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 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Ground simulator studies of the effects of valve friction, stick friction, flexibility, and backwash on power control system quality

Ground simulator studies of the effects of valve friction, stick friction, flexibility, and backwash on power control system quality

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Brown, B Porter
Description: Report presents results of tests made on a power control system by means of a ground simulator to determine the effects of various combinations of valve friction and stick friction on the ability of the pilot to control the system. Various friction conditions were simulated with a rigid control system, a flexible system, and a rigid system having some backlash. For the tests, the period and damping of the simulated airplane were held constant.
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Growth of disturbances in a flame-generated shear region

Growth of disturbances in a flame-generated shear region

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Blackshear, Perry L , Jr
Description: Results are presented of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the growth of transverse velocity disturbances in the shear region caused by a flame in a duct. In the theoretical stability analysis, a flow field arising from a flame in a duct was analyzed. The flow was neutrally stable to symmetric disturbances and unstable to antisymmetric ones. In the experimental part of the program disturbances of various frequencies were imposed on a flame stabilized in a duct, and the effects were measured by shadow photography and photomultiplier-probe surveys.
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Incompressible flutter characteristics of representative aircraft wings

Incompressible flutter characteristics of representative aircraft wings

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Wilts, C H
Description: This report gives the results of a detailed study of the flutter characteristics of four representative aircraft wings. This study was made using the electric-analog computer at the California Institute of Technology. During the course of this investigation eight important parameters of each wing were varied and, in addition, the effects of mass, inertia, pitching spring, and location of a concentrated mass were investigated for all four wings and at several sweepback angles.
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Investigation of a nonlinear control system

Investigation of a nonlinear control system

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Flugge-Lotz, I; Taylor, C F & Lindberg, H E
Description: A discontinuous variation of coefficients of the differential equation describing the linear control system before nonlinear elements are added is studied in detail. The nonlinear feedback is applied to a second-order system. Simulation techniques are used to study performance of the nonlinear control system and to compare it with the linear system for a wide variety of inputs. A detailed quantitative study of the influence of relay delays and of a transport delay is presented.
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Investigation of separated flows in supersonic and subsonic streams with emphasis on the effect of transition

Investigation of separated flows in supersonic and subsonic streams with emphasis on the effect of transition

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Chapman, Dean R; Kuehn, Donald M & Larson, Howard K
Description: Report presents the results of experimental and theoretical research conducted on flow separation associated with steps, bases, compression corners, curved surfaces, shock-wave boundary-layer reflections, and configurations producing leading-edge separation. Results were obtained from pressure-distribution measurements, shadowgraph observations, high-speed motion pictures, and oil-film studies. The maximum scope of measurement encompassed Mach numbers between 0.4 and 3.6, and length Reynolds numbers between 4,000 and 5,000,000.
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Investigation of some wake vortex characteristics of an inclined ogive-cylinder body at Mach number 2

Investigation of some wake vortex characteristics of an inclined ogive-cylinder body at Mach number 2

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Jorgensen, Leland H & Perkins, Edward W
Description: For a body consisting of a fineness-ratio-3 ogival nose tangent to a cylindrical afterbody 7.3 diameters long, pitot-pressure distributions in the flow field, pressure distributions over the body, and downwash distributions along a line through the vortex centers have been measured for angles of attack to 20 degrees. The Reynolds numbers, based on body diameter, were 0.15 x 10 to the 6th power and 0.44 x 10 to the 6th power. Comparisons of computed and measured vortex paths and downwash distributions are made. (author).
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Investigation of the drag of various axially symmetric nose shapes of fineness ratio 3 for Mach numbers from 1.24 to 7.4

Investigation of the drag of various axially symmetric nose shapes of fineness ratio 3 for Mach numbers from 1.24 to 7.4

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Perkins, Edward W; Jorgensen, Leland H & Sommer, Simon C
Description: Experimental drag measurements at zero angle of attack for various theoretical minimum drag nose shapes, hemispherically blunted cones, and other more common profiles of fineness ratios of about 3 are compared with theoretical results for a Mach number and Reynolds number range of 1.24 to 7.4 and 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 7.5 x 10 to the 6th power (based on body length), respectively. The results of experimental pressure-distribution measurements are used for the development of an empirical expression for predicting the pressure drag of hemispherically blunted cones.
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A low-speed experimental investigation of the effect of a sandpaper type of roughness on boundary-layer transition

