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**Decade:**1940-1949

**Serial/Series Title:**NACA Technical Reports

**Collection:**National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection

### Analysis of performance of jet engine from characteristics of components II : interaction of components as determined from engine operation

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Goldstein, Arthur W; Alpert, Sumner; Beede, William & Kovach, Karl

**Description:**In order to understand the operation and the interaction of jet-engine components during engine operation and to determine how component characteristics may be used to compute engine performance, a method to analyze and to estimate performance of such engines was devised and applied to the study of the characteristics of a research turbojet engine built for this investigation. An attempt was made to correlate turbine performance obtained from engine experiments with that obtained by the simpler procedure of separately calibrating the turbine with cold air as a driving fluid in order to investigate the applicability of component calibration. The system of analysis was also applied to prediction of the engine and component performance with assumed modifications of the burner and bearing characteristics, to prediction of component and engine operation during engine acceleration, and to estimates of the performance of the engine and the components when the exhaust gas was used to drive a power turbine.

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### An analytical method of estimating turbine performance

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Kochendorfer, Fred D & Nettles, J Cary

**Description:**A method is developed by which the performance of a turbine over a range of operating conditions can be analytically estimated from the blade angles and flow areas. In order to use the method, certain coefficients that determine the weight flow and the friction losses must be approximated. The method is used to calculate the performance of the single-stage turbine of a commercial aircraft gas-turbine engine and the calculated performance is compared with the performance indicated by experimental data. For the turbine of the typical example, the assumed pressure losses and the tuning angles give a calculated performance that represents the trends of the experimental performance with reasonable accuracy. The exact agreement between analytical performance and experimental performance is contingent upon the proper selection of a blading-loss parameter.

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### An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight with application to a study of tolerable dihedral on a conventional fighter airplane

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Kauffman, William M; Liddell, Charles J , Jr; Smith, Allan & Van Dyke, Rudolph D , Jr

**Description:**An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight by means of servo actuation of the ailerons in response to sideslip angle is described. The results of brief flight tests of the apparatus on a conventional fighter airplane are presented and discussed. The apparatus is shown to have satisfactory simulated a wide range of effective dihedral under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of a small amount of servo lag are shown to be measurable when the apparatus is simulating small negative values of dihedral. However, these effects were not considered by the pilots to give the airplane an artificial feel. The results of an investigation employing the apparatus to determine the tolerable (safe for normal fighter operation) range of effective dihedral on the test airplane are presented.

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### Application of Theodorsen's theory to propeller design

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Crigler, John L

**Description:**A theoretical analysis is presented for obtaining, by use of Theodorsen's propeller theory, the load distribution along a propeller radius to give the optimum propeller efficiency for any design condition. The efficiencies realized by designing for the optimum load distribution are given in graphs, and the optimum efficiency for any design condition may be read directly from the graph without any laborious calculations. Examples are included to illustrate the method of obtaining the optimum load distributions for both single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers.

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### Appreciation and Prediction of Flying Qualities

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Phillips, William H

**Description:**The material given in this report summarizes some of the results of recent research that will aid the designers of an airplane in selecting or modifying a configuration to provide satisfactory stability and control characteristics. The requirements of the NACA for satisfactory flying qualities, which specify the important stability and control characteristics of an airplane from the pilot's standpoint, are used as the main topics of the report. A discussion is given of the reasons for the requirements, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory flying qualities, and of the methods used in predicting the stability and control characteristics of an airplane. The material is based on lecture notes for a training course for research workers engaged in airplane stability and control investigations.

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### Characteristics of low-aspect-ratio wings at supercritical Mach numbers

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Stack, John & Lindsey, W F

**Description:**The separation of the flow over wings precipitated by the compression shock that forms as speeds are increased into the supercritical Mach number range has imposed serious difficulties in the improvement of aircraft performance. Three difficulties rise principally as a consequence of the rapid drag rise and the loss of lift that causes serious stability changes when the wing shock-stalls. Favorable relieving effects due to the three-dimensional flow around the tips were obtained and these effects were of such magnitude that it is indicated that low-aspect-ratio wings offer a possible solution of the problems encountered.

