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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
The physical effects of detonation in a closed cylindrical chamber
Detonation in the internal-combustion engine is studied as a physical process. It is shown that detonation is accompanied by pressure waves within the cylinder charge. Sound theory is applied to the calculation of resonant pressure-wave frequencies. Apparatus is described for direct measurement of pressure-wave frequencies. Frequencies determined from two engines of different cylinder sizes are shown to agree with the values calculated from sound theory. An outline of the theoretically possible modes of vibration in a right circular cylinder with flat ends is included. An appendix by John P. Elting gives a method of calculating pressure in the sound wave following detonation.
General airplane performance
Equations have been developed for the analysis of the performance of the ideal airplane, leading to an approximate physical interpretation of the performance problem. The basic sea-level airplane parameters have been generalized to altitude parameters and a new parameter has been introduced and physically interpreted. The performance analysis for actual airplanes has been obtained in terms of the equivalent ideal airplane in order that the charts developed for use in practical calculations will for the most part apply to any type of engine-propeller combination and system of control, the only additional material required consisting of the actual engine and propeller curves for propulsion unit. Finally, a more exact method for the calculation of the climb characteristics for the constant-speed controllable propeller is presented in the appendix.
Elastic instability of members having sections common in aircraft construction
Two fundamental problems of elastic stability are discussed in this report. In part one formulas are given for calculating the critical stress at which a thin, outstanding flange of a compression member will either wrinkle into several waves or form into a single half wave and twist the member about its longitudinal axis. A mathematical study of the problem, which together with experimental work has led to these formulas, is given in an appendix. Results of test substantiating the recommended formulas are also presented. In part two the lateral buckling of beams is discussed. The results of a number of mathematical studies of this phenomenon have been published prior to this writing, but very little experimentally determined information relating to the problem has been available heretofore. Experimental verification of the mathematical deductions is supplied.
Air propellers in yaw
Report presents the results of tests conducted at Stanford University of a 3-foot model propeller at four pitch settings and at 0 degree, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees yaw. In addition to the usual propeller coefficients, cross-wind and vertical forces and yawing, pitching, and rolling moments were determined about axes having their origin at the intersection of the blade axis and the axis of rotation. The tests showed that the maximum efficiency was reduced only slightly for angles of yaw up to 10 degrees but that at 30 degrees yaw the loss in efficiency was about 10 percent. In all cases the cross-wind force was found to be greater than the cross-wind component of the axial thrust. With a yawed propeller an appreciable thrust was found for v/nd for zero thrust at zero yaw. Yawing a propeller was found to induce a pitching moment that increased in magnitude with yaw.
Application of practical hydrodynamics to airship design
The purpose of the first two parts of this report is to present in concise format all the formulas required for computation of the hydrodynamic forces, so that they can be easily computed for either straight or curvilinear flight. Improved approximations are also introduced having a high degree of accuracy throughout the entire range of practical proportions. The remaining two parts of the report are devoted respectively to stability and skin friction, as functions of the same hydrodynamic forces.
A proof of the theorem regarding the distribution of lift over the span for minimum induced drag
The proof of the theorem that the elliptical distribution of lift over the span is that which will give rise to the minimum induced drag has been given in a variety of ways, generally speaking too difficult to be readily followed by the graduate of the average good technical school of the present day. In the form of proof this report makes an effort to bring the matter more readily within the grasp of this class of readers.
Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics
Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.
A method of calculating the ultimate strength of continuous beams
The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of continuous beams after the elastic limit has been passed. As a result, a method of calculation, which is applicable to maximum load conditions, has been developed. The method is simpler than the methods now in use and it applies properly to conditions where the present methods fail to apply.
Stability of thin-walled tubes under torsion
In this report a theoretical solution is developed for the torsion on a round thin-walled tube for which the walls become unstable. The results of this theory are given by a few simple formulas and curves which cover all cases. The differential equations of equilibrium are derived in a simpler form than previously found, it being shown that many items can be neglected.
