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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
Impingement of Cloud Droplets on a Cylinder and Procedure for Measuring Liquid-Water Content and Droplet Sizes in Supercooled Clouds by Rotating Multicylinder Method
No abstract available.
Elements of the Wing Section Theory and of the Wing Theory
Results are presented of the theory of wings and of wing sections which are of immediate practical value. They are proven and demonstrated by the use of the simple conceptions of kinetic energy and momentum only.
Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid
A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. In some useful cases experimental pressures are plotted for comparison with theoretical. The pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight are calculated. General equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid are derived. Formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms are presented.
The Inertia Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid
The apparent inertia of an airship hull is examined. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem is studied for hulls of various shapes with special attention given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. So that the results for the ellipsoidal hull may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction of motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient kappa which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio. The case of rotation of an airship hull is investigated and a coefficient is defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls
The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.
The Minimum Induced Drag of Aerofoils
Equations are derived to demonstrate which distribution of lifting elements result in a minimum amount of aerodynamic drag. The lifting elements were arranged (1) in one line, (2) parallel lying in a transverse plane, and (3) in any direction in a transverse plane. It was shown that the distribution of lift which causes the least drag is reduced to the solution of the problem for systems of airfoils which are situated in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flight.
Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics
The pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid are calculated. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. Formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given. Pressure and pressure drag are discussed for a sphere, a round cylinder, the elliptic cylinder, the prolate and oblate spheroid, and the circular disk. The velocity and pressure in an oblique flow are examined.
A theoretical study of the effect of forward speed on the free-space sound-pressure field around propellers
No Description
Determination of the profile drag of an airplane wing in flight at high Reynolds numbers
No Description
General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter
The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom were determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which were identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind, and of zero and first order. The theory, based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability was analyzed. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, was derived. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter k. The flutter velocity, treated as the unknown quantity, was determined as a function of a certain ratio of the frequencies in the separate degrees of freedom for any magnitudes and combinations of the airfoil-aileron parameters.
Blockage Corrections for Three-Dimensional-Flow Closed-Throat Wind Tunnels, with Consideration of the Effect of Compressibility
Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional, unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wind tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.
General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Sections
The problem of determining the two dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any shape is examined. The problem is condensed into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process. An attempt is made to analyze and coordinate the results of earlier studies relating to properties of wing sections. The existing approximate theory of thin wing sections and the Joukowski theory with its numerous generalizations are reduced to special cases of the general theory of arbitrary sections, permitting a clearer perspective of the entire field. The method which permits the determination of the velocity at any point of an arbitrary section and the associated lift and moments is described. The method is also discussed in terms for developing new shapes of preassigned aerodynamical properties.
Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. Part 1: Fundamental Concepts and the Most Important Theorems. Part 2: Applications
A discussion of the principles of hydrodynamics of nonviscous fluids in the case of motion of solid bodies in a fluid is presented. Formulae are derived to demonstrate the transition from the fluid surface to a corresponding 'control surface'. The external forces are compounded of the fluid pressures on the control surface and the forces which are exercised on the fluid by any solid bodies which may be inside of the control surfaces. Illustrations of these formulae as applied to the acquisition of transformations from a known simple flow to new types of flow for other boundaries are given. Theoretical and experimental investigations of models of airship bodies are presented.
The Theory of the Pitot and Venturi Tubes, Part 2
No Description
Design of Wind Tunnels and Wind Tunnel Propellers, II
No abstract available.
Determination of Stresses in Gas-turbine Disks Subjected to Plastic Flow and Creep
No Description
An investigation of the drag of windshields in the 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel
Report presents the results of tests made to determine the drag of closed-cockpit and transport-type windshields. The tests were made at speeds corresponding to a Mach number range of approximately 0.25 to 0.58 in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. This speed range corresponds to a test Reynolds number range of 2,510,000 to 4,830,000 based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the full-span model (17.29 in.). The shapes of the windshield proper, the hood, and the tail fairing were systematically varied to include common types and refined design.
On the use of residue theory for treating the subsonic flow of a compressible fluid
A new mathematical technique, due to Milne-Thomson, is used to obtain an improved form of the method of Poggi for calculating the effect of compressibility on the subsonic flow past an obstacle. By means of this new method, the difficult surface integrals of the original Poggi method can be replaced by line integrals. These line integrals are then solved by the use of residue theory. In this way an equation is obtained giving the second-order effect of compressibility on the velocity of the fluid. The method is practicable for obtaining the higher-order effects of compressibility on the velocity field. As an illustration of the general result, the flow past an elliptic cylinder is discussed.