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### Constant-pressure combustion charts including effects of diluent addition

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Turner, L Richard & Bogart, Donald

**Description:**Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

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### Correlation of cylinder-head temperatures and coolant heat rejections of a multicylinder, liquid-cooled engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Lundin, Bruce T; Povolny, John H & Chelko, Louis J

**Description:**Data obtained from an extensive investigation of the cooling characteristics of four multicylinder, liquid-cooled engines have been analyzed and a correlation of both the cylinder-head temperatures and the coolant heat rejections with the primary engine and coolant variables was obtained. The method of correlation was previously developed by the NACA from an analysis of the cooling processes involved in a liquid-cooled-engine cylinder and is based on the theory of nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer. The data correlated included engine power outputs from 275 to 1860 brake horsepower; coolant flows from 50 to 320 gallons per minute; coolants varying in composition from 100 percent water to 97 percent ethylene glycol and 3 percent water; and ranges of engine speed, manifold pressure, carburetor-air temperature, fuel-air ratio, exhaust-gas pressure, ignition timing, and coolant temperature. The effect on engine cooling of scale formation on the coolant passages of the engine and of boiling of the coolant under various operating conditions is also discussed.

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### Design and performance of family of diffusing scrolls with mixed-flow impeller and vaneless diffuser

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Brown, W Byron & Bradshaw, Guy R

**Description:**A family of diffusing scrolls was designed for use with a mixed-flow impeller and a small-diameter vaneless diffuser. The design theory, intended to maintain a uniform pressure around the scroll inlet, permits determination of the position of scroll cross sections of preassigned area by considering the radial variation in fluid density and the effects of friction along the scroll. Inasmuch as the design method leaves the cross-sectional shape undetermined, the effect of certain variations in scroll shape was investigated by studying scrolls having angles of divergence (of the scroll walls downstream of the entrance section) of 24 degrees, 40 degrees, and 80 degrees. A second 80 degree scroll was of asymmetrical construction and a third was plaster-cast instead of sand-cast. Each scroll was tested as a compressor component at actual impeller tip speeds of 700 to 1300 feet per second from full throttle to surge.

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### The design of low-turbulence wind tunnels

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Dryden, Hugh L & Abbott, Ira H

**Description:**Within the past 10 years there have been placed in operation in the United States four low-turbulence wind tunnels of moderate cross-sectional area and speed, one at the National Bureau of Standards, two at the NACA Langley Laboratory, and one at the NACA Ames Laboratory. This paper reviews briefly the state of knowledge and those features which make possible the attainment of low turbulence in wind tunnels. Specific applications to two wind tunnels are described.

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### The development of cambered airfoil sections having favorable lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Graham, Donald J

**Description:**Several groups of new airfoil sections, designated as the NACA 8-series, are derived analytically to have lift characteristics at supercritical Mach numbers which are favorable in the sense that the abrupt loss of lift, characteristic of the usual airfoil section at Mach numbers above the critical, is avoided. Aerodynamic characteristics determined from two-dimensional wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers up to approximately 0.9 are presented for each of the derived airfoils. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of these airfoils and the corresponding characteristics of representative NACA 6-series airfoils.

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### Dislocation theory of the fatigue of metals

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Machlin, E S

**Description:**A dislocation theory of fatigue failure for annealed solid solutions is presented. On the basis of this theory, an equation giving the dependence of the number of cycles for failure on the stress, the temperature, the material parameters, and the frequency is derived for uniformly stressed specimens. The equation is in quantitative agreement with the data. Inasmuch as one material parameter is indicated to be temperature-dependent and its temperature dependence is unknown, it is impossible to predict the temperature dependence of the number of cycles for failure. A predicted quantitative correlation between fatigue and creep was found to exist, which suggests the practical possibility of obtaining fatigue data for annealed solid solutions and elements from steady-state creep-rate data for these materials. As a result of this investigation, a modification of the equation for the steady-state creep rate previously developed on the basis of the dislocation theory is suggested. Additional data are required to verify completely the dislocation theory of fatigue.