An extended theory of thin airfoils and its application to the biplane problem
The report presents a new treatment, due essentially to von Karman, of the problem of the thin airfoil. The standard formulae for the angle of zero lift and zero moment are first developed and the analysis is then extended to give the effect of disturbing or interference velocities, corresponding to an arbitrary potential flow, which are superimposed on a normal rectilinear flow over the airfoil. An approximate method is presented for obtaining the velocities induced by a 2-dimensional airfoil at a point some distance away. In certain cases this method has considerable advantage over the simple "lifting line" procedure usually adopted. The interference effects for a 2-dimensional biplane are considered in the light of the previous analysis. The results of the earlier sections are then applied to the general problem of the interference effects for a 3-dimensional biplane, and formulae and charts are given which permit the characteristics of the individual wings of an arbitrary biplane without sweepback or dihedral to be calculated. In the final section the conclusions drawn from the application of the theory to a considerable number of special cases are discussed, and curves are given illustrating certain of these conclusions and serving as examples to indicate the nature of the agreement between the theory and experiment.
Investigation of turbulent flow in a two-dimensional channel
A detailed exploration of the field of mean and fluctuating quantities in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow is presented. The measurements were repeated at three Reynolds numbers, 12,300, 30,800, and 61,600, based on the half width of the channel and the maximum mean velocity. A channel of 5-inch width and 12:1 aspect ratio was used for the investigation. Mean-speed and axial-fluctuation measurements were made well within the laminar sublayer. The semitheoretical predictions concerning the extent of the laminar sublayer were confirmed. The distribution of the velocity fluctuations in the direction of mean flow u' shows that the influence of the viscosity extends farther from the wall than indicated by the mean velocity profile, the region of influence being approximately four times as wide.
On the theory of oscillating airfoils of finite span in subsonic compressible flow
The problem of oscillating lifting surface of finite span in subsonic compressible flow is reduced to an integral equation. The kernel of the integral equation is approximated by a simpler expression, on the basis of the assumption of sufficiently large aspect ratio. With this approximation the double integral occurring in the formulation of the problem is reduced to two single integrals, one of which is taken over the chord and the other over the span of the lifting surface. On the basis of this reduction the three-dimensional problem appears separated into two two-dimensional problems, one of them being effectively the problem of two-dimensional flow and the other being the problem of spanwise circulation distribution. Earlier results concerning the oscillating lifting surface of finite span in incompressible flow are contained in the present more general results.
A special investigation to develop a general method for three-dimensional photoelastic stress analysis
The method of strain measurement after annealing is reviewed and found to be satisfactory for the materials available in this country. A new general method is described for the photoelastic determination of the principal stresses at any point of a general body subjected to arbitrary load. The method has been applied to a sphere subjected to diametrical compressive loads. The results show possibilities of high accuracy.
An experimental investigation of transonic flow past two-dimensional wedge and circular-arc sections using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer
Report presents the results of interferometer measurements of the flow field near two-dimensional wedge and circular-arc sections of zero angle of attack at high-subsonic and low-supersonic velocities. Both subsonic flow with local supersonic zone and supersonic flow with detached shock wave have been investigated. Pressure distributions and drag coefficients as a function of Mach number have been obtained. The wedge data are compared with the theoretical work on flow past wedge sections of Guderley and Yoshihara, Vincenti and Wagner, and Cole. Pressure distributions and drag coefficients for the wedge and circular-arc sections are presented throughout the entire transonic range of velocities.
Analysis and calculation by integral methods of laminar compressible boundary-layer with heat transfer and with and without pressure gradient
A survey of integral methods in laminar-boundary-layer analysis is first given. A simple and sufficiently accurate method for practical purposes of calculating the properties (including stability) of the laminar compressible boundary layer in an axial pressure gradient with heat transfer at the wall is presented. For flow over a flat plate, the method is applicable for an arbitrarily prescribed distribution of temperature along the surface and for any given constant Prandtl number close to unity. For flow in a pressure gradient, the method is based on a Prandtl number of unity and a uniform wall temperature. A simple and accurate method of determining the separation point in a compressible flow with an adverse pressure gradient over a surface at a given uniform wall temperature is developed. The analysis is based on an extension of the Karman-Pohlhausen method to the momentum and the thermal energy equations in conjunction with fourth- and especially higher degree velocity and stagnation-enthalpy profiles.
