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 Decade: 1930-1939
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Collection
The 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

The 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Date: 1933
Creator: Harris, Thomas A
Description: This report presents a description of the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel and associated apparatus of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Included also are calibration test results and characteristic test data of both static force tests and autorotation tests made in the tunnel.
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An aerodynamic analysis of the autogiro rotor with a comparison between calculated and experimental results

An aerodynamic analysis of the autogiro rotor with a comparison between calculated and experimental results

Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Wheatley, John B
Description: This report presents an extension of the autogiro theory of Glauert and Lock in which the influence of a pitch varying with the blade radius is evaluated and methods of approximating the effect of blade tip losses and the influence of reversed velocities on the retreating blades are developed. A comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that most of the rotor characteristics could be calculated with reasonable accuracy, and that the type of induced flow assumed has a secondary effect upon the net rotor forces, although the flapping motion is influenced appreciably. An approximate evaluation of the effect of parasite drag on the rotor blades established the importance of including this factor in the analysis.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of airfoils tested in the variable-density wind tunnel

Aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of airfoils tested in the variable-density wind tunnel

Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M & Greenberg, Harry
Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of miscellaneous airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel have been reduced to a comparable form and are published in this report for convenient reference. Plots of the standard characteristics are given in tabular form. Included is a tabulation of important characteristics for the related airfoils reported in NACA report 460. This report, in conjunction with NACA report 610, makes available in comparable and convenient form the aerodynamic data for airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel since January 1, 1931.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of a slotted Clark y wing as affected by the auxiliary airfoil position

The aerodynamic characteristics of a slotted Clark y wing as affected by the auxiliary airfoil position

Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J & Shortal, Joseph A
Description: Aerodynamic force tests on a slotted Clark Y wing were conducted in a vertical wind tunnel to determine the best position for a given auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. A systematic series of 100 changes in location of the auxiliary airfoil were made to cover all the probable useful ranges of slot gap, slot width, and slot depth. The results of the investigation may be applied to the design of automatic or controlled slots on wings with geometric characteristics similar to the wing tested. The best positions of the auxiliary airfoil were covered by the range of the tests, and the position for desired aerodynamic characteristics may easily be obtained from charts prepared especially for the purpose.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Platt, Robert C
Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286

Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286

Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: unknown
Description: This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds

Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds

Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Briggs, L. J. & Dryden, H. L.
Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of eight circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.5, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound have been determined in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The lower surface of each airfoil was plane; the upper surface was cylindrical. As compared with the measurements described in NACA-TR-319, the circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.95 and 1.08 times the speed of sound are more efficient than airfoils of the R. A. F. or Clark Y families. At a speed of 0.5 times the speed of sound, the thick circular-arc sections are extremely inefficient, but thin sections compare favorably with those of the R. A. F. family. A moderate round of the sharp edges changes the characteristics very little and is in many instances beneficial. The results indicate that the section of the blades of propellers intended for use at high tip-speeds should be of the circular-arc form for the outer part of the blade and should be changed gradually to the R. A. F. or Clark Y form as the hub is approached.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N
Description: Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms

The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms

Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David
Description: Tests were made of four propellers, with diameters of 10 feet, having different blade plan forms. One propeller (Navy design no. 5868-r6) was of the usual present-day type and was used as a basis of comparison for the other three, which had unusual plan forms distinguished by the inward (toward the hub) location of the sections having the greatest blade width. It was found that propellers with points of maximum blade width occurring closer to the hub than on the present-day type of blade had higher peak efficiencies but lower take-off efficiencies. This results was found true for a "clean" liquid-cooled engine installation. It appears that some modification could be made to present plan forms which would produce propellers having more satisfactory aerodynamic qualities. The propellers with the inward location of the points of maximum blade width had lower thrust and power coefficients and stalled earlier than the present-day type.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections

The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections

Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David
Description: Aerodynamic tests were made of seven full-scale 10-foot-diameter propellers of recent design comprising three groups. The first group was composed of three propellers having Clark y airfoil sections and the second group was composed of three propellers having R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections, the propellers of each group having 2, 3, and 4 blades. The third group was composed of two propellers, the 2-blade propeller taken from the second group and another propeller having the same airfoil section and number of blades but with the width and thickness 50 percent greater. The tests of these propellers reveal the effect of changes in solidity resulting either from increasing the number of blades or from increasing the blade width propeller design charts and methods of computing propeller thrust are included.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section

Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Platt, Robert C & Abbott, Ira H
Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of the general aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils, each equipped with a 0.20c external flap of NACA 23012 section. The tests were made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot and variable-density wind tunnels and covered a range of Reynolds numbers that included values corresponding to those for landing conditions of a wide range of airplanes. Besides a determination of the variation of lift and drag characteristics with position of the flap relative to the main airfoil, complete aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil-flap combination with a flap hinge axis selected to give small hinge moments were measured in the two tunnels. Some measurements of air loads on the flap itself in the presence of the wing were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel.
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The aerodynamic characteristics of six full-scale propellers having different airfoil sections

The aerodynamic characteristics of six full-scale propellers having different airfoil sections

Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Biermann, David & Hartman, Edwin P
Description: Wind-tunnel tests are reported of six 3-blade 10-foot propellers operated in front of a liquid-cooled engine nacelle. The propellers were identical except for blade airfoil sections, which were: Clark y, R.A.F. 6, NACA 4400, NACA 2400-34, NACA 2rsub200, and NACA 6400. The range of blade angles investigated extended for 15 degrees to 40 degrees for all propellers except the Clark y, for which it extended to 45 degrees. The results showed that the range in maximum efficiency between the highest and lowest values was about 3 percent. The highest efficiencies were for the low-camber sections.
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Aerodynamic characteristics of twenty-four airfoils at high speeds

Aerodynamic characteristics of twenty-four airfoils at high speeds

Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Brigg, L. J. & Dryden, H. L.
Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of 24 airfoils are given for speeds of 0.5, 0.65, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound, as measured in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The 24 airfoils belong to four general groups. The first is the standard R. A. F. family in general use by the Army and Navy for propeller design, the members of the family differing only in thickness. This family is represented by nine members ranging in thickness from 0.04 to 0.20 inch. The second group consists of five members of the Clark Y family, the members of the family again differing only in thickness. The third group, comprising six members, is a second R. A. F. Family in which the position of the maximum ordinate is varied. Combined with two members of the first R.A.F. family, this group represents a variation of maximum ordinate position from 30 to 60 percent of the chord in two camber ratios, 0.08 and 0.16. The fourth group consists of three geometrical forms, a flat plate, a wedge, and a segment of a right circular cylinder. In addition one section used in the reed metal propeller was ...
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Aerodynamic characteristics of wings with cambered external airfoil flaps, including lateral control, with a full-span flap

Aerodynamic characteristics of wings with cambered external airfoil flaps, including lateral control, with a full-span flap

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Platt, Robert C
Description: The results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the NACA 23012, the NACA 23021, and the Clark Y airfoils, each equipped with a cambered external-airfoil flap, are presented in this report. The purpose of the research was to determine the relative merit of the various airfoils in combination with the cambered flap and to investigate the use of the flap as a combined lateral-control and high-lift device.
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The aerodynamic effects of wing cut-outs

The aerodynamic effects of wing cut-outs

Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Sherman, Albert
Description: In connection with the interference program being conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel, an analysis was made of available material with the object of presenting a qualitative discussion on wing characteristics as affected by cut-outs and of determining means for their quantitative calculation.
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The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerm, N, C h
Description: A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the ny-1 airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane. Two spinning conditions were investigated. All six components of the aerodynamic reaction were measured and are presented in coefficient form refereed to airplane axes. The results indicate that the change in yawing moment produced by the rudder with the elevator up was the only component of force or moment produced by the elevator and rudder that could not have been balanced in an actual spin by small changes in attitude and angular velocity.
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Aerodynamic theory and test of strut forms. Part I

Aerodynamic theory and test of strut forms. Part I

Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Smith, R H
Description: This report presents the first part of a two part study made under this title. In this part the symmetrical inviscid flow about an empirical strut of high service merit is found by both the Rankine and the Joukowsky methods. The results can be made to agree as closely as wished. Theoretical stream surfaces as well as surfaces of constant speed and pressure in the fluid about the strut are found. The surface pressure computed from the two theories agrees well with the measured pressure on the fore part of the model but not so well on the after part. From the theoretical flow speed the surface friction is computed by an empirical formula. The drag integrated from the friction and measured pressure closely equals the whole measured drag. As the pressure drag and the whole drag are accurately determined, the friction formula also appears trustworthy for such fair shapes. (author).
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Aerodynamic theory and tests of strut forms. Part II