A study by high-speed photography of combustion and knock in a spark-ignition engine
The study of combustion in a spark-ignition engine given in Technical Report no. 704 has been continued. The investigation was made with the NACA high-speed motion-picture camera and the NACA optical engine indicator. The camera operates at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second and makes possible the study of phenomena occurring in time intervals as short as 0.000025 second. Photographs are presented of combustion without knock and with both light and heavy knocks, the end zone of combustion being within the field of view. Time-pressure records covering the same conditions as the photographs are presented and their relations to the photographs are studied. Photographs with ignition at various advance angles are compared with a view to observing any possible relationship between pressure and flame depth. A tentative explanation of knock is suggested, which is designed to agree with the indications of the high-speed photographs and the time-pressure records.
Determination of optimum plan forms for control surfaces
Solutions found for a range of airfoil plan forms indicate that, regardless of the characteristics of the tail surface, the chord of the rudder or of the elevator should be very nearly constant over its span. The optimum ailerons are also of a characteristic shape, varying little with the plan form of the wing.
Pressure distribution over an NACA 23012 airfoil with a fixed slot and a slotted flap
Report presents the results of a pressure-distribution investigation conducted in the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the air loads on an NACA 23012 airfoil in combination with a fixed leading-edge slot and a slotted flap. Pressures were measured over the upper and lower surfaces of the component parts of the combination for several angles of attack and at several flap settings. The data, presented as pressure diagrams and graphs of section coefficients, are applicable to rib, slat, and flap designs for the combination.
Critical Compressive Stress for Outstanding Flanges
A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in outstanding flanges. These flanges are flat rectangular plates supported along the loaded edges, supported and elastically restrained along one unloaded edge, and free along the other unloaded edge. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required for construction of the chart are given.
Test of single-stage axial-flow fan
A single-stage axial fan was built and tested in the shop of the propeller-research tunnel of the NACA. The fan comprised a simple 24-blade rotor having a diameter of 21 inches and a solidity of 0.86 and a set of 37 contravanes having a solidity of 1.33. The rotor was driven by a 25-horsepower motor capable of rotating at a speed of 3600 r.p.m. The fan was tested for volume, pressure, and efficiency over a range of delivery pressures and volumes for a wide range of contravane and blade-angle settings. The test results are presented in chart form in terms of nondimensional units in order that similar fans may be accurately designed with a minimum effort. The maximum efficiency (88 percent) was obtained by the fan at a blade angle of 30 degrees and a contravane angle of 70 degrees. An efficiency of 80 percent was obtained by the fan with the contravanes removed.
Effect of body nose shape on the propulsive efficiency of a propeller
Report presents the results of an investigation of the propulsive efficiency of three adjustable propellers of 10-foot diameter operated in front of four body nose shapes, varying from streamline nose that continued through the propeller plane in the form of a large spinner to a conventional open-nose radial-engine cowling. One propeller had airfoil sections close to the hub, the second had conventional round blade shanks, and the third differed from the second only in pitch distribution. The blade-angle settings ranged from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at the 0.75 radius. The effect of the body nose shape on propulsive efficiency may be divided into two parts: (1) the change in the body drag due to the propeller slipstream and (2) the change in propeller load distribution due to the change in velocity caused by the body. For the nose shape tested in the report, the first effect is shown to be very small; therefore, the chief emphasis of the report is confined to the second effect.
Wind-tunnel investigation of NACA 23012, 23021, and 23030 airfoils equipped with 40-percent-chord double slotted flaps
Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the NACA 7 by 10-foot win tunnel to determine the effect of the deflection of main and auxiliary slotted flaps on the aerodynamic section characteristics of large-chord NACA 23012, 23021, 23030 airfoils equipped with 40-percent-chord double slotted flaps. The complete aerodynamic section characteristics and envelope polar curves are given for each airfoil-flap combination. The effect of airfoil thickness is shown, and comparisons are made of single slotted flaps with double slotted flaps on each of the airfoils.
A graphical method of determining pressure distribution in two-dimensional flow
By a generalization of the Joukowski method, a procedure is developed for effecting localized modifications of airfoil shapes and for determining graphically the resultant changes in the pressure distribution. The application of the procedure to the determination of the pressure distribution over airfoils of original design is demonstrated. Formulas for the lift, the moment, and the aerodynamic center are also given.