Diffusion of heat from a line source in isotropic turbulence
An experimental and analytical study has been made of some features of the turbulent heat diffusion behind a line heated wire stretched perpendicular to a flowing isotropic turbulence. The mean temperature distributions have been measured with systematic variations in wind speed, size of turbulence-producing grid, and downstream location of heat source. The nature of the temperature fluctuation field has been studied. A comparison of Lagrangian and Eulerian analyses for diffusion in a nondecaying turbulence yields an expression for turbulent-heat-transfer coefficient in terms of turbulence velocity and a Lagrangian "scale." the ratio of Eulerian to Lagrangian microscale has been determined theoretically by generalization of a result of Heisenberg and with arbitrary constants taken from independent sources, shows rough agreement with experimental results. A convenient form has been deduced for the criterion of interchangeability of instantaneous space and time derivatives in a flowing turbulence.
Free-stream boundaries of turbulent flows
Report presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study made of the instantaneously sharp and irregular front which is always found to separate turbulent fluid from contiguous "nonturbulent" fluid at a free-stream boundary. This distinct demarcation is known to give an intermittent character to hot-wire signals in the boundary zone. The overall behavior of the front is described statistically in terms of its wrinkle-amplitude growth and its lateral propagation relative to the fluid as functions of downstream coordinate.
Experiments to determine neighborhood reactions to light airplanes with and without external noise reduction
The work reported was part of a program of experimentation with external noise reduction on light airplanes. This particular study was in effect a byproduct survey conceived to utilize already available equipment and personnel to further the findings of the original research and to determine reactions in populated neighborhoods to light aircraft with and without noise-reduction equipment. The findings indicate that at the 10 sites within and about metropolitan Boston the degree of noise reduction previously found to be aerodynamically and structurally feasible did eliminate substantially all neighborhood objections to noise per se. The evidence clearly suggests that, when the noise nuisance is minimized to the extent found feasible, the number and severity of other objections also diminish -- evidently because the flight operations are noticed less when heard less.
Experimental aerodynamic derivatives of a sinusoidally oscillating airfoil in two-dimensional flow
Experimental measurements of the aerodynamic reactions on a symmetrical airfoil oscillating harmonically in a two-dimensional flow are presented and analyzed. Harmonic motions include pure pitch and pure translation, for several amplitudes and superimposed on an initial angle of attack, as well as combined pitch and translation. The apparatus and testing program are described briefly and the necessary theoretical background is presented. In general, the experimental results agree remarkably well with the theory, especially in the case of the pure motions. The net work per cycle for a motion corresponding to flutter is experimentally determined to be zero. Considerable consistent data for pure pitch were obtained from a search of available reference material, and several definite Reynolds number effects are evident.
Recommendations for numerical solution of reinforced-panel and fuselage-ring problems
Procedures are recommended for solving the equations of equilibrium of reinforced panels and isolated fuselage rings as represented by the external loads and the operations table established according to Southwell's method. From the solution of these equations the stress distribution can be easily determined. The method of systematic relaxations, the matrix-calculus method, and several other methods applicable in special cases are discussed. Definite recommendations are made for obtaining the solution of reinforced-panel problems which are generally designated as shear lag problems. The procedures recommended are demonstrated in the analysis of a number of panels. In the case of fuselage rings it is not possible to make definite recommendations for the solution of the equilibrium equations for all rings and loadings. However, suggestions based on the latest experience are made and demonstrated on several rings.
On the development of turbulent wakes from vortex streets
Wake development behind circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers from 40 to 10,000 was investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel. Standard hot-wire techniques were used to study the velocity fluctuations. The Reynolds number range of periodic vortex shedding is divided into two distinct subranges. At r=40 to 150, called the stable range, regular vortex streets are formed and no turbulent velocity fluctuations accompany the periodic formation of vortices. The range r=150 to 300 is a transition range to a regime called the irregular range, in which turbulent velocity fluctuations accompany the periodic formation of vortices. The turbulence is initiated by laminar-turbulent transition in the free layers which spring from the separation points on the cylinder. The transition first occurs in the range r=150 to 300. Spectrum and statistical measurements were made to study the velocity fluctuations.