Aerodynamic theory and tests of strut forms. Part II

Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Smith, R H
Description: This report presents the second of two studies under the same title. In this part five theoretical struts are developed from distributed sources and sinks and constructed for pressure and resistance tests in a wind tunnel. The surface pressures for symmetrical inviscid flow are computed for each strut from theory and compared with those found by experiment. The theoretical and experimental pressures are found to agree quantitatively near the bow, only qualitatively over the suction range, the experimental suctions being uniformly a little low, and not at all near the stern. This study is the strut sequel to Fuhrmann's research on airship forms, the one being a study in two dimensions, the other in three. A comparison of results indicates that the agreement between theory and experiment is somewhat better for bodies of revolution than for cylinders when both are shaped for slight resistance. The consistent deficiency of the experimental suctions which is found in the case of struts was not found in the case of airships, for which the experimental suctions were sometimes above sometimes below their theoretical values.
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Air conditions close to the ground and the effect on airplane landings

Air conditions close to the ground and the effect on airplane landings

Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Thompson, F L; Peck, W C & Beard, A P
Description: This report presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the feasibility of making glide landings in gusty air. Wind velocities were measured at several stations between the ground and a height of 51 feet, and flight tests were made to determine the actual influence of gusts on an airplane gliding close to the ground.
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Air flow around finned cylinders

Air flow around finned cylinders

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Rollin, Vern G
Description: Report presents the results of a study made to determine the air-flow characteristics around finned cylinders. Air-flow distribution is given for a smooth cylinder, for a finned cylinder having several fin spacings and fin widths, and for a cylinder with several types of baffle with various entrance and exit shapes. The results of these tests show: that flow characteristics around a cylinder are not so critical to changes in fin width as they are to fin spacing; that the entrance of the baffle has a marked influence on its efficiency; that properly designed baffles increase the air flow over the rear of the cylinder; and that these tests check those of heat-transfer tests in the choice of the best baffle.
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Air flow in a separating laminar boundary layer

Air flow in a separating laminar boundary layer

Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Schubauer, G. B.
Description: The speed distribution in a laminar boundary layer on the surface of an elliptic cylinder, of major and minor axes 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, has been determined by means of a hot-wire anemometer. The direction of the impinging air stream was parallel to the major axis. Special attention was given to the region of separation and to the exact location of the point of separation. An approximate method, developed by K. Pohlhausen for computing the speed distribution, the thickness of the layer, and the point of separation, is described in detail; and speed-distribution curves calculated by this method are presented for comparison with experiment.
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Air flow in the boundary layer near a plate

Air flow in the boundary layer near a plate

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Dryden, Hugh L.
Description: The published data on the distribution of speed near a thin flat plate with sharp leading edge placed parallel to the flow (skin friction plate) are reviewed and the results of some additional measurements are described. The purpose of the experiments was to study the basic phenomena of boundary-layer flow under simple conditions.
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Air flow in the boundary layer of an elliptic cylinder

Air flow in the boundary layer of an elliptic cylinder

Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Schubauer, G B
Description: The boundary layer of an elliptic cylinder of major and minor axis 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, was investigated in air stream in which the turbulence could be varied. Conditions were arranged so that the flow was two-dimensional with the major axis of the ellipse parallel to the undisturbed stream. Speed distributions across the boundary layer were determined with a hot-wire anemometer at a number of positions about the surface for the lowest and highest intensities of turbulence, with the air speed in both cases sufficiently high to produce a turbulent boundary layer over the downstream part of the surface. The magnitude and the frequency of the speed fluctuations in the boundary layer were also measured by the use of the conventional type of hot-wire turbulence apparatus. Stream turbulence was found to affect both the nature of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the layer and the position on the surface at which transition occurred. Transition was then investigated in detail with stream turbulence of several different scales and intensities.
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Air propellers in yaw

Air propellers in yaw

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Lesley, E P; Worley, George F & Moy, Stanley
Description: Report presents the results of tests conducted at Stanford University of a 3-foot model propeller at four pitch settings and at 0 degree, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees yaw. In addition to the usual propeller coefficients, cross-wind and vertical forces and yawing, pitching, and rolling moments were determined about axes having their origin at the intersection of the blade axis and the axis of rotation. The tests showed that the maximum efficiency was reduced only slightly for angles of yaw up to 10 degrees but that at 30 degrees yaw the loss in efficiency was about 10 percent. In all cases the cross-wind force was found to be greater than the cross-wind component of the axial thrust. With a yawed propeller an appreciable thrust was found for v/nd for zero thrust at zero yaw. Yawing a propeller was found to induce a pitching moment that increased in magnitude with yaw.
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