Determination of control-surface characteristics from NACA plain-flap and tab data
The data from previous NACA pressure-distribution investigations of plain flaps and tabs with sealed gaps have been analyzed and are presented in this paper in a form readily applicable to the problems of control-surface design. The experimentally determined variation of aerodynamic parameters with flap chord and tab chord are given in chart form and comparisons are made with the theory. With the aid of these charts and the theoretical relationships for a thin airfoil, the aerodynamic characteristics for control surfaces of any plan form with plain flaps and tabs with sealed gaps may be determined. A discussion of the basic equations of the thin-airfoil theory and the development of a number of additional equations that will be helpful in tail design are presented in the appendixes. The procedure for applying the data is described and a sample problem of horizontal tail design is included. The data presented and the method of application set forth in this report should provide a reasonably accurate and satisfactory means of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of control surfaces.
The design of fins for air-cooled cylinders
An analysis was made to determine the proportions of fins made of aluminum, copper, magnesium, and steel necessary to dissipate maximum quantities of heat for different fin widths, fin weights, and air-flow conditions. The analysis also concerns the determination of the optimum fin proportions when specified limits are placed on the fin dimensions. The calculation of the heat flow in the fins is based on experimentally verified, theoretical equations. The surface heat-transfer coefficients used with this equation were taken from previously reported experiments. In addition to the presentation of fin-design information, this investigation shows that optimum fin dimensions are inappreciably affected by the differences in air flow that are obtained with different air-flow arrangements or by small changes in the length of the air-flow path.
Effect of aging on mechanical properties of aluminum-alloy rivets
Curves and tabular data present the results of strength tests made during and after 2 1/2 years of aging on rivets and rivet wire of 3/16-inch nominal diameter. The specimens were of aluminum alloy: 24s, 17s, and a17s of the duralumin type and 53s of the magnesium-silicide type.
Restraint Provided a Flat Rectangular Plate by a Sturdy Stiffener Along an Edge of the Plate
A sturdy stiffener is defined as a stiffener of such proportions that it does not suffer cross-sectional distortion when moments are applied to some part of the cross section. When such a stiffener is attached to one edge of a plate, it will resist rotation of that edge of the plate by means of its torsional properties. A formula is given for the restraint coefficient provided the plate by such a stiffener. This coefficient is required for the calculation of the critical compressive stress of the plate.
Critical Compressive Stress for Flat Rectangular Plates Supported Along All Edges and Elastically Restrained Against Rotation along the Unloaded Edges
A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in flat rectangular plates supported along all edges and, in addition, elastically restrained against rotation along the unloaded edges. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required in the construction of the chart are given.
Shear lag in box beams methods of analysis and experimental investigations
The bending stresses in the covers of box beams or wide-flange beams differ appreciably from the stresses predicted by the ordinary bending theory on account of shear deformation of the flanges. The problem of predicting these differences has become known as the shear-lag problem. The first part of this paper deals with methods of shear-lag analysis suitable for practical use. The second part of the paper describes strain-gage tests made by the NACA to verify the theory. Three tests published by other investigators are also analyzed by the proposed method. The third part of the paper gives numerical examples illustrating the methods of analysis. An appendix gives comparisons with other methods, particularly with the method of Ebner and Koller.
Square plate with clamped edges under normal pressure producing large deflections
A theoretical analysis is given for the stresses and deflections of a square plate with clamped edges under normal pressure producing large deflections. Values of the bending stress and membrane stress at the center of the plate and at the midpoint of the edge are given for center deflections up to 1.9 times the plate thickness. The shape of the deflected surface is given for low pressures and for the highest pressure considered. Convergence of solution is considered and it is estimated that the possible error is less than 2 percent. The results are compared with the only previous approximate analysis known to the author and agrees within 5 percent. They are also shown to compare favorably with the known exact solutions for the long rectangular plate and the circular plate.
Ground effect on downwash angles and wake location
A theoretical study was made of the reduction in downwash and the upward displacement of the wake in the presence of the ground, and some verification of theory was obtained by means of air-flow measurements made with a ground-board and image-wing combination. Methods are given for estimating the effects and numerous examples are included to illustrate the nature of these effects and to show their order of magnitude.
Nonstationary flow about a wing-aileron-tab combination including aerodynamic balance
This paper presents a continuation of the work published in Technical Report no. 496. The results of that paper have been extended to include the effect of aerodynamic balance and the effect of a tab added to the aileron. The aerodynamic coefficients are presented in a form convenient for application to the flutter problem.
Bending of rectangular plates with large deflections
The solution of Von Karman's fundamental equations for large deflections of plates is presented for the case of a simply supported rectangular plate under combined edge compression and lateral loading. Numerical solutions are given for square plates and for rectangular plates with a width-span ratio of 3:1. The effective widths under edge compression are compared with effective widths according to Von Karman, Bengston, Marguerre, and Cox and with experimental results by Ramberg, Mcpherson, and Levy. The deflections of a square plate under lateral pressure are compared with experimental and theoretical results by Kaiser. It is found that the effective widths agree closely with Marguerre's formula and with the experimentally observed values and that the deflections agree with the experimental results and with Kaiser's work.