Influence of Alloying upon Grain-Boundary Creep
Grain-boundary displacement, occurring in bicrystals during creep at elevated temperature (350 degrees c), has been measured as a function of the copper content (0.1 to 3 percent) in a series of aluminum-rich aluminum-copper solid-solution alloys. The minimums in stress and temperature, below which grain-boundary motion does not occur, increase regularly with the copper content as would be expected if recovery is necessary for movement. Otherwise, the effects, if any, of the copper solute upon grain-boundary displacement and its rate are too small for identification by the experimental technique employed. It was shown, additionally, that grain-boundary displacement appears regular and proceeds at a constant rate if observed parallel to the stress axis, whereas the motion is seen to occur in a sequence of surges and the rate to diminish with time if the observations are made perpendicular to the stress axis.
Development of turbulence-measuring equipment
Hot wire turbulence-measuring equipment has been developed to meet the more stringent requirements involved in the measurement of fluctuations in flow parameters at supersonic velocities. The higher mean speed necessitates the resolution of higher frequency components than at low speed, and the relatively low turbulence level present at supersonic speed makes necessary an improved noise level for the equipment. The equipment covers the frequency range from 2 to about 70,000 cycles per second. Constant-current operation is employed. Compensation for hot-wire lag is adjusted manually using square-wave testing to indicate proper setting. These and other features make the equipment adaptable to all-purpose turbulence work with improved utility and accuracy over that of older types of equipment. Sample measurements are given to demonstrate the performance.
Direct measurements of skin friction
A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.
Survey of portions of the chromium-cobalt-nickel-molybdenum quaternary system at 1,200 degrees c
A survey was made of portions of the chromium-cobalt-nickel-molybdenum quaternary system at 1,200 degrees c by means of microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies. Since the face-centered cubic (alpha) solid solutions form the matrix of almost all practically useful high-temperature alloys, the solid solubility limits of the quaternary alpha phase were determined up to 20 percent molybdenum. The component cobalt-nickel-molybdenum, chromium-cobalt-molybdenum, and chromium-nickel-molybdenum ternary systems were also studied. The survey of these systems was confined to the determination of the boundaries of the face-centered cubic (alpha) solid solutions and of the phases coexisting with alpha at 1,200 degrees c.
Plastic buckling of a rectangular plate under edge thrusts
The fundamental equations for the plastic buckling of a rectangular plate under edge thrusts are developed on the basis of a new set of stress-strain relations for the behavior of a metal in the plastic range. These relations are derived for buckling from a state of uniform compression. The fundamental equation for the buckling of a simply compressed plate together with typical boundary conditions is then developed and the results are applied to calculating the buckling loads of a thin strip, a simply supported plate, and a cruciform section. Comparisons with the theories of Timoshenko and Ilyushin are made. Finally, an energy method is given which can be used for finding approximate values of the critical load.
Influence of Hot-Working Conditions on High-Temperature Properties of a Heat-Resistant Alloy
The relationships between conditions of hot-working and properties at high temperatures and the influence of the hot-working on response to heat treatment were investigated for an alloy containing nominally 20 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, and 1 percent columbium. Commercially produced bar stock was solution-treated at 2,200 degrees F. to minimize prior-history effects and then rolled at temperatures of 2,200 degrees, 2,100 degrees, 2,000 degrees, 1,800 degrees, and 1,600 degrees F. Working was carried out at constant temperature and with incremental decreases in temperature simulating a falling temperature during hot-working. In addition, a few special repeated cyclic conditions involving a small reduction at high temperature followed by a small reduction at a low temperature were used to study the possibility of inducing very low strengths by the extensive precipitation accompanying such properties. Most of the rolling was done in open passes with a few check tests being made with closed passes. Heat treatments at both 2,050 degrees and 2,200 degrees F. subsequent to working were used to study the influence on response to heat treatment.
Fundamental effects of aging on creep properties of solution-treated low-carbon n-155 alloy
A method is developed whereby the fundamental mechanisms are investigated by which processing, heat treatment, and chemical composition control the properties of alloys at high temperatures. The method used metallographic examination -- both optical and electronic --studies of x-ray diffraction-line widths, intensities, and lattice parameters, and hardness surveys to evaluate fundamental structural conditions. Mechanical properties at high temperatures are then measured and correlated with these measured structural conditions. In accordance with this method, a study was made of the fundamental mechanism by which aging controlled the short-time creep and rupture properties of solution-treated low-carbon n-155 alloy at 1200 degrees F.
