings investigated are affected greatly and in a somewhat erratic manner by variation of the Reynolds number. In general there is a small increase in maximum lift and an appreciable decrease in drag at all lifts.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of six full-scale propellers having different airfoil sections

The aerodynamic characteristics of six full-scale propellers having different airfoil sections

Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Biermann, David & Hartman, Edwin P
Description: Wind-tunnel tests are reported of six 3-blade 10-foot propellers operated in front of a liquid-cooled engine nacelle. The propellers were identical except for blade airfoil sections, which were: Clark y, R.A.F. 6, NACA 4400, NACA 2400-34, NACA 2rsub200, and NACA 6400. The range of blade angles investigated extended for 15 degrees to 40 degrees for all propellers except the Clark y, for which it extended to 45 degrees. The results showed that the range in maximum efficiency between the highest and lowest values was about 3 percent. The highest efficiencies were for the low-camber sections.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of twenty-four airfoils at high speeds

Aerodynamic characteristics of twenty-four airfoils at high speeds

Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Brigg, L. J. & Dryden, H. L.
Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of 24 airfoils are given for speeds of 0.5, 0.65, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound, as measured in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The 24 airfoils belong to four general groups. The first is the standard R. A. F. family in general use by the Army and Navy for propeller design, the members of the family differing only in thickness. This family is represented by nine members ranging in thickness from 0.04 to 0.20 inch. The second group consists of five members of the Clark Y family, the members of the family again differing only in thickness. The third group, comprising six members, is a second R. A. F. Family in which the position of the maximum ordinate is varied. Combined with two members of the first R.A.F. family, this group represents a variation of maximum ordinate position from 30 to 60 percent of the chord in two camber ratios, 0.08 and 0.16. The fourth group consists of three geometrical forms, a flat plate, a wedge, and a segment of a right circular cylinder. In addition one section used in the reed metal propeller was ...
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Aerodynamic characteristics of wings with cambered external airfoil flaps, including lateral control, with a full-span flap

Aerodynamic characteristics of wings with cambered external airfoil flaps, including lateral control, with a full-span flap

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Platt, Robert C
Description: The results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the NACA 23012, the NACA 23021, and the Clark Y airfoils, each equipped with a cambered external-airfoil flap, are presented in this report. The purpose of the research was to determine the relative merit of the various airfoils in combination with the cambered flap and to investigate the use of the flap as a combined lateral-control and high-lift device.
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Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

Date: January 1, 1918
Creator: Ames, Joseph S
Description: The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author).
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The aerodynamic effects of wing cut-outs

The aerodynamic effects of wing cut-outs

Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Sherman, Albert
Description: In connection with the interference program being conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel, an analysis was made of available material with the object of presenting a qualitative discussion on wing characteristics as affected by cut-outs and of determining means for their quantitative calculation.
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Aerodynamic forces and loadings on symmetrical circular-arc airfoils with plain leading-edge and plain trailing-edge flaps

Aerodynamic forces and loadings on symmetrical circular-arc airfoils with plain leading-edge and plain trailing-edge flaps

Date: January 1, 1953
Creator: Cahill, Jones F; Underwood, William J; Nuber, Robert J & Cheesman, Gail A
Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence tunnel and in the Langley two-dimensional low-pressure tunnel of 6- and 10-percent-thick symmetrical circular-arc airfoil sections at low Mach numbers and several Reynolds numbers. The airfoils were equipped with 0.15-chord plain leading-edge flaps and 0.20-chord plan trailing-edge flaps. The section lift and pitching-moment characteristics were determined for both airfoils with the flaps deflected individually and in combination. The section drag characteristics were obtained for the 6-percent-thick airfoil with the flaps partly deflected as low-drag-control flaps and for airfoils with the flaps neutral. Surface pressures were measured on the 6-percent-thick airfoil section with the flaps deflected either individually or in appropriate combination to furnish flap load and hinge-moment data applicable to the structural design of the airfoil. A generalized method is developed that permits the determination of the chordwise pressure distribution over sharp-edge airfoils with plain leading-edge flaps and plain trailing-edge flaps of arbitrary size and deflection.
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The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerm, N, C h
Description: A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the ny-1 airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane. Two spinning conditions were investigated. All six components of the aerodynamic reaction were measured and are presented in coefficient form refereed to airplane axes. The results indicate that the change in yawing moment produced by the rudder with the elevator up was the only component of force or moment produced by the elevator and rudder that could not have been balanced in an actual spin by small changes in attitude and angular velocity.
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