A Method of Estimating the Knock Rating of Hydrocarbon Fuel Blends
The usefulness of the knock ratings of pure hydrocarbon compounds would be increased if some reliable method of calculating the knock ratings of fuel blends was known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of developing a method of predicting the knock ratings of fuel blends.
A Theoretical Investigation of the Rolling Oscillations of an Airplane with Ailerons Free
An analysis is made of the stability of an airplane with ailerons free, with particular attention to the motions when the ailerons have a tendency to float against the wind. The present analysis supersedes the aileron investigation contained in NACA Report No. 709. The equations of motion are first written to include yawing and sideslipping, and it is demonstrated that the principal effects of freeing the ailerons can be determined without regard to these motions. If the ailerons tend to float against the wind and have a high degree of aerodynamic balance, rolling oscillations, in addition to the normal lateral oscillations, are likely to occur. On the basis of the equations including only the rolling motion and the aileron deflection, formulas are derived for the stability and damping of the rolling oscillations in terms of the hinge moment derivatives and other characteristics of the ailerons and airplane. Charts are also presented showing the oscillatory regions and stability boundaries for a fictitious airplane of conventional proportions. The effects of friction in the control system are investigated and discussed. If the ailerons tend to trail with the wind, the condition for stable variation of stick force with aileron deflection is found to determine the amount of aerodynamic balance that may be used. If the ailerons tend to float against the wind, the period and damping of the rolling oscillations are found to be satisfactory (in a mass-balanced system) so long as the restoring moment is not completely balanced out. Unbalanced mass behind the hinge, however, has an unfavorable effect on the damping of the oscillations and so shifts the boundary that close aerodynamic balance may not be attainable.
Experimental investigation of free-convection heat transfer in vertical tube at large Grashof numbers
Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study free-convection heat transfer in a stationary vertical tube closed at the bottom. The walls of the tube were heated, and heated air in the tube was continuously replaced by fresh cool air at the top. The tube was designed to provide a gravitational field with Grashof numbers of a magnitude comparable with those generated by the centrifugal field in rotating-blade coolant passages (10(8) to 10(13)). Local heat-transfer coefficients in the turbulent-flow range and the temperature field within the fluid were obtained.
Statistical measurements of contact conditions of 478 transport-airplane landings during routine daytime operations
Statistical measurements of contact conditions have been obtained, by means of a special photographic technique, of 478 landings of present-day transport airplanes made during routine daylight operations in clear air at the Washington National Airport. From the measurements, sinking speeds, rolling velocities, bank angles, and horizontal speeds at the instant before contact have been evaluated and a limited statistical analysis of the results has been made and is reported in this report.
Charts for estimating tail-rotor contribution to helicopter directional stability and control in low-speed flight
Theoretically derived charts and equations are presented by which tail-rotor design studies of directional trim and control response at low forward speed can be conveniently made. The charts can also be used to obtain the main-rotor stability derivatives of thrust with respect to collective pitch and angle of attack at low forward speeds. The use of the charts and equations for tail-rotor design studies is illustrated. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results are presented. The charts indicate, and flight tests confirm, that the region of vortex roughness which is familiar for the main rotor is also encountered by the tail rotor and that prolonged operation at the corresponding flight conditions would be difficult.
Theoretical prediction of pressure distributions on nonlifting airfoils at high subsonic speeds
Theoretical pressure distributions on nonlifting circular-arc airfoils in two-dimensional flows with high subsonic free-stream velocity are found by determining approximate solutions, through an iteration process, of an integral equation for transonic flow proposed by Oswatitsch. The integral equation stems directly from the small-disturbance theory for transonic flow. This method of analysis possesses the advantage of remaining in the physical, rather than the hodograph, variable and can be applied in airfoils having curved surfaces. After discussion of the derivation of the integral equation and qualitative aspects of the solution, results of calculations carried out for circular-arc airfoils in flows with free-stream Mach numbers up to unity are described. These results indicate most of the principal phenomena observed in experimental studies.
Analog study of interacting and noninteracting multiple-loop control systems for turbojet engines
The results of an analog investigation of several turbojet-engine control configurations is presented in this report. Both proportional and proportional-plus-integral controllers were studied, and compensating terms for engine interaction were added to the control system. Data were obtained on the stability limits and the transient responses of these various configurations. Analytical expressions in terms of the component transfer functions were developed for the configurations studied, and the optimum form for the compensation terms was determined. It was found that the addition of the integral term, while making the system slower and more oscillatory, was desirable in that it made the final values of the system parameters independent of source of disturbance and also eliminated droop in these parameters. Definite improvement in system characteristics resulted from the use of proper compensation terms. At comparable gain points the compensated system was faster and more stable. Complete compensation eliminated engine interaction, permitting each loop to be developed to an optimum point independently.