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### Effect of afterbody length and keel angle on minimum depth of step for landing stability and on take-off stability of a flying boat

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Olson, Roland E & Land, Norman S

**Description:**Tests were made to fill partly the need for information on the effect of afterbody dimensions on the hydrodynamic stability of a flying boat in smooth water. The dimensions investigated were depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and length of afterbody. An analysis of the data showed that as either the afterbody length or keel angle was increased an accompanying increase in depth of step was required in order to maintain adequate landing stability. The landing-tests results have been reduced to an empirical formula giving the minimum depth of step in terms of afterbody length and keel angle. This formula is compared with results from other tank tests, and the correlation is fairly good. The formula thus becomes of use in preliminary design.

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### Effect of Reynolds number in turbulent-flow range on flame speeds of bunsen burner flames

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Bollinger, Lowell M & Williams, David T

**Description:**The effect of flow conditions on the geometry of the turbulent Bunsen flame was investigated. Turbulent flame speed is defined in terms of flame geometry and data are presented showing the effect of Reynolds number of flow in the range of 3000 to 35,000 on flame speed for burner diameters from 1/4 to 1 1/8 inches and three fuels -- acetylene, ethylene, and propane. The normal flame speed of an explosive mixture was shown to be an important factor in determining its turbulent flame speed, and it was deduced from the data that turbulent flame speed is a function of both the Reynolds number of the turbulent flow in the burner tube and of the tube diameter.

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### Effect of screens in wide-angle diffusers

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Schubauer, G B & Spangenberg, W G

**Description:**An experimental investigation at low airspeeds was made of the filling effect observed when a screen or similar resistance is placed across a diffuser. The filling effect is found to be real in that screens can prevent separation or restore separated flow in diffusers even of extreme divergence and to depend principally on screen location and pressure-drop coefficient of the screen. Results are given for three different diffusers of circular cross section with a variety of screen arrangements. Effects of single screens and multiple screens are shown. The mechanics of the filling effect is explained, and possible efficiencies are discussed. Results of arrangements of multiple screens in wide-angle diffusers are given to show a possible application to damping screens as used in wind tunnels to reduce turbulence. (author).

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### General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Theodorsen, Theodore

**Description:**The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom have been determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which have been identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind and of zero and first order. The theory, being based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing-section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been analyzed in detail. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, has been arrived at. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter K.

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### Heat transfer to bodies traveling at high speed in the upper atmosphere

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Stalder, Jackson R & Jukoff, David

**Description:**A general method has been developed, using the methods of kinetic theory, whereby the surface temperatures of bodies can be calculated for steady flight at any speed in a rarefied gas. The particular solution was made for a flat plate; however, the calculations can be easily extended to bodies of arbitrary shape.

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### Investigation in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel of two wings of NACA 65-210 and 64-210 airfoil sections with various type flaps

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Sivells, James C & Spooner, Stanley H

**Description:**Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel to determine the maximum lift and stalling characteristics of two thin wings equipped with several types of flaps. Split, single slotted, and double slotted flaps were tested on one wing which had NACA 65-210 airfoil sections and split and double slotted flaps were tested on the other, which had NACA 64-210 airfoil sections. Both wings were zero sweep, an aspect ratio of 9, and a taper ratio of 0.4.

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### Investigation of a systematic group of NACA 1-series cowlings with and without spinners

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Nichols, Mark R & Keith, Arvid L , Jr

**Description:**Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley propeller research tunnel to study cowling-spinner combinations based on the NACA 1-series nose inlets and to obtain systematic design data for one family of approximately ellipsoidal spinners. In the main part of the investigation, 11 of the related spinners were tested in various combinations with 9 NACA open-nose cowlings, which were also tested without spinners. The effects of location and shape of the spinner, shape of the inner surface of the cowling lip, and operation of a propeller having approximately oval shanks were investigated briefly. In addition, a study was conducted to determine the correct procedure for extrapolating design conditions determined from the low-speed test data to the design conditions at the actual flight Mach number.