A low-speed experimental investigation of the effect of a sandpaper type of roughness on boundary-layer transition

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Von Doenhoff, Albert E & Horton, Elmer A
Description: An investigation was made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effect of size and location of a sandpaper type of roughness on the Reynolds number for transition. Transition was observed by means of a hot-wire anemometer located at various chordwise stations for each position of the roughness. These observations indicated that when the roughness is sufficiently submerged in the boundary layer to provide a substantially linear variation of boundary-layer velocity with distance from the surface up to the top of the roughness, turbulent "spots" begin to appear immediately behind the roughness when the Reynolds number based on the velocity at the top of the roughness height exceeds a value of approximately 600. At Reynolds numbers even slightly below the critical value (value for transition), the sandpaper type of roughness introduced no measurable disturbances into the laminar layer downstream of the roughness. The extent of the roughness area does not appear to have an important effect on the critical value of the roughness Reynolds number.
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A low-speed experimental investigation of the effect of a sandpaper type of roughness on boundary-layer transition

A low-speed experimental investigation of the effect of a sandpaper type of roughness on boundary-layer transition

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Horton, E. A. & Vondoenhoff, A. E.
Description: None
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Measurement of static pressure on aircraft

Measurement of static pressure on aircraft

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Gracey, William
Description: Existing data on the errors involved in the measurement of static pressure by means of static-pressure tubes and fuselage vents are presented. The errors associated with the various design features of static-pressure tubes are discussed for the condition of zero angle of attack and for the case where the tube is inclined to flow. Errors which result from variations in the configuration of static-pressure vents are also presented. Errors due to the position of a static-pressure tube in the flow field of the airplane are given for locations ahead of the fuselage nose, ahead of the wing tip, and ahead of the vertical tail fin. The errors of static-pressure vents on the fuselage of an airplane are also presented. Various methods of calibrating static-pressure installations in flight are briefly discussed.
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Measurements of free-space oscillating pressures near propellers at flight Mach numbers to 0.72

Measurements of free-space oscillating pressures near propellers at flight Mach numbers to 0.72

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Kurbjun, Max C & Vogeley, Arthur W
Description: In the course of a short flight program initiated to check the theory of Garrick and Watkins (NACA rep. 1198), a series of measurements at three stations were made of the oscillating pressures near a tapered-blade plan-form propeller and rectangular-blade plan form propeller at flight Mach numbers up to 0.72. In contradiction to the results for the propeller studied in NACA rep. 1198, the oscillating pressures in the plane ahead of the propeller were found to be higher than those immediately behind the propeller. Factors such as variation in torque and thrust distribution, since the blades of the present investigation were operating above their design forward speed, may account for this contradiction. The effect of blade plan form shows that a tapered-blade plan-form propeller will produce lower sound-pressure levels than a rectangular-blade plan-form propeller for the low blade-passage harmonics (the frequencies where structural considerations are important) and produce higher sound-pressure levels for the higher blade-passage harmonics (frequencies where passenger comfort is important).
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The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system

The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: May, Charles E
Description: "Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.
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A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Eggers, A J , Jr
Description: It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.
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A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Hill, P R
Description: A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.
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Methods for obtaining desired helicopter stability characteristics and procedures for stability predictions

Methods for obtaining desired helicopter stability characteristics and procedures for stability predictions

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Gustafson, F B & Tapscott, Robert J
Description: Part I of this report presents a brief review of methods available to the helicopter designer for obtaining desired stability characteristics by modifications to the airframe design. The discussion is based on modifications made during the establishment of flying-qualities criteria and includes sample results of theoretical studies of additional methods. The conclusion is reached that it is now feasible to utilize combinations of methods whereby stability-parameter values are realized which in turn provide the desired stability characteristics. Part II reviews some of the methods of predicting rotor stability derivatives. The procedures by which these rotor derivatives are employed to estimate helicopter stability characteristics have been summarized.
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NACA research on slurry fuels

NACA research on slurry fuels

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Pinns, M L; Olson, W T; Barnett, H C & Breitwieser, R
Description: An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.
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On flow of electrically conducting fluids over a flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