Further experiments on the flow and heat transfer in a heated turbulent air jet
Measurements have been made of the mean-total-head and mean-temperature fields in a round turbulent jet with various initial temperatures. The results show that the jet spreads more rapidly as its density becomes lower than that of the receiving medium, even when the difference is not sufficiently great to cause dynamic-pressure function. Rough analytical considerations have given the same relative spread. The effective "turbulent Prandtl number" for a section of the fully developed jet was found to be equal to the true (laminar) Prandtl number within the accuracy measurement.
Incompressible flutter characteristics of representative aircraft wings
This report gives the results of a detailed study of the flutter characteristics of four representative aircraft wings. This study was made using the electric-analog computer at the California Institute of Technology. During the course of this investigation eight important parameters of each wing were varied and, in addition, the effects of mass, inertia, pitching spring, and location of a concentrated mass were investigated for all four wings and at several sweepback angles.
Boron and zirconium from crucible refractories in a complex heat-resistant alloy
In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
Investigations of effects of surface temperature and single roughness elements on boundary-layer transition
The laminar boundary layer and the position of the transition point were investigated on a heated flat plate. It was found that the Reynolds number of transition decreased as the temperature of the plate is increased. It is shown from simple qualitative analytical considerations that the effect of variable viscosity in the boundary layer due to the temperature difference produces a velocity profile with an inflection point if the wall temperature is higher than the free-stream temperature. This profile is confirmed by measurements. The instability of inflection-point profiles is discussed. Studies of the flow in the wake of large, two-dimensional roughness elements are presented. It is shown that a boundary-layer can separate and reattach itself to the wall without having transition take place.
Influence of chemical composition on rupture properties at 1200 degrees F. of forged chromium-cobalt-nickel-iron base alloys in solution-treated and aged condition
The influence of systematic variations of chemical composition on rupture properties at 1200 degrees F. was determined for 62 modifications of a basic alloy containing 20 percent chromium, 20 percent nickel, 20 percent cobalt, 3 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, 1 percent columbium, 0.15 percent carbon, 1.7 percent manganese, 0.5 percent silicon, 0.12 percent nitrogen and the balance iron. These modifications included individual variations of each of 10 elements present and simultaneous variations of molybdenum, tungsten, and columbium. Laboratory induction furnace heats were hot-forged to round bar stock, solution-treated at 2200 degrees F., and aged at 1400 degrees F. The melting and fabrication conditions were carefully controlled in order to minimize all variable effects on properties except chemical composition. Information is presented which indicates that melting and hot-working conditions play an important role in high-temperature properties of alloys of the type investigated.
Preliminary report on the problem of the atmosphere in relation to aeronautics
A report to the Weather Bureau, Washington DC, from the chairman of the Subcommittee on the Atmosphere in Relation to Aeronautics describing the activities accomplished and the proposal of work to be undertaken by the subcommittee.
Stability of the parachute and helicopter
This report deals with an extension of the theory of stability in oscillation to the case of aircraft following a vertical trajectory, and particularly to the oscillations of parachutes.
The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes
This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.
Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid
A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. In some useful cases experimental pressures are plotted for comparison with theoretical. The pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight are calculated. General equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid are derived. Formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms are presented.
The Inertia Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid
The apparent inertia of an airship hull is examined. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem is studied for hulls of various shapes with special attention given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. So that the results for the ellipsoidal hull may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction of motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient kappa which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio. The case of rotation of an airship hull is investigated and a coefficient is defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
Tests on air propellers in yaw
This report contains the results of tests to determine the thrust (pull) and torque characteristics of air propellers in movement relative to the air in a line oblique to the line of the shaft, and specifically when such angle of obliquity is large, as in the case of helicopter flight with the propeller serving for both sustentation and traction.
Fuselage stress analysis
Report analyzes the stresses in a fuselage of the built-up type in which the shear is taken by diagonal bracing wires. Tests are conducted for landing, flying, and thrust loads.
Wind tunnel balances
Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.
Slip-stream corrections performance computation
This report is an analysis of experiments performed by Eiffel on the air velocity in slip stream of a propeller, and also includes a theoretical discussion of the magnitude of the velocity in different propellers.