Contributions on the mechanics of boundary-layer transition
The manner in which flow in a boundary layer becomes turbulent was investigated on a flat plate at wind speeds generally below 100 feet per second. Hot-wire techniques were used, and many of the results are derived from oscillograms of velocity fluctuations in the transition region. Following a presentation of the more familiar aspects of transition, there are presented the very revealing facts discovered while studying the characteristics of artificially produced turbulent spots. These are: (1) oscillograms of natural transition are identical to oscillograms of spot passage; (2) transition starts from perturbations in the laminar flow as spots which then grow in accordance with the general concept proposed by Emmons. (3) Turbulence always moves downstream followed by laminar flow; (4) the following flow is in a state of calm for a period during which transition will not occur.
Cooperative investigation of relationship between static and fatigue properties of wrought n-155 alloy at elevated temperatures
Report presents the correlation of extensive data obtained relating properties of wrought n-155 alloy under static, combined static and dynamic, and complete reversed dynamic stress conditions. Time period for fracture ranged from 50 to 500 hours at room temperature, 1,000 degrees, 1,200 degrees, and 1,500 degrees F.
Theoretical calculations of the pressure, forces, and moments at supersonic speeds due to various lateral motions acting on thin isolated vertical tails
Velocity potentials, pressure, distributions, and stability derivatives are derived by use of supersonic linearized theory for families of thin isolated vertical tails performing steady rolling, steady yawing, and constant-lateral-acceleration motions. Vertical-tail families (half-delta and rectangular plan forms) are considered for a broad Mach number range. Also considered are the vertical tail with arbitrary sweepback and taper ratio at Mach numbers for which both the leading edge and trailing edge of the tail are supersonic and the triangular vertical tail with a subsonic leading edge and a supersonic trailing edge. Expressions for potentials, pressures, and stability derivatives are tabulated.
The proper combination of lift loadings for least drag on a supersonic wing
Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers is applied to the problem of properly combining lift loadings for the least drag at a given lift on supersonic wings. The method shows the interference drag between the optimum loading and any loading at the same lift coefficient to be constant. This is an integral form of the criterion established by Robert T. Jones for optimum loadings. The best combination of four loadings on a delta wing with subsonic leading edges is calculated as a numerical example. The loadings considered have finite pressures everywhere on the plan form. Through the sweepback range the optimum combination of the four nonsingular loadings has about the same drag coefficient as a flat plate with leading-edge thrust.
A study of the zero-lift drag-rise characteristics of wing-body combinations near the speed of sound
Comparisons have been made of the shock phenomena and drag-rise increments for representative wing and central-body combinations with those for bodies of revolution having the same axial developments of cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. On the basis of these comparisons, it is concluded that near the speed of sound the zero-lift drag rise of a low-aspect-ratio thin-wing and body combination is primarily dependent on the axial development of the cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. It follows that the drag rise for any such configuration is approximately the same as that for any other with the same development of cross-sectional areas. Investigations have also been made of representative wing-body combinations with the body so indented that the axial developments of cross-sectional areas for the combinations were the same as that for the original body alone. Such indentations greatly reduced or eliminated the zero-lift drag-rise increments associated with the wings near the speed of sound.
Wind-tunnel and flight investigations of the use of leading-edge area suction for the purpose of increasing the maximum lift coefficient of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane
An investigation was undertaken to determine the increase in maximum lift coefficient that could be obtained by applying area suction near the leading edge of a wing. This investigation was performed first with a 35 degree swept-wing model in the wind tunnel, and then with an operational 35 degree swept-wing airplane which was modified in accord with the wind-tunnel results. The wind-tunnel and flight tests indicated that the maximum lift coefficient was increased more than 50 percent by the use of area suction. Good agreement was obtained in the comparison of the wind-tunnel results with those measured in flight.
Second-order subsonic airfoil theory including edge effects
Several recent advances in plane subsonic flow theory are combined into a unified second-order theory for airfoil sections of arbitrary shape. The solution is reached in three steps: the incompressible result is found by integration, it is converted into the corresponding subsonic compressible result by means of the second-order compressibility rule, and it is rendered uniformly valid near stagnation points by further rules. Solutions for a number of airfoils are given and are compared with the results of other theories and of experiment. A straight-forward computing scheme is outlined for calculating the surface velocities and pressures on any airfoil at any angle of attack.