On flow of electrically conducting fluids over a flat plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Rossow, Vernon J
Description: The use of a magnetic field to control the motion of electrically conducting fluids is studied. The incompressible boundary-layer solutions are found for flow over a flat plate when the magnetic field is fixed relative to the plate or to the fluid. The equations are integrated numerically for the effect of the transverse magnetic field on the velocity and temperature profiles, and hence, the skin friction and rate of heat transfer. It is concluded that the skin friction and the heat-transfer rate are reduced when the transverse magnetic field is fixed relative to the plate and increased when fixed relative to the fluid. The total drag is increased in all of the areas.
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Origin and Prevention of Crash Fires in Turbojet Aircraft

Origin and Prevention of Crash Fires in Turbojet Aircraft

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Pinkel, I. Irvin; Weiss, Solomon; Preston, G. Merritt & Pesman, Gerard J.
Description: The tendency for the jet engine rotor to continue to rotate after crash presents the probability that crash-spilled combustibles suspended in the air or puddled on the ground at the engine inlet may be sucked into the engine. Studies with jet engines operating on a test stand and full-scale crashes of turbojet-powered airplanes showed that combustibles drawn into the engine in this way ignite explosively within the engine. Experiment showed that the gas flow through the engine is too rapid to permit the ignition of ingested combustibles on the hot metal in contact with the main gas stream. Ignition will occur on those hot surfaces not in the main gas stream. The portion of the engine airflow is diverted for cooling and ventilation to these zones where the gas moves slowly enough for ignition to occur.
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A phenomenological relation between stress, strain rate, and temperature for metals at elevated temperatures

A phenomenological relation between stress, strain rate, and temperature for metals at elevated temperatures

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Stowell, Elbridge Z
Description: It is shown that for one material, 7075-Tm aluminum-alloy sheet, the information yielded by the relation for these four applications agrees reasonably well with test data.
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The response of an airplane to random atmospheric disturbances

The response of an airplane to random atmospheric disturbances

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Diederich, Franklin W
Description: The statistical approach to the gust-load problem, which consists in considering flight through turbulent air to be a stationary random process, is extended by including the effect of lateral variation of the instantaneous gust intensity on the aerodynamic forces. The forces obtained in this manner are used in dynamic analyses of rigid and flexible airplanes free to move vertically, in pitch, and in roll. The effect of the interaction of longitudinal, normal, and lateral gusts on the wind stresses is also considered.
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The similarity rules for second-order subsonic and supersonic flow

The similarity rules for second-order subsonic and supersonic flow

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Van Dyke, Milton D
Description: The similarity rules for linearized compressible flow theory (Gothert's rule and its supersonic counterpart) are extended to second order. It is shown that any second-order subsonic flow can be related to "nearly incompressible" flow past the same body, which can be calculated by the Janzen-Rayleigh method.
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A simplified method for approximating the transient motion in angles of attack and sideslip during a constant rolling maneuver

A simplified method for approximating the transient motion in angles of attack and sideslip during a constant rolling maneuver

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Sternfield, Leonard
Description: The transient motion in angles of attack and sideslip during a constant rolling maneuver has been analyzed. Simplified expressions are presented for the determination of the pertinent modes of motion as well as the modal coefficient corresponding to each mode. Calculations made with and without the derivatives for side force due to sideslip and lift-curve slope indicate that although these derivatives increase the total damping of the system they do not markedly affect the transient motion.
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A study of the motion and aerodynamic heating of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds

A study of the motion and aerodynamic heating of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Allen, H Julian & Eggers, A J , Jr
Description: A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer.
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A summary of preliminary investigations into the characteristics of combustion screech in ducted burners

A summary of preliminary investigations into the characteristics of combustion screech in ducted burners

Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: unknown
Description: Increasing demands for higher afterburner performance have required operation at progressively higher fuel-air ratios, which has increased the occurrence and intensity of screeching combustion. The onset of screech may be followed by rapid destruction of the combustor shell and other combustor parts. Because of its destructive characteristics, considerable effort has been expended to understand and eliminate screech. NACA work on the screeching combustion problem prior to 1954 is summarized herein. These studies showed that resonant acoustic oscillations are a primary component of the screech mechanism in the burners thus far investigated.
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