The Limiting Velocity in Falling from a Great Height
The purpose of this report is to give a simple treatment of the problem of calculating the final or limiting velocity of an object falling in vertical motion under gravity in a resisting medium. The equations of motion are easily set up and integrated when the density of the medium is constant and the resistance varies as the square of the velocity. The results show that the fundamental characteristics of the vertical motion under gravity in a resisting medium is the approach to a terminal or limiting velocity, whether the initial downward velocity is less or greater than the limiting velocity. This method can be used to calculate the terminal velocity of a bomb trajectory.
Preliminary report on free flight tests
Results are presented for a series of tests made by the Advisory Committee's staff at Langley Field during the summer of 1919 with the objectives of determining the characteristics of airplanes in flight and the extent to which the actual characteristics differ from those predicted from tests on models in the wind tunnel, and of studying the balance of the machines and the forces which must be applied to the controls in order to maintain longitudinal equilibrium.
Bomb trajectories
The report is a mathematical treatise dealing with the trajectories of bombs of high terminal velocity, dropped from a great altitude.
The aerodynamic properties of thick aerofoils suitable for internal bracing
The object of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of various types of wings having sufficient depth to entirely inclose the wing bracing, and also to provide data for the further design of such sections. This type of wing is of interest because it eliminates the resistance of the interplane bracing, a portion of the airplane that sometimes absorbs one-quarter of the total power required to fly, and because these wings may be made to give a very high maximum lift. Results of the investigation of the following subjects are given: (1) effect of changing the upper and lower camber of thick aerofoils of uniform section; (2) effect of thickening the center and thinning the tips of a thin aerofoil; (3) effect of adding a convex lower surface to a tapered section; (4) effect of changing the mean thickness with constant center and tip sections; and (5) effect of varying the chord along the span.
Construction of models for tests in wind tunnels
Report deals with the methods of constructing aerofoils and all other parts of a model airplane, including discussion of the degree of accuracy.
Diagrams of airplane stability
In this report a study is made of the effect on longitudinal and lateral oscillations of an airplane of simultaneous variations in two resistance derivatives while the remainder of the derivatives are constant. The results are represented by diagrams in which the two variable resistance derivatives are used as coordinates, and curves are plotted along which the modulus of decay of a long oscillation has a constant value. The same type of analysis is also carried out for the stability of the parachute. In discussing the stability of the helicopter it is concluded that the gyroscopic effect on stability will be greater than in the case of the airplane.
Analysis of wing truss stresses including the effect of redundancies
Airplane wing trusses are generally designed to contain redundant members (stagger wires and external drag wires) which, according to common practice, are not taken into account in calculations, so as to simplify the stress analysis by rendering the structure statically determinate. A more accurate method, in which the redundancies are included, involves a solution by means of Castigliano's method of least work. For the purpose of demonstrating the practical application of the method of least work this report presents examples for stresses of several cases of loading worked out for a structure similar to that of the Curtiss JN-4h. Case 1 was taken as the condition of velocity of 100 miles per hour combined with the angle of attack of maximum lift. Case 1a assumed the same loading but neglected the distortion of wooden members in the least-work analysis. So little error was involved in case 1a that this simplified method was employed for each succeeding case. Case 2 assumed a diving speed of 120 miles per hour and an angle of attack of no lift. Case 3 was worked out for the conditions imposed by the sand load recommended in NACA technical note no. 6.
The efficiency of small bearings in instruments of the type used in aircraft
This report deals with the construction and properties of bearings and pivots for use in instruments. The static and running friction for both thrust and radial loads was determined for a number of conical pivots and cylindrical and ball bearings. The static rocking friction was also measured for several conical and ball bearings under a heavy load, especially to determine their suitability for use in N. P. L. (National Physical Laboratory) type wind tunnel balance. In constructing conical pivots and sockets it was found that the pivots should be hardened and highly polished, preferably with a revolving lap, and that the sockets should be made by punching with a hardened and polished punch. It was found that for a light load the conical pivots give less friction than any other type, and their wearing qualities when hardened are excellent. Very small ball bearings are unsatisfactory because the proportional accuracy of the balls and races is not high enough to insure smooth running. For rocking pivots under heavy loads it was found that a ball-and-socket bearing, consisting of a hemispherical socket and a sphere of smaller diameter concentric with it, with a row of small balls resting between the two, was superior to a pivot resting in a socket. It was found that vibration such as occurs in an airplane will greatly reduce the static friction of a pivot or bearing, in some cases to as little as one-twentieth of its static value.