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### Performance of conical jet nozzles in terms of flow and velocity coefficients

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Grey, Ralph E & Wilsted, H Dean

**Description:**Performance characteristics of conical jet nozzles were determined in an investigation covering a range of pressure ratios from 1.0 to 2.8, cone half-angles from 5 degrees to 90 degrees, and outlet-inlet diameter ratios from 0.50 to 0.91. All nozzles investigated had an inlet diameter of 5 inches. The flow coefficients of the conical nozzles investigated were dependent on the cone half-angle, outlet-inlet diameter ratio, and pressure ratio. The velocity coefficients were essentially constant at pressure ratios below the critical. For increasing pressures above critical pressure ratio, there was a small decrease in velocity coefficient that was dependent on pressure ratio and independent of cone half-angle and outlet-inlet diameter ratio. Therefore the variation in performance (air flow and thrust) of several nozzles, selected for the same performance at a particular design condition, was proportional to the ratio of their flow coefficients.

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### Plastic buckling of a rectangular plate under edge thrusts

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Handelman, G H & Prager, W

**Description:**The fundamental equations for the plastic buckling of a rectangular plate under edge thrusts are developed on the basis of a new set of stress-strain relations for the behavior of a metal in the plastic range. These relations are derived for buckling from a state of uniform compression. The fundamental equation for the buckling of a simply compressed plate together with typical boundary conditions is then developed and the results are applied to calculating the buckling loads of a thin strip, a simply supported plate, and a cruciform section. Comparisons with the theories of Timoshenko and Ilyushin are made. Finally, an energy method is given which can be used for finding approximate values of the critical load.

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### Prediction of the effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes with flaps retracted

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Weil, Joseph & Sleeman, William C , Jr

**Description:**The effects of propeller operation on the static longitudinal stability of single-engine tractor monoplanes are analyzed, and a simple method is presented for computing power-on pitching-moment curves for flap-retracted flight conditions. The methods evolved are based on the results of powered-model wind-tunnel investigations of 28 model configurations. Correlation curves are presented from which the effects of power on the downwash over the tail and the stabilizer effectiveness can be rapidly predicted. The procedures developed enable prediction of power-on longitudinal stability characteristics that are generally in very good agreement with experiment.

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### Recommendations for numerical solution of reinforced-panel and fuselage-ring problems

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Hoff, N J & Libby, Paul A

**Description:**Procedures are recommended for solving the equations of equilibrium of reinforced panels and isolated fuselage rings as represented by the external loads and the operations table established according to Southwell's method. From the solution of these equations the stress distribution can be easily determined. The method of systematic relaxations, the matrix-calculus method, and several other methods applicable in special cases are discussed. Definite recommendations are made for obtaining the solution of reinforced-panel problems which are generally designated as shear lag problems. The procedures recommended are demonstrated in the analysis of a number of panels. In the case of fuselage rings it is not possible to make definite recommendations for the solution of the equilibrium equations for all rings and loadings. However, suggestions based on the latest experience are made and demonstrated on several rings.

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### A simplified method for the determination and analysis of the neutral-lateral-oscillatory-stability boundary

**Date:**January 1, 1949

**Creator:**Sternfield, Leonard & Gates, Ordway B , Jr

**Description:**A necessary condition for neutral oscillatory stability is that Routh's discriminant r, formed from the coefficients of the stability equation, is equal to zero. Computations obtained from rsub1=0 and d=0 show very good agreement with the results calculated by the expression for r=0. The nature of the modes of motion as a function of the directional-stability derivative and the effective-dihedral derivative is discussed in detail.

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